Conventionally, as coolant in heating systems use water. This familiar way of heating has advantages and disadvantages. During the construction of their own homes opportunity to experiment the owner is almost unlimited.
It makes sense to consider alternatives. The most interesting of them - air heating of a country house. On it and discuss in more detail in this article.
The content of the article:
- As the warm air of the house?
- air heating Features
- System design principles
- Varieties air heating systems
- Features of the system installation
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
As the warm air of the house?
Air - it is an effective coolant, much better than water. The simplest version of such heat - the usual heater. A small room, this device consisting of fan and heating coils, can warm up in just a few minutes. Of course, it will take more serious equipment for private homes.
V can be used as the heat source gas or solid fuel boiler. Fit and an electric heater, but this option is not considered too advantageous because energy costs are increasing significantly.
In systems of air coolant air itself - a secondary heat transfer fluid flowing processing prior to feeding the heating units
Air to air heating system is heated by water or steam, the preparation of which is carried out by all known types of heating equipment
As heating equipment used firing furnace, refining the solid, liquid and gaseous fuels embodiments
Until now, the heating circuits country houses used Russian oven. Their disadvantage is that they can normally warm up to three connecting rooms
A common private cottages heating option is based on the chimney with the connected heat sinks
Interchange of heat conductors air heating system is typically built within the attic or offer for suspended ceiling structure
A very economical method of obtaining energy for heating air involves the use of air-to-air heat pump
In the scheme of heat pump air air indoor unit resembles a similar piece of HVAC equipment
The principle of heating the coolant
Installing a gas heater
The firing furnace outside space
Oven for heating country house
Fireplace in the formation of a private home heating
Apparatus heat sinks within the attic
External air-to-air heat pump unit
The indoor unit air-air heating system
Interesting and environmentally friendly heating option - use of solar panels or solar collector. Such systems are placed on the roof. They either directly transfer thermal energy from the sun to the heat exchanger, or convert it into a low-cost electric energy. In the latter case, the battery can also be powered and fan.
The air is heated in a heat exchanger and supplied to individual rooms via air ducts. This is a fairly bulky design made of durable metal. The cross section of the duct is much larger than the diameter of the water heating pipe.
Suited for air heating and gas-fired boilers, and other kinds of heating equipment. The effectiveness of such systems is up to 90%, they are used not only in residential areas, but also in shops and warehouses
But for air heating radiators are not needed. Warm air just fills the room through a special grid. As is known, hot gas tends upwards. The cold air will then be displaced downwards.
Hence, the cold air streams are moved back to the heat exchanger, are heated, they come in the room, etc.
This scheme demonstrates an air heating device with partial recirculation type fence outside air and air-ionizer and purifier ultraviolet
Almost all of the air heating systems provide a fan unit which pumps hot air and causes it to move through the heating system. The presence of such a device makes the system dependent on electricity.
You can make and such a system, in which hot air will move in a natural way, without any fan. However, the effectiveness of such systems usually leaves much to be desired, since the premises in this case are heated too slowly.
A convincing argument in favor of the air heating system is to eliminate accidental leaks and flooding with resulting damage to property. Moreover, in case of damage to equipment duct stop system operation
air heating Features
Compared with traditional air-water heating systems have many advantages. For example, there is a high efficiency of such a system, which may be 90%. water heating efficiency rarely reaches 65%.
If air heating is arranged properly, the air warms up the room very quickly, in just a few minutes. The temperature in the rooms is regulated by means of automatic equipment that enables and disables the heating device as required.
As a result, the house is always warm and the heating costs are reduced. Use hot-air heating system easier. Ducts not clog as often as the water heating pipe, respectively, they need less cleaning.
For obvious reasons, air heating systems owners have no problems with leaks, as well as the threat of frozen pipes, if during the cold season, for some reason, the boiler stopped working.
The air heating system is not as such traditional instruments. The transfer of heat is produced directly in the room to be served
The heated in the generator heat air flow mixes with inside air mass moving along walling
According to the principle of hot air delivery class air heating systems divided into ducted and ductless. The channel-free schemes heated in air fan heaters moved to the room to be treated
Air heating will form other heats the room, it can be used as a periodically operated or duty system
According to the processing capabilities of the air systems are divided into local and central. The work of local species is aimed at treating one room, in fact, this is a steam or hot-water heating with fan
Air heating combined with excellent ventilation systems, so in addition to heating also provides favorable conditions of hygiene
By way of moving air within the system are divided into gravity and the fan. Traffic flow in the fan type blower stimulates
heating the air in the air heating circuits carried by heaters or boilers heated first heat medium which transmits heat to the air
Lack of heating appliances in the air system
The principle of heating the treated area
ChannelFree embodiment air heating device
High performance and efficiency
One of the most popular types of local air heating
Combining air heating ventilation
Specificity of the fan air heating system
Water heater for air heating
After learning about the advantages of air heating, it is necessary to assess its shortcomings. To get started, install such a system in an already built house is very difficult and not always possible. You can not just dismantle the pipes and radiators, water heating and establish in their place the ducts and grilles, as used here very different principles.
Bulky ductwork will occupy much more space, and look along the walls they are not very aesthetically pleasing. They are usually placed behind the suspended ceilings, trim panels, etc. In fact, a major overhaul of the whole house will need for a reorganization of the heating.
Ducts - it's quite bulky design that is best to hide behind a false ceiling and the space under the floor
Before you begin to break down the walls, it is necessary to carry out serious engineering calculations. That is why in the house to arrange air heating is recommended at the stage of its construction. And all the necessary calculations are carried out even during the building design. In this case, you can get a comfortable, reliable and highly efficient heating system.
Another problem - the dependence of the air heating of private homes on the availability of electricity. The fan is not spinning, the hot air is not moving, the room cool down as quickly as warmed. I have to spend on any alternative source of power, such as a generator.
System design principles
When designing air heating systems take into account many important factors. First of all, it is the need of each individual to a warm location, as well as heat loss for each room. Doors, windows, vents, and other objects do that precious kilojoules of heat went out.
Oven-buleryan - an economical option heating, which can be used for air heating organization. Can be a good solution and a wood burning stove long
The most important point - the presence of high-quality thermal insulation of buildings. If the house are plastic windows, doors good, and its facade is securely insulated, the heat loss will be smaller, and the cost of heating will be able to significantly reduce. When it comes to building renovation should start with design of insulation.
After the correlated need for thermal energy and its cost calculated heating capacity of the equipment and choose its type. Then the parameters are calculated hot air stream. Perform special aerodynamic calculations to compute the required duct size.
At the outlet of the duct-mounted grid diffuser. Its dimensions and configuration can affect the rate of movement of the air flow
Pre-calculate the power equipment is possible, focusing on the following numbers: for every 10 square meters of heating. meters of premises will need about 0.7-0.8 kW of heat. This is assuming that the house is insulated quality, or need more powerful equipment. But the complete design and detailed calculations are best left to experienced engineers.
Incorrect calculations may affect the final state of the system is very sad. For unprofessionally designed air heating system is characterized by problems such as frequent equipment failure, overheating of the premises, equipment overheating, drafts, elevated noise.
Along with the design of hot-air heating system it makes sense to consider and balance of fixed pieces of furniture in the house. Supply and exhaust air grilles should be located in places far from the constant presence of people.
They also should not be hidden under cabinets, tables, or other objects, which impede the free movement of air masses.
In multi-storey private house exhaust grilles it is recommended to have in such a way that on the upper floors of the cooled air is taken in from the top, and on the lower floors - the bottom. This will provide a more uniform heat distribution over the entire room. Learn more about how to make a hot-air heating calculation, see the this material.
The air heating systems use two circuits supply air flow: the inclined and horizontal
Method inclined warm air generally preferred, because it comes in finding users zone
Horizontally directed stream of warm air acts less effectively, but the close proximity to the heating unit is better to use it because of the high flow temperature
The thermal curtains combining principles water or electric heating an air circuit, the air flow is directed upwards
The oblique direction of the air flow
Scheme action slant warm air
The horizontal direction of heat flow
Vertical supply of warm air flow
Varieties air heating systems
Among the known science of heating systems, there are three varieties:
- recirculation (aka gravity);
- Partial recirculation of external air fence.
Once-through system - the most ancient and simple design. They were used in ancient Rome and were widely circulated in London before the start of the industrial and technological revolution.
This diagram shows the device once-through air heating system that has a low efficiency. Modern systems are more complicated, but have a significantly higher efficiency
When once-through system, a heating device, ie, a wood stove or fireplace, located in the lower part of the house that best - in the cellar. The heat from the hot air oven rises passed on to the walls and ceilings.
To improve hot air circulation and heating efficiency, the floor done the special holes.
The cooled air leaving the room through holes in the roof, and the furnace (fireplace) warming up a new air mass received from the outside, as a serious insulation of buildings in those days was not yet developed.
Low efficiency of direct-flow systems is obvious. It requires a large amount of combustion fuel, but a significant portion of the heat absorbed by material walls, floors and ceilings.
In this case, the room warmed up unevenly: the bottom is too hot, and the upper rooms do not have time to warm up. Part of the heat in general leave the house through the roof together with the air.
More modern recirculation system appeared due to the development of gas heating. Heating equipment of this type makes it possible to warm the house is not a whole, but only the specific air masses. Among them are formed air flows that are directed from bottom to top in a particular room.
Hot air masses at the same time replacing the cold air that goes through the bars arranged in the floor of the room. Cold air enters the duct and returns to the heater in a hot stream. recirculating cycle is repeated again and again.
thermal energy costs for heating the recirculation system at times less than when using a co-current circuit. But there is, in this embodiment and disadvantages. The closed system prevents air updating, which impairs the quality of life in the house.
In a closed recirculating air heating system, air flows constantly circulating between the handicap and the heater, the heat giving and taking
Part of the problem can be solved by using tools such as filters, ionizers, humidifiers etc. But the good devices of this type are quite expensive and their maintenance will require additional efforts, as well as automation.
More effective air flow recovery problem can be solved by heating retsirkulyatsonnoy partial air intake from outside.
With such a circuit arrangement provide for a partial withdrawal of a small amount of outside air intake and an appropriate volume of air mass from the outside. As a result, the composition of the air inside the building is regularly updated.
Recirculation systems work on the principle of gravity: hot flushes are raised up, and the cold - go down. Unfortunately, no such circulation is carried out effectively in any building. In this case, the system includes a fan to forcibly perform the recycling process.
Features of the system installation
If the calculation is performed at a high professional level, and air heating system design of the cottage is made, you can install on your own.
You will need:
- a tool for working with air ducts, etc.
The heater is generally used as a gas generator the most economical option. The ducts may be rectangular, square, circular or oval cross section.
Generally, suitable design can be ordered at the company, which manufactures ventilation systems.
The diagram presented items air heating system, which will perform the installation of ducts in exact accordance with the design documentation
Usually the ducts are made of galvanized steel, they are light enough so as not to overload the supporting structures of the house, and also have high resistance to wear and corrosion. For rigid air ducts need special elements providing a bias to 45 or 90 degrees. For flexible articles such elements are not necessary.
The ducts are also made of conventional steel, copper, plastic and other materials. There are even textile designs of this type. In areas of high humidity it is recommended to use the copper elements are more resistant to such conditions.
Design of plastic are relatively inexpensive, they can be used away from potential ignition sources.
Ducts fixed to the ceiling and the floor, as well as inside the walls. If there is a need to lay the duct than inside, and along the walls, it is closed bezel. The ceiling and floor mounted on the ends of the ducts ventilation grates.
Tight air ducts made of galvanized steel are very reliable and durable. For their successful installation will need knee rotation angle 45 and 90 degrees
Air masses moving inside the structure, can emit a certain noise. To reduce this negative effect, it is recommended to hide under a layer of sound insulation ducts.
Typically, this material has also thermal insulation properties, which only increases the efficiency of the system.
To design air heating during operation published as little noise as possible, it is recommended to cover them with a layer of insulating material
It is necessary to consider a variant acquisition duct, which has such an insulating layer is applied. This will simplify and speed up the installation work.
If there is a need for a fan installation, or more of these devices, it is usually included in the system close to the heater. To fan the electric power supply, and also provide a backup source of electricity.
The system also includes one or more filters. It may be a mechanical cleaning filters that prevent the spread of dust particles. In addition to these devices, and it is recommended to install a carbon filter that absorbs different smells. Of course, filters require periodic cleaning and / or replacement.
Part of the air is output to the outside to ensure a flow of fresh air. This segment is fed to the filter system, and then the air is supplied to the heat exchanger of the heating device. If installation work is carried out at the stage of building a house, then their performance usually does not cause much difficulty. The main thing - a good project.
To improve the climate in the building in the air heating system is inserted into such useful items as a humidifier, ionizer, ultra-violet steriliser etc. These elements are not binding, but if funds allow, we should not from them refuse.
Another useful device - channel air conditioning. It is also inserted into the duct system. It will allow to use the system in the warm season to cool the air in the room.
Automatic control systems significantly improve the performance of air heating systems and can reduce heat costs, and simplify equipment operation
The final stage - the connection of an automatic control system. Need air temperature sensors in the rooms and the remote control has a processor that will process the received data and adjust the operation of the heating equipment.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Interesting information on calculation and design of air heating is shown here:
In this video you can see two versions of a relatively inexpensive installation of air heating systems with the use of equipment and materials of Russian production:
Air heating - a worthy and profitable option of heating private houses. He has a higher efficiency compared to conventional water systems, and allows you to significantly improve the quality of life in the house. But to ensure the successful implementation of this idea, the system must be properly calculated and professionally designed.
You have questions? Or have experience in the personal use of air heating for the house? Please share with us their own opinions on the matter. Leave comments, ask questions, share tips in a box located below.