When solving the problem of heating housing, there are many combinations of building a supply and removal system of the coolant. Each wiring heating in a private house can be classified according to several criteria.
We propose to understand the nuances of the arrangement and operation of possible options. Understanding the principles of design, the pros and cons of each type of layout, will help plan the geometry of the system and its structure, taking into account the individual characteristics of the room.
The content of the article:
Simulation of optimal contour geometry
- Natural and forced water circulation
- Vertical and horizontal wiring
Choice of one-or two-pipe option
- Using a single pipe connection
- Use of double pipe heating option
Inclusion in the distribution manifold system
- Radiator Radiator Connection System
- Rules for using warm floor
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Simulation of optimal contour geometry
For one private house several closed water circuits can be designed that will heat different rooms. They may differ significantly from each other by type of wiring.
When designing, first of all, they proceed from the working capacity of the system, as well as the optimal geometry from the standpoint of cost minimization, ease of installation and the ability to fit heating elements into the design premises.
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The main task of the heating system being built for a private house is to fully compensate for heat losses occurring through building structures and openings.
Wiring option is chosen so as far as possible to reduce heat loss. No more than 10% of the pipeline must pass through unheated rooms.
To a large extent, the choice of the system affects the budget of the owners of the house. Based on financial possibilities, the technical equipment of the structure, the type of coolant movement and its efficiency are determined.
The more technical means required for the operation of the system, the more effective it is, but the more situations associated with breakdowns and repairs
Selection of the optimal layout of heating for a country house should take into account the interconnection of the circuit with other engineering communications
At the design stage, you need to clearly define the type of boiler that is planned to be used for heating in order to thoroughly consider the organization of the boiler room and storage for fuel.
It should initially consider the possibility of adjusting the operating modes of the system and the placement of the regulating equipment
At the design stage of the distribution of heating, it is required to determine the most convenient location of devices and equipment that facilitate maintenance and create comfort during operation.
The main task of the heating system
Guidelines for choosing a layout
Outdoor heating option
Closed loop forced type
Intercommunicating heating with other communications
Type of boiler and organization of the boiler room
Adjusting the heating circuit mode
Access for maintenance and repair
Natural and forced water circulation
Heating the heating medium for home heating occurs in one or more devices located indoors. It can stoves, fireplaces, as well as gas, electric or solid fuel boilers.
The water pressure in the circuit is provided either through the use of circulating pumps or by aligning the geometry of the system, allowing you to create the conditions for natural circulation.
Also, the source of hot water can be a centralized heating system for several houses. In the case of a weak pressure, it is possible to connect circulation pumps to create additional pressure and increase the speed of fluid flow through the pipes.
Installing a circulating pump creates sufficient pressure in the system, making it possible to use wiring options that cannot be used with natural circulation
When choosing option with natural circulation of coolant or a small pressure in the pipes with centralized heating, you must carefully consider the ability to maximize the use of physical laws that allow starting and maintaining movement fluid.
In this case, the acceleration collector is an essential element of the layout. It is a vertical pipe through which hot water rises, then is distributed to the heating devices and, having lost the initial temperature, flows down.
Due to the different densities, a hydrostatic pressure drop occurs between the hot and cold liquid columns, which is the driving force for the circulation of water.
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The simplest option for distributing heating for a private house is a gravitational system, according to which the coolant moves by gravity around the contour
Gravity schemes do not need to use the pump, they are extremely easy to build.
The temperature in devices of natural type systems can be regulated only by a decrease / increase in the coolant. The radiators do not put thermostats
In heating systems with natural movement of the coolant, excess air is discharged through the open expansion tank. Only in circuits with a bottom connection, automatic or mechanical air vent valves are installed on radiators.
Systems with forced coolant movement are much more complicated, their installation and maintenance is more expensive.
A pump is installed in the forced systems to move the coolant; a safety group is activated to ensure interruptions
In closed heating pump circuits, it is necessary to install air vent on radiators and areas with system turns
In most forced systems, the closed expansion tank is used instead of an open expansion tank. For normal functionality, you will need not only air vent valves, but also a pressure safety valve.
Gravitational open system
Simplicity and affordability
Instruments in natural systems
Radiator with a crane Mayevsky
Pump version of the heating system
Technical equipment of pumping schemes
Automatic air vent
Closed air duct system
Vertical and horizontal wiring
Supply of hot water to the radiators can be carried out in different ways. The wiring is conventionally divided into vertical and horizontal, according to the position of the pipes (risers) that supply water directly to the radiators.
In modern homes, horizontal rather than vertical wiring is often used. The reason is that the layout of radiators on different floors rarely coincide
Vertical layouts with the top supply of hot water as much as possible use the difference of hydrostatic pressure between warm and cold contour segments, so they are almost always used for natural circulation, as well as at low pressure in the system.
In addition, such schemes are operable in case of emergency shutdown of the pump, which may occur due to its failure or lack of electricity.
Low-feed routing is practically not used for heating with natural circulation. If there is a good pressure in the system, its use is justified, since such a scheme has two significant advantages, with respect to the alternative.
The advantages of the scheme:
- smaller total length of the pipes used;
- there is no need for a pipe in the attic or technological niches under the ceiling of the second floor.
Horizontal layout heating wiring is used for single-storey private houses. If a building has two or more floors, then it is often used in the case when, from the standpoint of design, vertical risers are undesirable.
Horizontal pipes, supplying and diverting water can be organically entered into the interior of the premises, as well as hide under the floor or in the niches located at the floor level.
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In the vertical layout, the heating devices are connected to the system in the same direction. As a rule, these are schemes with top feed, arranged in houses with two or more floors.
Vertical schemes are one-pipe and two-pipe. Monotube gravity can only be top wired
The horizontal type of wiring is also called flooring, since the system is assembled within the same floor and is connected to the riser
Horizontal wiring, especially with the lower connection, need to stimulate the movement of the coolant, i.e. in need of use of the pump
Vertical layout of the heating system
Two-pipe vertical system with top distribution
Horizontal type of layout
Features of the device horizontal schemes
Choice of one-or two-pipe option
Hot water can be supplied to a private house and cooled for the heating system of a private house using one or two pipes. Each option has positive and negative sides, as well as features of use depending on the type of wiring.
From the standpoint of interior design, the presence of a second pipe does not have any influence on the appearance. heating systems due to the lower variant of connecting the system to radiators and the ability to reduce pipe diameters
Using a single pipe connection
The scheme of water heating of a private house using a single pipe for supplying hot and draining cooled water is called one-pipe. The main advantage of such a system is to minimize the length of the pipes.
The main advantages of the option:
- the lowest costs for the purchase of elements of the heating system;
- the easiest and fastest installation;
- the least risk of an accident.
The main disadvantage single pipe heating is a gradual decrease in the temperature of the water, which passes sequentially through all radiators in the circuit.
Therefore, it is necessary to use a slightly larger surface area of the latter radiators (a larger number of bends), which often negates the price benefit from minimizing the length of pipes.
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In one-pipe heating circuits, the supply of the heated coolant and its removal after cooling back to the boiler is carried out by one main pipe
Heating devices are connected to the highway in series. The temperature in the radiator far from the boiler is a couple of degrees lower than in the near one, since he has time to cool down
In the construction of one-pipe pipe systems used in half. Only one pipe passes through the room, which looks much better than complex two-pipe layout.
In multi-storey buildings, the one-pipe version of the wiring with the flow of coolant from the top to the bottom of the device is mainly used.
The lower connection option of devices dictates the application in the circuit of the circulating pump and air vent
It is senseless to adjust devices of a single-pipe system with the help of thermostats, since you can change the temperature only in the whole network
It is possible to ensure the delivery of heat carrier of almost equal temperature to the devices of the system with upper wiring by arranging closing sections - bypasses
The prevailing number of one-pipe systems is assembled using a tee-way method with the installation of functional elements along the perimeter of the room.
The principle of the device single-pipe heating system
Specificity of connecting heating devices
The minimum number of pipes in the device
Single pipe assembly with top wiring
Lower radiator connection option
Features of temperature balancing in the circuit
Upgrading a single pipe layout with top wiring
The method of construction of the heating circuit with a single pipe
In addition, in connection with this disadvantage, there are limitations for one circuit on the number of connected radiators. If there are too many of them, then the latter, while moving, the heat carrier will practically not radiate heat.
In addition, a problem arises in the calculation of heat transfer. Here it is necessary to take into account that disconnecting the first radiators from the heating system leads to an increase in the inlet water temperature for subsequent devices.
It is senseless to use single-pipe schemes with vertical bottom wiring, since the length of the pipes will be the same as the two-pipe version, which eliminates all the advantages, but leaves minuses.
If the return of the coolant occurs along the same route as the flow, then the total length of the pipes in both variants is almost the same.
The connection of the heater is usually made through bypass, to be able to turn off any of them without stopping the circulation of water around the circuit.
To save on taps, you can not bypass the water through the layers, but then you have to stop the work of this part of the system and drain the water if you need to replace or repair the radiator.
The most economical option is to use a single steel pipe with a diameter of 1.5-2 inches without heating radiators. The absence of taps and fittings makes such a system also the most practical due to minimizing the risk of leakage or water breakthroughs.
Details about the calculation of one-pipe heating system read in this article.
Use of double pipe heating option
The scheme of the heating circuit, when one pipe is used to supply hot water to the heating devices, and the second is called a two-pipe pipe for returning to the cooled one.
Its main advantages are:
- the temperature of the water supplied to all radiators is the same;
- turning off one or more radiators does not affect the temperature of the water supplied to the rest of the heaters;
- restrictions on the number of radiators for one heating circuit depends only on the volume of the pipes.
The main disadvantage of this layout is a slight increase in the length of the pipe.
This leads to some additional drawbacks:
- increase the cost of purchasing and installing elements of the heating system;
- complicated integration into the interior of a private house.
The number of fittings and valves with a two-pipe system is almost the same as with a single-pipe system.
For passing flow of the coolant, the total length of the pipes when using a two-pipe system is increased by the distance between the first and the last radiator. Sometimes it is insignificant compared to the entire length of the contour.
Depending on the relative movement of hot and chilled water double pipe wiring diagrams are divided into two types:
- dead end.
Passing scheme. Both flows move in the same direction and, thus, the cycle length of the coolant turnover for each radiator is the same. In this case, equal heating speed occurs when the heating system is started.
Deadlock option. The direction of movement of hot and chilled water is oncoming. Heating radiators closest to the boiler is faster.
The lower the speed of the water, the more noticeable this effect is, therefore, with the natural circulation, heating of some rooms will occur much slower than others.
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In two-pipe heating circuits, the supply of the heated coolant is made through one pipe, referred to as flow, and after cooling, it is discharged through another pipe, the return pipe
The coolant is supplied to almost all devices at the same time through the supply pipe, it does not have time to cool down along the way.
The temperature in devices of two-pipe heating systems can be regulated separately, the result of balancing does not affect the operation of the entire heating network.
In twin-tube circuits with a lower wiring, by analogy with one-tube, circulating pumps and air vent valves are used
Double-tube heating circuits work much more efficiently than single-tube heating circuits, but they are more difficult to build and operate, more expensive to install.
With the advent of polymer pipes it became possible to lay pipelines in building structures
In a hidden way, it is permissible to lay the flow and return flow of copper pipes. Their service life is 100 years, polymer has 50
In the floor-by-floor wiring, ray circuits constitute a serious competition for the two-pipe tee-wire wiring, which implies connecting the supply and return from each device to the collector
Assembly principle of a two-pipe system
Features of the two-pipe schemes
The use of thermostats
Double pipe layout with lower wiring
Justify device investment
Copper pipe laying in a hidden way
Beam varinat double pipe wiring
If a circulation pump is used or the distance between the first and the last radiator in the circuit is insignificant, then the effect of uneven heating with dead-end two-pipe wiring is imperceptible. Then the choice in favor of one option or another is due solely to considerations of the convenience of holding a return pipe.
Inclusion in the distribution manifold system
Recently popular method of organizing water heating is the so-called “radial circuit” using a distribution manifold.
This method of wiring reliably works only with good water pressure in the system, so it is not used for natural circulation.
Beam routing involves connecting each heater (or a small group of them) directly to the distribution manifold, which distributes hot water and collects chilled water.
Radiator Radiator Connection System
The most uniform and controlled separation of the coolant flow in the heating devices can be done using distribution manifold.
The device includes two combs, into one of which hot water comes from the boiler and is distributed through radiators, and to the other, the cooled water is returned and sent back to the boiler.
The radiators are connected via a distribution manifold in parallel, therefore, with such wiring, the minimum difference in the temperature of the coolant supplied to the heating devices is achieved.
This greatly facilitates the calculation of the parameters of the radiators at the design stage, and also allows you to easily adjust the power of each device during operation.
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Collector options for assembling heating systems are actively replacing uncomfortable and technically complex horizontal tee wiring.
According to this scheme, from the collector located on the floor in the form of peculiar rays, supply and return flow are laid to each of the devices.
In the radial versions of the heating, two-pipe schemes predominate, the system is usually served by two collectors: for supply pipes and return pipes
In the collector wiring, each of the rings is a heating circuit in miniature, it is desirable that the movement of the coolant on it carried out its own pump
Due to the large number of pipes, they are laid in a concealed way in the screed. In high-rise buildings, such a solution is permissible only on the first floors.
On both parts of the collector group of the two-pipe system, automatic air vent valves are installed that are necessary to clear the air plugs.
In order to equalize the length of the lines connected to the collector, it is recommended to install it in the center of the floor. In low-rise buildings, the collectors are interconnected by risers
The collector for the construction of beam heating can be purchased in a ready-to-install form or assemble a device from polypropylene pipes and fittings
Collector group of the heating system
The principle of the collector type
The predominance of two-pipe solutions
The specifics of the device of radiation systems
Laying of heating pipes in the screed
Air vent on distribution combs
Distributive comb in the bathroom
Homemade distribution comb
The second significant advantage of this layout is the ability to control the flow parameters of the coolant to all devices from one place. The collector is placed in a special cabinet with access to the indicators and controls: valves, valves and pumps.
This is convenient from the position of controlling the microclimate at home and makes it easier to fit the radiators into the interior of the room.
The disadvantages of systems with a collector layout of the heating system should include the maximum length of the pipes for supplying and discharging water to the radiators. This option is the most expensive in terms of cost contour elements and the most difficult to install, and also requires certain qualifications.
Using a collector to connect various types of heating devices requires a good understanding of the topic. water heating, and sometimes hydraulic calculations for the normal functioning of such systems
As a rule, pipes in radial heating mounted in the floor screed. This means that it is necessary to design and install such a system during the construction or overhaul of a private house.
It is rather difficult to carry out the collector version for connecting radiators or to change the geometry of the circuits in rooms with already performed internal repairs. This is the second significant minus layout of this type.
Rules for using warm floor
Comfortable and very popular way of heating homes - arrangement of a warm floor. If the heated area is small, then you can do with one pipe placed in the floor screed.
Connecting a heated floor to a heating system through a distribution manifold is the only possible option for heating large areas in this way.
For large areas, the use of a single pipe is impossible for the following reasons:
- the amount of heat supplied is not enough to heat the entire room, in addition, this heating will be uneven;
- with a large length there is a strong hydrodynamic resistance of the fluid flow, which leads to excessive pressure on electricity and increases the risk of water breakthrough in places compounds.
Therefore, with a large floor area, the use of several pipes is not a wish, but a necessity.
In this case, the connection is made through the distribution manifold.
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On the collector principle, the system of water "warm floors", similarly connected to the distribution comb
Collector combs of warm floors are distinguished by a smaller number of nests in comparison with radiator beam systems. Need a more powerful pump
The wiring of floor heating systems is produced by copper and metal-plastic pipes, using permanent connections
After the device and the crimping of the heated floor, a screed is poured in, which protects the pipes from damage and acts as a heat-conducting element
Collector knot of a heat-insulated floor
Distinctive features of the system
Metal and copper pipes
Filling the screed over the heating circuit
Often the collector is supplied with a mixing unit to adjust the temperature of the water supplied to the floor heating pipes. The fact is that for radiators of heating, as a rule, they use a liquid with a temperature range of 70-80 ° C, whereas about 40 ° C is necessary for a heated floor.
Temperature regulation through the mixer is reliable, which is very important, since exceeding the temperature can cause significant deformation of the floor covering: linoleum, laminate or parquet.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
A schematic representation of the layout of the heating in a two-story building of a large area. Two-pipe passing and dead-end system and underfloor heating connected via collectors. The elimination of the conflict of circulation pumps with the help of a hydraulic needle:
Beam scheme for heating a two-story building. Since the finishing has not yet been carried out, the entire layout is clearly visible. The nuances of laying pipes on the floor under the concrete screed:
The opinion of the practicing master for the installation of heating systems on various schemes used in private homes. Overview of the pros and cons of natural circulation, single-pipe, two-pipe passing and dead-end, as well as collector wiring:
Presented layout for home heating are typical and can be modified taking into account the geometry of the premises, the required values of temperature or other factors. When modifying schemes, it is necessary to comply with the laws and basic principles of physics, hydraulics, materials science and other disciplines.
In the case of solving complex or nonstandard problems, it is better to turn to specialists, because the alteration of heating systems can be even more expensive than their modeling and installation.
If you have any questions or have a desire to share your personal experience in distributing heating in your home, please leave comments on this article. You can add a photo to your feedback - the contact form is located below.