Modern fluorescent lamps (LL) do an excellent job with the lighting of residential, working and technical rooms large area and can reduce the total electricity consumption by 50-83%, reducing this way bills for utilities services.
In this article, we consider the performance of the LL, their device, analyze the advantages and disadvantages in comparison with other types of lighting. In addition we present themed photos and diagrams, as well as videos of the principle of work lights fluorescent type and peculiarities of their application.
The content of the article:
The principle of operation and the device LL
- How does a fluorescent lamp?
- Structural features of the device
Common types of bulbs
- View # 1 - high-pressure modules
- View # 2 - the product of low pressure
- Features compact LL
- Basic color temperature range
Strengths and weaknesses of the devices
- Positive aspects of lamps
- The main disadvantages of modules
- Chemical health hazard
- A comparison with other light sources
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
The principle of operation and the device LL
Fluorescent gas charging device is a light source, wherein a mercury vapor electric discharge produces intense ultraviolet radiation.
Compact fluorescent type modules have a standard socket, through which are a convenient substitute for bright, but more energy-intensive incandescent lamps.
How does a fluorescent lamp?
In light visible to the human eye transforms its special structure called phosphor consisting of calcium galofosfata mixed with additional elements.
After connecting to the central power supply of the fluorescent lamp within the glass envelope is required to maintain a so-called glow discharge.
It makes it possible to provide illumination of the phosphor layers continuously, even during momentary disconnection of the central power.
Previously classical luminescent lamp had the form of a sealed type on both sides of the tube within which are a pair of mercury. Now the devices are available in a variety of shapes and configurations
Structural features of the device
Traditional fluorescent lamp type - is a glass cylinder with an external diameter of 12, 16, 26 and 38 mm, typically represented as:
- straight elongated tube;
- curved U-shaped module;
- complex figure.
The end edges sealingly soldered legs. On their inner side has tungsten electrodes structurally resemble a coiled-coil incandescent bodies, built in "Ilicha" bulb.
In some types of fluorescent lamps are used more progressive trispirali representing bispiral twisted. devices equipped with them have increased levels of efficiency and lower threshold heat loss, significantly raising the overall efficiency of light stream
From the outer part of electrode elements soldered to the metal pins metal plinthTo which the operating voltage is supplied.
U-like and direct devices are usually equipped with caps G5 and G13, where the alphabetic coding means pin type element ground and digital shows at what distance from each other arranged working elements.
The conductive medium is located inside the glass bulb has a negative resistance. When two opposed electrodes between current rise occurs that requires restriction, it is manifested and reduces the operating voltage.
The circuit switching circuit of a conventional fluorescent light bulbs included throttle or ballastnik. He is responsible for creating a high-level pulse voltage necessary for correct activation of the lamp.
The figure shows the internal arrangement of the type luminescent lamps and graphically explains the basic principle of its major constituents
Apart from this detail, EmPRA completed starter. It is an element of a glow discharge within which are arranged two electrodes, surrounded by an inert gas environment.
One of them consists of a bimetallic strip. In sleep mode, both electrodes are in an open state.
Common types of bulbs
Primary classification of products produced on the basis of a fluorescent base pressure level. High-pressure devices are used for lighting systems and high-power outdoor street lighting.
Low pressure lamps are used in the home for supplying light production, technical and residential premises for various purposes.
View # 1 - high-pressure modules
The devices produce high pressure saturated good light stream density., Bulb member internal surface has a special coating of phosphor ftorogermanata or magnesium arsenate.
Operating power of fluorescent lamps is in the range 50-2000 Watts.
High pressure mercury modules for the correct operation need 220 Watt nominal mains voltage. Coefficient of their pulsations is generally from 61 to 74%
Full lighting module ignition occurs within 3 seconds. Lifetime 80-125 watt-products is about 6000 hours and the lamp of 400 W or more can work up to 15,000 hours at unquestioning rules of operation specified by the manufacturer.
View # 2 - the product of low pressure
LL low pressure is used to provide light stream of residential, industrial and production facilities.
Constructional unit is a tube made of durable glass comprising in argon under pressure of 400 Pa and a small amount of mercury or amalgam. The market offers a wide variety of versions and is equipped with two electrode elements.
The lowest temperature that can tolerate low-pressure LL is -15 ° C. Therefore, for use in the open air, these light sources are considered to be irrelevant
The glass bulb can have a very different diameter. The level of light output varies depending on the capacity of the device. For it to work properly required throttle-type starter. The average service life of 10 000 hours.
Features compact LL
LL compact type - a hybrid product that combines some of the specific distinctive features and characteristics of incandescent lamps Fluorescent.
Thanks to advanced technologies and expand innovative features, have a small diameter and medium-sized dimensions inherent bulbs "Ilyich", as well as a high level of energy efficiency, characteristic of the line appliances LL.
LL compact type are marketed under the traditional caps E27, E14, E40 and actively displace from the market classic incandescent lamps by providing a high-quality light at substantially lower consumption power
CFL in most cases equipped with electronic ballast and can be used in luminaires of a specific type. Also apply for the replacement of new and vintage fixtures simple and conventional incandescent lamps.
With all the advantages in compact modules have such specific deficiencies, such as:
- stroboscopic effect or flicker - the main contraindications are concerned epileptics and people with various diseases of the eye;
- pronounced sound effect - in the course of prolonged use of acoustic background appears capable of causing some discomfort in a person in the room;
- smell - in some cases, the products emit acrid, unpleasant odors, irritating smell.
The last position is more common in anonymous craft of Chinese descent, and the first two often suffer even branded devices made in accordance with all regulations and modern requirements. Ranking of the best manufacturers of CFL we brought in this article.
Basic color temperature range
Light color - one of the most important parameters are directly dependent on the composition of the phosphor, transforming ultraviolet light into light.
Today the most common definitions are 7 colors flow generated by fluorescent lamps:
- Loeb - natural white with a noticeable cool white;
- MDC - Natural daylight with improved color reproduction;
- LTB - warm white;
- LD - the traditional daylight white;
- LB - classic white;
- Lec - natural colors with the highest quality transmission;
- LHB - a simple cool white.
For premises where a person spends a lot of time, fit warm shades range or natural daylight lamps with high color rendering.
White and daylight colors, are generally present in offices, workshops and industrial premises, rooms and lecture halls. They contribute to the concentration, enhance brain activity and improve overall learning ability and productivity.
The coolest shades are used in hospitals, laboratories, hospitals and technical rooms. They give objects more clarity and enhance visual acuity.
Fluorescent for Butcher food stores showcases different specially selected range of pink light. It emphasizes the natural shades of the product, making it more attractive in the eyes of buyers
Color components are added to the phosphor, produce pink, blue, green and other unusual lamp shades.
Such devices are used in design, advertising and commercial purposes. With their help create original illumination required in a particular individual case.
More information about the color temperature of light, especially the perception of color and nuances of human choice, we wrote the following article.
Strengths and weaknesses of the devices
As in any technical devices intended for ambient lighting of living and working areas, in fluorescent lamps has its own strengths and weaknesses.
you can determine where to use them wisely on the basis of this information, and in some cases it is necessary to give preference to the light sources of a plan.
Positive aspects of lamps
The main advantage of fluorescent products are considered high luminous efficacy and a good level of efficiency. They provide room lighting, non-irritating to the eyes, and show normal endurance even under intensive use.
The module is about 5 times higher than the basic power of ordinary light bulbs "Ilyich." A 20-watt yields luminescent luminous flux equal to that of incandescent lamp provides 100 watts
A variety of temperature light shades, close to a range of natural sunlight, allow to choose the right lighting fixture for different purposes and for any premises destination.
The light flux outputted module obtained is not directional and diffuse. Quiet, pleasant eye glow emanates not only from a tungsten filament, located inside, but also on the entire outer surface of the flask.
This allows the use of fluorescent sources for creating a common background light, and for the organization spotlights.
For use in places where light is switched automatically according to the signals of motion sensors Fluorescent not suitable. They are limited by the allowable number of inclusions within a certain time period and at too frequent activation may fail
The duration of fluorescent products varies depending on the model and goes up to 20,000 hours or up to 5 years.
However, the buyer should be aware that this resource lamp produces only subject to such conditions as:
- have sufficient power quality without surges and spikes;
- quality ballast;
- a certain number of activations, is usually not more than 2,000 for the first 2 years of use, which is only 5 daily activations.
Violation of these basic conditions significantly worsen the efficiency of the lighting device, and significantly shorten its life.
The modules can be used for lighting greenhouses. They provide natural light, as close to the sun, do not consume much power and exhibit good resistance to changes in voltage, characteristic suburban energopodayuschih networks
Fluorescent energy level in almost 5 times lower than that of conventional products, so they can be attributed to energy saving light sources.
With their help, it will be able to effectively illuminate a large room, without spending at the same time a lot of money on utility bills.
Working on the bulb surface temperature does not exceed 50 degrees. This makes it possible to operate the lamp in areas where fire safety requirements are increased.
The main disadvantages of modules
The first big minus products is excessive sensitivity to temperature changes. They strongly react to the movement of the mercury column may stop working during cold weather below -20 ° C.
Heat exceeding +50 ° C, is not the best way affects the functioning and severely limits the range of the use of these light sources.
Vlagovosprimchivost also does not apply to the pluses and does not allow wide use of products in the bathrooms and sanitary facilities.
Over time, the phosphor degrades in the lamp envelope and the emission spectrum is changed. Parallel light output falls level device and markedly reduced efficiency
Sometimes the shortcomings and is ranked very light stream, having a line, uneven spectrum distort the natural colors of objects in the room.
Not all feel it visually, but for anyone who picks up this disadvantage too clearly, sold lamps with a phosphor, which approximate to a continuous, more natural spectral colors. However, their light output is much smaller.
There are situations when Fluorescent flicker at twice the mains frequency. This problem is solved to some improvement of the device, in particular, the use of EPRA with an appropriate level of capacity of the smoothing capacitor rectified current at the inverter input.
But the fact that manufacturers are trying to save and instrumentation necessary capacity capacitors, a few upsets.
Household LL modules best feel when the ambient temperature is in the range of 5 to 35? C. When the thermometer shows a lower performance, device start-up becomes more difficult, and operating time is noticeably shorter
The need for additional start-up device is also slightly reduces the popularity of the lamps. They necessarily require either too noisy and rather bulky inductor with low starter reliability or more progressive electronic ballasts having a power adjusting function, but it is worthwhile solid money.
Another weak spot Fluorescent - high sensitivity for inclusion. During the immediate activation of the lamp electrodes to burn out and crumble particular composition which provides the discharge stability and protects the internal tungsten filament from overheating.
Regularly enabling significantly reduces the life of your unit. In addition, there is significant eye irritation flicker, and the edges of a lamp envelope darken and lose their aesthetic.
Chemical health hazard
One of the major disadvantages of fluorescent light source is a chemical hazard. The lamp envelope contains highly toxic mercury, and its amount ranges from 1 to 70 mg.
Vapors may be harmful to the health of people residing in rooms lit by devices such as LL.
Integrity of spent lamps can not be broken, otherwise toxic mercury into the external environment. For unauthorized disposal of a penalty, so it is best to transfer the product into a center dedicated to processing elements that are dangerous to man and nature
When the unit fails, it in no event it is impossible to break or be sent to an ordinary box. it must disposed respectively standards and rules are clearly described in the existing legislation.
For example, transported to landfills, where people from taking toxic materials for their correct destruction or recycling.
A comparison with other light sources
LL-type products differ significantly from the aging of incandescent lamps, and from progressive LED.
As compared with the first, they consume 5 times less power, while providing the same level of light stream saturation. But LED-devices are somewhat inferior in power combined with the power.
The table clearly shows in figures how much more profitable to use instead of traditional bulbs Edison more modern sources of quality lighting
However, incandescent lights work all the time with the same intensity, whereas Fluorescent lose some saturation due to burning of the inner layer that reflects ultraviolet light.
LED-product in the operation acquire a certain dullness due to degradation of workers diodes. In some models it is possible to adjust the brightness of the light by using the dimmer.
In incandescent lamps or Fluorescent this function is not provided. But this handy mode LED-devices is not free and it will have to pay an additional amount.
According to the level of structural fragility incandescent and Fluorescent similar, as they have a glass flask. Ice-ins in this respect are more resistant to shock and mechanical damage. Yes and no in any harmful and toxic elements makes them more attractive for use in the home.
The highest costs for the entire operating period entails the use of incandescent lamps. Fluorescent consume energy within reasonable limits, and LEDs provide the opportunity to reduce costs up to the minimum rates
On the financial side, it was originally worth less than other light bulbs. However, in view of its working life only 1000 hours, it can hardly be considered a pronounced advantage.
Base price Fluorescent above, however, and they are much longer. As they say reputable manufacturers, they have enough for 10 000-15 000 hours in the event that the number of daily activations not exceed 5-6 times.
LED modules can boast of even better performance, but also to pay for it will have a lot more fun, and it is not always advisable. Although the tendency to replace some other light sources, can be traced elsewhere. On the need for replacement of fluorescent bulbs with LED and order do the job we wrote here.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
On what basis are working Fluorescent. A detailed explanation of the functioning of all the nuances of economical and energy-efficient devices for lighting:
What are the main differences between the luminescent elements from simple and traditional incandescent light bulbs. Comparison of power consumption and light stream of two modern lighting products:
What are the energy-saving compact fluorescent bulb type. How they work, how many watts consumed, and for what purpose are used:
The device is a luminescent type - is a practical analogue of the classical incandescent lamp. It can be used to provide high-quality light stream room of any size, while reducing power consumption. It will last long and will not cause any significant hassle owners.
Then, when the lamps will fulfill his term, they need to be disposed of, and instead buy new, more advanced modules.
And what type of lights you prefer and what you think about light bulbs, Fluorescent? Share with other users your opinion, tell me what you see the main advantages of the LL, and that, for you personally, is a significant drawback of these devices.
If you own a good theoretical knowledge on the above article and want to supplement our material useful nuances, please write your comments in the box below.