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For a long time, the culture has proved its unpretentiousness, excellent winter hardiness and productivity. For different regions of the empire, the Chinese developed varieties adapted to the conditions of the northern highlands and subtropics of the south.
In warm provinces, trees grow to 8–12 meters, and Chinese plum fruits can reach 80–100 grams. In the north, in Manchuria, a common variety of varieties was formed. Ussuri plum can not be called large-fruited, but it is not so tall and endures frost winters without loss.
Thanks to the ability of the crop to interbreed with other species, the plant has attracted the attention of breeders. Today, hybrids and varieties are obtained on the basis of the American and European subspecies, cherry plum and other species of stone fruit.
Looking at how the plum blossoms, it is impossible not to notice its decorativeness. Since the massively opening buds are collected in small inflorescences, in the spring the trees appear completely white or pink. Equally densely on the branches are ripening plums, which, depending on the variety, may be yellow, red or dense purple.
Plum Manchu Beauty
In the first half of the last century, seedlings of this variety were brought to the Soviet Far East. The trees from Manchuria, combining the properties of the Chinese and Ussuri plum, have proven themselves well. They showed moderate winter hardiness, excellent drought tolerance, and decent fruit taste.
Since 1947, the drain has been recommended for private farms from the Far East to the West Siberian region. And today dwarf plum trees Manchu beauty is in gardens throughout the country, including its European part.
Plants with a small stem and a thick, requiring regular pruning crown come into fruition in the third year after planting. Before smooth dark green leaves appear on the branches, small white flowers open on the bouquet branches.
Harvesting is carried out in the last days of August or in early September. The fruits of this variety of Chinese plum have a rounded shape, with no visible seam and a weight of about 15 grams. Amber peel at the time of maturation is covered with a thick crimson blush and a bluish wax coating. The variety is rated as universal, which confirms the pleasant sweet-sour taste and light aroma of juicy greenish-yellow pulp.
When cultivating plums, the Manchurian beauty needs to take into account that the variety is self-productive, and it needs pollinating trees for a decent harvest nearby.
In the spring there is a risk of spring pitting on the trunk. So that small trees do not freeze and take root in the northern regions, plum planting in spring is preferable.
This variety with red fruits, intended for the Central Chernozem region and more southern regions, was obtained by crossing the plum variety Red Ball and Chinese woman.
Trees up to 2.5 meters high are much lower than their ancestors from China, but not as thick as their Ussuri relatives. The opening of the white, collected in triple bud inflorescences precedes the appearance of light green foliage and falls on the first days of May. Elongated, obovate leaves with a smooth, without gloss surface unfolds at the stage of formation of the ovary.
Plum variety Alyonushka is recognized as a canteen. Rounded with dark red skin the fruits reach 35 grams and are ready to harvest in mid-August. The orange pulp has a medium dense consistency, high juice content and light aroma. The taste is sweet and sour, pleasant. If summer is warm and sunny, and plum care provides the tree with everything you need, the taste of the fruit is noticeably improved. With a lack of sun, the flesh of the early variety does not gain enough sugar and seems watery.
Like other varieties, this Chinese plum starts to bear fruit very early. The first ovaries on a tree are formed in the third year of life, but without pollinators that are flowering at the same time it is impossible to wait for the harvest.
Self-consistency is not the only flaw. The alenka from all the plums of this subspecies is more often and more abundant than the rest is affected by the aphids.
An early, dessert-grade variety is the result of the crossing of the Claymax plum of American origin and the Ussuri red domestic selection. Mature plum tree Skoroplodnaya has an average height and a crown that is not prone to excessive density. In the spring, in the second week of May flowering begins. Ovaries are formed on the bouquet branches. Together with them appear elongated, lint-free light green leaves.
In the first half of August, the fruits ripen with yellow skin and bright red blush. If densely strewed plums weighing about 25–30 grams fall in the sun, the pink-red color in their color becomes predominant. The flesh under the thin skin has a yellow color and a medium dense, juicy texture. Chinese plum variety is distinguished by a quick set of sugar and bright fruit aroma.
Delicious plums are not well stored and transported, but excellent in fresh. Unfortunately, this variety not only requires cross-pollination, but also irregularly pleases with crops. But in the third year, the seedlings begin to bear fruit and do not age for over 20 years.
Plum Skoroplodnaya tolerates the middle strip winters well, is not afraid of drought, and for many varieties together with hybrid cherry plum is the best pollinator.
Plum Manchu Beauty is an excellent material for breeders. On its basis, many varieties were obtained for cultivation in Russia. In 2004, the Testament plum of the same origin and recommended for areas of the Volga-Vyatka region was included in the State Register.
Trees up to 4 meters high bloom for the first time at the age of four years, and then annually produce abundant crops for 30 years. However, in order to achieve this, plum care must include anti-aging pruning and planted pollinator varieties nearby. Culture is disease resistant, but requires protection from pests.
Later flowering, starting in the last decade of May, takes place not only on the bouquet, but also on the growth shoots. Along with the ovaries, smooth dark green leaves characteristic of the Chinese plum appear. Ripening of round yellow fruits weighing up to 30 grams begins in the last days of August. The sun falling on the plums paints the skin in pinkish and carmine tones, well visible under a light wax coating. Juicy dense flesh has a yellow color and at the time of harvest it acquires a harmonious sweet-sour taste.
Fragrant Plums A covenant can be stored and transported, consumed fresh and used to make homemade preparations or pastries.
A variety of table purpose, pleasing with red juicy fruits, obtained by crossing the variety Chinese woman and Plum Skoroplodnaya.
Unlike other Chinese plums, the Sissy enters fruiting time only in the fifth year and is partially self-fertile.
White buds, collected in inflorescences of 5 pieces, densely strewed with bouquet branches. Flowering occurs in mid-May, and fruit ripening begins in the third week of August. Almost round plums Nezhenki covered with red thin skin, under which lies the soft, melting flesh of yellow color. Even fully mature fruits do not crack, which simplifies their transportation and improves the quality of the crop. Weighing 25–35 grams of plums are fresh and good for making compotes and jams.
The advantage of this variety of Chinese plum is the high winter resistance of the shoots. If frosts strike a tree, flower and growth buds suffer.
Plum variety Red ball
Every gardener wants the fruits on the plum to be not only tasty, but also beautiful, large. Plum variety Red ball - exactly what you need.
Trees 2-3 meters in height very early enter fruiting season. The seedlings bloom and form the first ovary in the second or third year, and then each year they provide the dacha with a good harvest of red round fruits weighing from 30 to 40 grams. Attractive plums with a waxy coating of skin and yellow, incredibly juicy pulp have table purpose, can be transported and stored for a short time.
Among the early varieties, along with this, it is worth mentioning the plum Golden Ball, which differs from the red-fruited sibling in higher spreading trees and bright yellow-amber color of round fruits. The weight of plums also reaches 40 grams; however, with mass fructification, part of the ovary can crumble, and the remaining fruits become smaller. Harvesting is carried out in mid-August. In the middle lane there is a high risk of freezing of young shoots and buds.