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Fragrant strawberries in RussiaYish beds has become a real symbol of the coming summer. But to eat domestic berries in another season is unlikely to succeed. But in the trade rows all year round they offer products from Greece, Serbia, the countries of the north of Africa, the Mediterranean and Holland.
What technology of growing strawberries, even in areas where the climate is not mild and warm, gives such good results?
Features of the Dutch strawberry growing technology
In the middle lane, it is possible to speed up the ripening of the strawberry crop in the country with the help of greenhouses. But to get the berry in any season and almost without interruption is possible only under the condition:
- growing in heated greenhouses with adjustable temperature conditions;
- plant nutrition;
- create the proper mode of lighting and watering;
- competent selection of seedlings and maintain its stock to update the plantings.
It is in the Netherlands that this technology of growing strawberries in a greenhouse is most widely used. Local farmers supply most of Europe with a berry, and agricultural machinery based on the forcing out became known as Dutch.
The difficulties of growing strawberries throughout the year
Berry culture bears fruit when artificially lengthening the daylight and observing special temperature and humidity conditions. But to achieve a stable harvest will not work, if not less than once every two months, plant new bushes. That is, the technology of growing strawberries all year round assumes the presence of a serious stock of planting material. If large farms can purchase seedlings, then it is more profitable for summer residents to grow it independently.
The experience of European and Chinese farmers shows that strawberry bushes obtained in the warm season, waiting for the moment of landing in the ground, can be stored at zero temperature for up to 9 months. And if for reforming to use modern remontant varieties, then the planting will have to be updated only twice a year. To increase the yield of greenhouse areas, strawberries are actively grown not only in the ridges, but also in various containers, bags and vertical structures, using drip systems for irrigation.
Lighting in the greenhouse using the Dutch technology
Special attention when using the Dutch technology of growing strawberries in the greenhouse is given to additional lighting, the spectrum close to sunlight. The luminaires are placed a meter above the plantations, and to increase the lighting efficiency in the greenhouse, reflective materials are actively used.
Strawberry responds well to an increase in daylight hours to 12–16 hours:
- within 10 days the plants may bloom;
- fruiting will begin on the 35th day.
Additional lighting is effective in the morning and evening hours, but if the weather outside the greenhouse is overcast, the lamps can not be turned on.
The irrigation system using the strawberry growing technology in the greenhouse
The drip system provided for by this technology, whether surface or subsurface watering, prevents moisture from falling on the leaves and other parts of the plants, and all the water goes strictly for its intended purpose.
- It does not develop infections and diseases of the berry crop.
- Drip irrigation saves moisture and power of the gardener.
- Pre-heating irrigation water helps save energy and brings harvest closer.
- Through the irrigation system, you can make the necessary fertilizer and fertilizer for strawberries.
Since water comes under the roots, the soil does not become too wet and does not dry out. And the subsurface system contributes to additional aeration of the soil under the plantings.
Preparation of soil for strawberry seedlings
Intensive, fruiting plants throughout the year is impossible without nutrient-rich soil.
Dutch-based strawberry growing technology uses a variety of substrates.
In summer conditions, you can prepare a mixture of:
- loamy turf land, rich in organic matter, but having a slight acidity;
- moistened with a solution of urea sawdust added for looseness at the rate of seven parts per two parts of the ground;
- glass of wood ash, chalk or dolomite flour;
- lowland peat, well absorbing and retaining moisture, and before adding to the mixture soaked in a solution of blue vitriol and mullein;Humus
- from decomposition of organic residues or manure;
- river coarse sand, made in the amount of 10% of the volume of the prepared mixture.
Before filling the containers for planting strawberries, the substrate is well mixed, choosing foreign inclusions.
Microclimate in the greenhouse for the forcing of strawberries
The optimum, according to the technology of growing strawberries all year round, is the temperature range from 18 to 25 ºС.Only at the time of the mass emission of peduncles is it better to maintain the temperature up to 21 ºС.
- A low temperature inside the greenhouse can cause prolonged flowering and poor harvest.
- Excessively high background adversely affects the ability of plants to pollinate and set berries.
Extremely negatively strawberry bushes react to a drop in temperature below 12 degrees and its increase to 35 ºС.In the greenhouse, the air humidity should be maintained within 70–80%.If the air is dry, spraying is necessary. Excessive humidity is reduced by airing.
To speed up the growth of seedlings and bring fruit closer, experienced summer residents watch the level of carbon dioxide in the greenhouse. To increase it to 0.1%, you can light candles.
Growing planting material
Preparing planting material for growing greenhouse strawberries can be different:
- Young plants are grown in a uterine plantation until late autumn, and with the arrival of frosts, rooted mustaches are carefully dug out, cut the foliage and stored with an open root system in the graves, and they are kept with open root systems in the graves, and they are kept in the graveyards.temperature from 0 to +2 ºС.The day before planting in the greenhouse, seedlings are removed from storage for acclimatization and sorted. The advantage of this technology of growing strawberries is the root system developed by the seedlings, and the disadvantage is the need for large uterine plantings, which also need to be updated after two years.
- Seedlings, obtained by cassette method, are stored at a temperature from 0 to +1 ºС and 95% humidity in the form of young whiskers. Six weeks before transplanting into the greenhouse, they are removed and planted in small containers with nutrient soil. Capacity, while there is an intensive formation of roots, shade for 4 weeks. On the light of the same plants come on the fifth week, and the sixth - planted in the greenhouse.
Planting strawberries in the greenhouse
The Dutch technology of uninterrupted cultivation of fresh berries involves the use of a variety of containers for planting. It can be polypropylene pipes with cut holes, pots and plastic bags and containers.
The main thing is that containers placed vertically or in several tiers should have sufficient volume for the root system, and the plants should receive the required watering and lighting.
One of the practical solutions is a plastic bag, up to 2 meters high, so that picking the berries is simple and convenient, and with a diameter of at least 15 cm. After 25 cm, the cross-shaped slits are made in a staggered manner, where seedlings are planted.
When disembarking in boxes or containers, it is important that the plantation does not turn out to be thickened and well ventilated. This will prevent the development of a putrefactive infection and will positively affect the quality of the berry.
Strawberry cultivation technology all year round is good when using self-pollinating varieties of berries, otherwise the gardener will have to pollinate with a brush, fan or, if space allows, put a hive in the greenhouse.
Despite the apparent troublesomeness of such growing berries, the costs quickly pay off, because even in the cold season, up to 50 kg of fresh strawberries can be harvested from a square meter of greenhouse.