The times when the private house did not have basic amenities are long gone. Dacha plot and country cottage should please their owners with comfort. A well thought-out sewage device in a country house is a task that, with a competent approach, anyone, even a novice master, is able to implement.
Before proceeding with the development of the project, it is necessary to become familiar with the possible options for the organization autonomous system, select the type of sewage treatment plant, explore the subtleties of installation of internal and external sewer networks. Answers to all the questions identified are detailed in the article.
The content of the article:
- General Design Principles
- Variants of treatment facilities
The main stages of installation of domestic sewage
- Selection of necessary materials
- Installation of vertical risers
- Plumbing installation and connection
- Sewerage equipment
Laying of the external sewerage
- Photo example of the construction of sewer system
- Construction of a cleaning structure
- Laying of the pipeline to a septic tank
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
General Design Principles
Ideally, the system of drains should be laid at the design stage of the building. But the arrangement of the bathroom, capable of providing urban comfort, can be fully organized in the old building.
Well, if there is an opportunity to connect communications to a centralized village or city highway. In the absence of such, the problem will have to be solved by creating an autonomous sewage system.
The main stages of work in both variants when laying communications inside the building will be identical; the only difference is in the organization of waste disposal outside
The device of the independent sewerage includes two interdependent parts of the system:
- Intra-house system. Its components are water intakes and pipelines. If this is a two- or three-storey house, then the system includes a vertical riser with connected to it. by means of fittings horizontally laid pipes, which are connected to plumbing devices.
- Outdoor system It is presented horizontally laid under a certain slope of the pipeline. It receives wastewater from the house pipes and diverts them to an autonomous treatment plant or to a centralized highway.
When arranging the sewage system in a house under construction, installation of sanitary facilities and a kitchen should be designed in one part of the building, placing them closer to the wall, where the sewage system faces the street.
When designing wastewater disposal in a two-story building, to simplify installation and reduce the number of risers, place the sanitary facilities on top of each other (+)
There are two ways to discharge wastewater from the system: free-flow and pressure. The first option is more simple in execution. But in this case it is necessary to correctly calculate the angle of creation of the inclined plane of the pipes.
If the house is supposed to accommodate several bathrooms, having installed a complex sewage system, it will be necessary to use a powerful sewage pump. The installation of this unit will be relevant in the event that the area has no slope.
The main points to consider when planning an outdoor sewer:
- Landscape area. To ensure the unobstructed discharge of waste fluid, the cesspool or septic tank should be located at the lowest point of the site.
- Type of soil and groundwater level. From this parameter depends on the type of sewage treatment and the depth of the external pipeline.
- Area and location of the site. It is necessary to provide access for repair activities and access for ashenizational equipment.
When designing the internal sewage system, it should be borne in mind that horizontal pipes from the devices to the riser should be inclined.
According to the standards, pipes D 50 mm are inclined by 3 cm for each running meter; for pipes D 100-110 mm withstand a tilt angle of 2 cm for each running meter
On average, the length of the pipeline from the drain to the vertical riser is about 3 m. According to the standards, the the distant sanitary device can be removed from the riser by 5 m. The distance of the connection point from the toilet to the riser - 1m.
With the construction of domestic sewage can cope with their own hands:
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The sewage system in a country house is arranged without fail if the object is provided with independent water supply or connected to a centralized network.
Domestic sewage is a piping system to which sanitary fittings are connected.
To supply water to the faucets above the sinks, baths, showers installed water sockets. Water is supplied to the toilet tanks with rigid pipes or flexible hoses.
Both water supply pipes and water disposal pipes in a private house can be laid hidden in structures or openly on top of structures with or without plating.
It is more reasonable to arrange horizontal sites of the sewerage in overlapping. They can be laid both in wooden floors and in concrete, followed by pouring a leveling tie.
The toilet is connected to the sewer system according to the same rules as in city apartments.
To connect the release of plumbing to the entrance to the sewer apply corrugations or rigid pipes with corner bends
Both with concealed and open laying of sewage communications, plumbing equipment arranges the risers and connection points so that, if necessary, access to them is provided for repair.
Drainage device paired with water supply
Pipe system for plumbing
The device sockets for water supply
Stitching water supply pipes plasterboard
Filling sewer pipe coupler
Connecting the toilet to the release of sewers
Use of corrugated sewer pipe
Finishing the bathroom of a country house
Variants of treatment facilities
At arrangement of the autonomous sewerage when there is no opportunity to be connected to the centralized highway, it is possible one of three types of constructions:
- Cesspit - the most budget and simple version. You can implement it by creating a pit, the bottom and walls of which are lined with concrete rings, stone or building bricks. The only “minus” of the construction is the need for regular pumping out of the contents by using the auxiliary collecting equipment.
- Septic tank - more efficient construction, with the help of which it is possible not only to collect, but to clean the sewage by mechanical and biological means, making them suitable for technical purposes.
- Autonomous station - the best option, providing the highest possible degree of purification by a biological method, thanks to which water can be used again for technical needs. Due to the forced air supply, the aerobic bacteria living inside the tank quickly and efficiently decompose organic matter.
A conventional cesspool does not meet environmental requirements, since it creates the risk of sewage entering the ground. Because this option is chosen only for small country houses, intended for seasonal residence.
For year-round homes, it is better to install a multi-chamber septic tank or a local biological treatment station.
Can pick up a septic tank, or to build their own. It can be of one, two or three-chamber execution.
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The choice of the type of sewage treatment plant for an autonomous sewage system depends on the geological conditions of the site, the type and total volume of wastewater it receives.
The simplest design option for small families is an airtight concrete well, from which drains are pumped out as they accumulate.
The two-chamber septic tank is designed for a family of 3-5 people. The wastewater discharged into it is partially settled, treated waste water is poured into the second chamber through the overflow pipe. From the second chamber, the bottom of which is composed of a soil filter, the wastewater is disposed of into the underlying rocks.
The more wells in the autonomous septic system, the higher the wastewater treatment. In addition, multi-chamber buildings are much less likely to require pumping of insoluble sludge. In the three-chamber septic tanks there are two chambers with a hermetic bottom, the third one - with a soil filter
The device of septic tanks with chambers, instead of the standard bottom of which a soil filter is arranged, is possible if the septic tank is installed in rocks with high filtration properties: sand, gravel, and gravel. If the bottom of the treatment plant is buried in sandy loam, clay, loam, then the discharge of purified water is impossible
If the collection of purified water in the underlying soil is not possible, for storage and treatment of wastewater establish storage devices or stations for deep biological treatment. From the first, drains are pumped out; from the second, they are dumped onto the relief, since stations purify water at 95-98%
Multi-chamber septic tank or storage of household waste can be purchased in finished form. Construction delivers to the site and installs construction equipment.
It is more convenient and practical to pour a cleansing station for recycling household waste at the site by building a formwork from the board for this purpose. This is a long and laborious process, but significantly less reflected in the family budget.
Private House Treatment Facilities
Single chamber cesspool of concrete rings
Sinkhole with overflow
Three-chamber septic tank of concrete rings
Ditch for the device of a septic tank or store
Tight plastic capacity - the store
Concrete septic tank factory casting
Self-pouring concrete structures
Initially, the cleaning of the fluid inside the walls occurs due to delamination and precipitation. Then the destruction of solids present in it is due to the vital activity of aerobic bacteria.
The task of the owner is to remove the silt settled on the walls of the well as it accumulates.
In any case, the first chamber of the structure should be a sealed drive, inside of which liquid settling takes place, the second section for tertiary treatment may have perforated walls
The easiest option is to purchase a finished product made of ultrastrong polymer. You can make a septic tank yourself by pouring concrete into the formwork or by erecting brick or masonry.
Want to simplify your task? Use 3-4 concrete ringswhose value in the market is not high.
The volume of the septic tank is calculated on the basis of the fact that there are 200 liters of waste per day per household. The capacity of the sewage treatment plant should be no less than the total three-day volume of wastewater.
For arranging a sewage treatment plant that does not need regular pumping of wastewater, it is recommended to install a filtration well together with a septic tank.
An important point! The use of a filtration well is possible only under the condition that the site has a low groundwater level.
On clay soils and with a high GWL, it is better to place a biofilter or install an elevated filter cassette.
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Absorbing wells arrange on soils with high filtration capacity. The water of storm and drainage systems discharged into the well, purified wastewater from septic tanks is absorbed into the underlying soil, passing through an after-treatment filter with a soil filter
If the geological structure of the site is dominated by clayey rocks (sandy loam, loam) or a groundwater mirror is noted 3 m from the surface, a filtration field is constructed instead of an absorbing well. Minus option: occupies a lot of usable space
The function of the filtering field will be successfully fulfilled by its improved version - the infiltrator. The truth will cost this type of tertiary treatment more expensive than absorbing well or filtration field
The easiest and cheapest way to dispose of waste water is to discharge it into a drainage ditch located outside the site.
Absorbing well for purified water
Filtration field in areas with high GWL
System of infiltrators for purification
Gutter for wastewater disposal
The main stages of installation of domestic sewage
To correctly calculate the required amount of materials and prevent errors during installation, you should order a project.
Are you sure that you will be able to perform the calculations yourself, taking into account the requirements of building codes, and you want to save an item of expenses? Then limit yourself to drawing up the scheme of the sewage system.
The designed sewer pipe system should be as simple as possible, because the free running of the drain (+) directly depends on this
You can design the system in a computer program, or by completing all the calculations and drawings manually.
Selection of necessary materials
At arrangement both the external, and internal sewerage most often involve the polyvinyl chloride or polypropylene pipes.
Polymer pipes are inexpensive at the cost, easy to transport and as simple as possible to install because the assembly of the welding machine is not required to assemble the pipeline
Diameter of waste domestic sewage pipes must be larger than the size of the installed drain connections.
The section of pipes used for the construction of the riser, provided that it will be connected to the toilet, should be 100 mm. The size of the fun pipe is similar to the diameter of the riser. The liner is supplied with pipes D 50 mm.
It is convenient to use a corrugation for external communications. It ensures the reliability of the system during seasonal movements of the ground, but due to the presence of corrugation ribs it is not subject to deformation.
In addition to pipes for the arrangement of sewage will also require:
- knees of various configurations for forming corners;
- triple and quadruple fittings for branching systems;
- transition sleeves for joining elements of different diameters;
- inspection hatches for the possibility of cleaning the system at different sites;
- sets of rubber seals.
To cut pipes to size and create chamfers at their ends, you need a "cutting" saw for plastic and a sharp knife. For the treatment of the joints in advance, prepare a sealant.
Installation of vertical risers
Installation of internal sewage start with the installation of vertical risers. They are laid from the basement to the roof, passing through the interfloor overlap. Attach underwater pipes to the installed riser through oblique tees.
In the lower part of the sewer risers passing through the floors, revision hatches are installed through which later blockages can be removed as needed.
The riser with the horizontal pipes connected to it is lowered to the level of the basement or basement. There, external pipes attached to the building through a hole in the foundation are attached to it.
In order to minimize damage to the pipe under the action of pressure by the walls of the building, a metal or concrete sleeve is installed in the place of its laying.
It should pass through the base of the building, speaking on both sides by 15 cm. The diameter of the liner must exceed the size of the external sewer pipe.
If the discharge pipe is mounted in an unheated room, it must be insulated using fibrous materials or foam shells
Insulation and lay in the cavity of the sleeve, filling the voids formed after laying the discharge pipe. It will reduce the likelihood of freezing and prevent the tube from loosening inside the liner.
At the final stage after connecting the paved pipes to create noise and waterproofing the layers of the risers are closed with a screen made of moisture resistant drywall and wrapped with roll cuts materials.
Plumbing installation and connection
First thing connect toilets, after which - all other devices. To negate the likelihood of waste fluid in plums plumbing fixtures, it is better to connect above the point of the toilet. At one tap allowed several plumbing fixtures.
Horizontal piping can be placed under the ceiling or lay the outer way, decorating a little later facing material
When laying the pipeline, if it becomes necessary to turn the pipe 90 ° to reduce pressure in the system and to prevent the formation of blockages; smooth. For this purpose, set 3 knees, each angle of 30 ° or 2 knees with an angle of 45 °.
In case there is no possibility to create “soft corners”, after a sharp bend it is recommended to place a tee equipped with a lid. Through it, you can clear the possible blockages.
Pipes of smaller diameter dock with larger elements by means of adapters.
Attach the pipe to the surface with clamps, and at the tie-in points in the riser and branch points by installing additional fasteners
Each sanitary device is attached to the sewer pipeline through a U-shaped siphon, the main purpose of which is to form a water trap. It will act as a barrier that prevents the spread of fetid odors from the sewer into the room.
Water masses drastically drained from the same toilet bowl, as they move along the pipe, form an area of discharged space behind them.
If you do not ensure the forced flow of air into the system, then after the flows, the water from the siphons begins to “leave”. As a result, unpleasant odors appear. Solve the problem can only be through the construction of ventilation.
To ensure ventilation of the system, the riser pipes extend to the roof level, leaving the upper end open (but protected from precipitation) (+)
For ventilation arrangements It is also possible to mount an aeration valve at the top of the riser. It will provide access to air flow, thereby preventing the discharge of air in the pipe.
Laying of the external sewerage
Construction of the external sewage system is also divided into two main stages: the construction of a sewage treatment plant and the laying of a pipeline. When performing each of them should take into account a number of points.
Photo example of the construction of sewer system
In order to get a visual idea of the process of building the outer part of the autonomous sewage system, we suggest you to familiarize yourself with the stages of the works presented in the photo:
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For full processing of sewage with subsequent disposal in the ground we buy a sewage station
Choose a place on the site for the location of the sewer station. We take into account the manufacturer's recommendations in this matter, usually the minimum distance from the foundation is 5 or more meters.
Inside the house, if necessary, develop a route for laying a sewer pipe to the outlet of the internal sewage system from the house
Trenches for laying sewer pipes both within the foundation and outside with a rammer and form a slope in the direction of the flow to ensure free movement of the waste mass
To install a sewage station, we develop a pit, the depth of which takes into account the leveling of the bottom and the pouring of the concrete slab, if necessary.
The land collapsed during development is removed, the bottom is leveled, ramming and we fill in a 10 cm concrete slab
At the point where the sewage is out of the house, we drill a hole with a boring machine using a crown for drilling concrete
Upon completion of drilling, we extract the concrete core from the hole in which the sewer pipe will pass. We put in it a wadded insulation and put a sleeve that will ensure the free passage of the pipe and protect the insulation from crushing
Stage 1: Purchase and delivery of sewer station
Stage 2: Trench Development to Installation Site
Stage 3: Preparation of the road for the withdrawal of sewage to the street
Stage 4: Deviation device towards the drain
Stage 5: Development of the pit for the installation of the station
Step 6: Leveling the bottom of the pit under the treatment plant
Stage 7: Drilling a foundation with a diamond-drilled drill
Stage 8: Core recovery from the foundation of the house
The preparatory work has been successfully completed, now we proceed to the direct assembly of the system, the installation and connection of the sewage treatment plant, as well as the arrangement of the site:
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After at least 14 days after pouring the slab at the bottom of the excavation, we install a sewage station on it. In areas with a high groundwater level, anchor the equipment - fasten it to the slab with a cable
We lay a sewer pipe, starting from an exit from the house, moving ahead to station. Laying is controlled by the level, if necessary, adjust the slope. Next we conduct a power cable in a corrugated pipe
We test the tightness and proper installation of the system, pouring a couple of buckets of water into the toilet. If everything is in order, fill the trench with a pipe and cable rolled out in the development of soil
In order to speed up the work, the partially filled trench is being refined on an excavator, which at the same time will level the area
We plunge a sewer pipe upon a sewer station case. Entering the pipe is welded using a polymer cord, then we process it carefully with a sealant
Using a plastic corner tap, we connect a ventilation pipe to the station, the upper edge of which should end up above ground level.
We install filters and modules into the sewage station with aerobic bacteria that produce disinfection and the highest possible wastewater treatment
Pit around the sewage treatment plant in layers filled with sand, gently ramming each layer of backfill. If the house has small children and animals, arrange a fence around its hatch.
Stage 9: Installing the sewage station in the pit
Stage 10: Laying of sewage and electric cable
Stage 10: Filling the trench with the laid communications
Stage 12: Leveling the site with an excavator
Step 13: Connect the sewer pipe to the station
Step 14: Connect the vent pipe
Step 15: Install modules with aerobic bacteria
Step 16: Construction of the site around the sewage station
Construction of a cleaning structure
First of all, dig a pit for the installation of a septic tank. The minimum distance between the residential building and the cleaning structure is 5 m, the maximum is 20 m. The best option is 10 m.
If the area of the site is limited and the septic tank has to be located in the immediate vicinity of the source of drinking water, it is better to build a multi-stage cleaning system
Having decided on the location of the septic tank, they dig a pit with a depth of 2.5-3 m. Its dimensions depend on the dimensions of the building.
The size of the septic tank depends on how many households live in the cottage and how often they use the plumbing. So, for the construction of a septic tank made of concrete rings, for a company of 4 people, the installation of a three-ring construction measuring 1 * 1.5 m is quite enough.
If sewage is carried out in the country, where the family gathers from time to time, 2 D 1000 mm rings will suffice.
The bottom of the pit is leveled and lined with a sand "pillow", making it 150-200 mm thick.
To create a reliable and hermetic base, the bottom of the pit is poured with cement mortar, forming a screed with a thickness of 150-200 mm
After 4-5 days, when the concrete acquires the desired strength, the walls of the septic tank are erected, by placing concrete rings on each other or laying bricks in rows. When installing the finished container, it is important to ensure its reliable fixing by attaching it to the concrete floor with cables.
An important point! From the edges of the pit to the walls of the tank there should be a distance of 100-150 mm. After the construction of the construction of the void will need to fall asleep with clay, mixed with broken brick.
From the septic tank vent vent. According to the norms, its upper end should rise above the ground at a height of 80-100 cm. To protect precipitation and small debris from entering the ventilation, the upper end of the vertical drainage is equipped with a “mushroom”.
In the upper part of the tank wall, using a perforator or a grinder, make a hole for the installation of a sewer pipe running from the house.
On top of the septic tank "set up" a concrete cover, equipped with a hole for the hatch.
Technology installation of the filtering well not much different from the device septic tank. In order for the treated sewage to be easily absorbed into the soil in a natural way, the walls of the well may consist of concrete rings with perforation or built by means of brickwork.
To create a drainage cushion, the bottom is covered with a meter layer of gravel or rubble.
Laying of the pipeline to a septic tank
To the location of the sewage treatment structure, a ditch is laid under the laying of the supply pipe. This can be done manually or by renting special equipment.
For laying the outer pipeline choose polymer pipes with a diameter of 110 mm, which do not enter into chemical reactions with organic matter and water.
Work on laying the outer pipeline is performed in the following sequence:
- Dig a trench. Its depth should be below the level of soil freezing. In determining the width of the ditch, it is important to consider that the exhaust pipe will need to be further warmed.
- Arrange a “pillow”. The bottom of the trench is tamped and lined with a sand layer, making a slope of 2-3% in the direction of the sewage treatment plant. So for a pipe with a length of 10 meters, the slope between the top and bottom point will be 20-30 cm.
- Laid pipes, having the flares down. When assembled into a single structure, the elements are joined with a special glue. For greater reliability, the composition is applied to the ends of both matched elements.
- Mount inspection hatches at the point of connection to the house and on the turns of the pipeline.
- Connect elements of sewage. Pipe lead to the hole in the wall of the septic tank. The place of the joint from the outside is smeared with cement mortar.
If in your region the level of soil freezing reaches about 2 meters and the deepening of the external pipeline to such a mark does not seem appropriate, it must be carefully warmed.
An excellent solution in this case would be an option when the plastic pipe is placed inside the cast iron, and the layer between them is insulation. Some owners use for this purpose heating cord.
To reduce the likelihood of leaks, it is important to strictly adhere to the recommendations prescribed by the manufacturer (+) when sawing and joining elements of a plastic pipe.
To protect the inside sewage system from sewage from outside, as well as rodents from entering the house through pipes, it is recommended to install a non-return valve at the pipe outlet from the house.
When laying the outer pipeline should be avoided difficult turns and right angles. At the turning points of the pipe it is better to equip inspection hatches.
When all the pipes have been laid and connected to check the correct operation of the system and the tightness of the structure, it remains only to perform the first water run.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Useful video clips to help you quickly install a septic tank, piping, and plumbing fixtures.
Device house system:
How to lay the pipeline:
Option of arrangement of a septic tank:
Competently doing the design, you will ensure the smooth operation of the autonomous system and create comfort in a country house. And having correctly carried out the installation, you will protect yourself from additional troubles for system maintenance and repairs.
Do you have personal experience in designing and arranging sewage in a country house? Want to share your knowledge or ask questions about a topic? Please leave comments and participate in discussions - the form for reviews is below.