In Russia, currants of any kind can be cultivated on almost any plot. Of course, it requires a certain fertility of the soil, but, as a rule, most varieties are not demanding on fertility, but still need to be cared for. How to care for currants? How currant of different types of demanding moisture? How to fertilize it so that it gives a good harvest?
- On which soils the black currant or red
- grows best What fertility do I need to put on my brainthe culture in the arid regions of the Kuban without irrigation does not grow well, does not give good yields. Demanding it to the humidity of the air, does not tolerate heat, dry winds. During the growing season it is necessary to carry out 4-6 irrigations, and during the dry and hot summer - at least eight. Watering is especially needed in July and August. In these months, if necessary, watering is carried out 1-2 times a week for 40-60 liters under a bush.
Red currant is less demanding on moisture, because its roots are more powerful, lie deeper and wider, go beyond the crown more than a meter.It easily tolerates moisture deficiency in the soil. However, in the Kuban, it grows better and bears fruit with irrigation. It, like the black one, needs to be watered, but taking into account the soil moisture. It reacts negatively to waterlogging.
In July-August, the buds are laying and forming flower buds, so the plants consume a lot of moisture. During these months, the Kuban is particularly hot, and little precipitation falls. With a deficit of moisture, the heat stops the growth of young shoots. The root system works poorly, oppressed by dryness, overheating of the soil. Nutrients from the soil are not digested by the roots. Berries of late varieties shallow, may fall to their collection. Bookmark and the formation of flower buds takes place under adverse conditions for the bushes.
Mulching of the soil under the bushes after watering helps keep the soil moist for longer, reduces overheating of the soil, keeps the root system from drying out, suppresses the growth of weeds, the spread of some pests.↑ to content ↑
On which soils black currant grows better or red
Regardless of the fact that black currant is a moisture-loving culture, it does not like flooding, prolonged over-wetting of the soil. In such places, the bushes grow poorly, quickly grow old and die. You should not place currants in flooded lowlands or make shafts there, barrows - plant bushes on them.
Black currant grows well on floodplain lands, along rivers, streams, on black soil, clay and loamy, but does not grow well on sandy soils without making large doses of organic fertilizers. Unsuitable for her marshy, saline, acidic soil. The bushes on them are oppressed, grow poorly, sharply reduce yields, are more affected by diseases and pests.
Red currant is quite unpretentious, it can be grown on various soils. It is well tolerated with soil salinization. Worse grows on heavy soils, does not tolerate soil moisture.содерж to content ↑
What fertilizers are needed for currants
Black currants are very demanding on nutrients, need fertile soil, organic, mineral fertilizers, like plenty of proper nutrition. It more positively than other crops reacts to fertilization: the yield increases, the size of berries increases, their quality improves.
At the same time, when applying fertilizers, it is necessary to take into account the biological characteristics of currants in the consumption of various nutrients, both in their mass and in the periods of vegetative phases.
The fertilizer system should take into account the peculiarities of the Kuban climate, provide practical opportunity for gardeners to properly manage the growth and fruiting of the bushes, increase their resistance to drought, heat, diseases, and pests.содерж to contents ↑
The importance of phosphate fertilizers
Black currant is considered a phosphate plant. This means that it bears good fruit on soils highly supplied with phosphorus, when superphosphate or other readily soluble phosphate fertilizers are added to it. Especially necessary for currants and phosphorus works well in hot, dry weather. This need falls on the Kuban in the July-August months.
It is also necessary to take into account the fact that currants use sparingly insoluble phosphates from the soil poorly. And the water-soluble phosphorus compounds applied in fertilizers easily transform in the soil into insoluble and insoluble forms. The annual phosphoric nutrition of the bushes with freshly dissolved phosphate fertilizers accelerates their development, especially the growth of the root system, increases the fruiting, improves the quality of the berries. With a lack of readily soluble digestible phosphorus in the soil, little buds are formed on the currant shoots, the berries are crushed, the yield is reduced, the leaves and shoots are more affected by spotting, powdery mildew or other diseases, pests, especially aphids, gall midges, mites.
The main feature of fertilizer use for currants in the Kuban region is to prevent phosphorus starvation of the bushes. Phosphorus starvation of bushes is one of the reasons for the low yields of currants in many gardeners.↑ to content ↑
Nitrogen fertilizers for currants
The growth of bushes, currant harvest is well influenced by nitrogen fertilizers. With a lack of nitrogen in the soil, the growth of shoots is delayed, the flowering is weak, the berries become shallow. However, increasing the dose of nitrogen fertilizers for currants is effective only on a high background of phosphorus and potassium. With simultaneous simultaneous introduction of nitrogen with low availability of soil with phosphorus and potassium, young shoots grow rapidly, but become thin, with long internodes, brittle. The content of amino acids increases in their cell sap, which contributes to more intensive development of powdery mildew, faster colonization of aphids and mites on young shoots and leaves. Cellular juice with a high content of amino acids is very tasty for pests, they quickly multiply with abundant nutrition, which we ourselves have created for them.↑ to content ↑
The yield of currants is very positively affected by potassium, calcium and trace elements
Potassium is one of the most important nutrients of currants. Optimal potash nutrition of currants contributes to a better maturation of shoots and buds, an increase in winter hardiness, drought and heat resistance of bushes, their resistance to fungal diseases, an increase in the sugar content of berries. However, currant reacts negatively to potassium fertilizers containing chlorine. The introduction of potassium chloride during the growing season causes burns on the currants. It should be made in the fall after falling leaves under the loosening of the soil so that the chlorine over the winter washed into the deep layers of the soil. During the growing season it is effective to add potassium sulfate, which does not contain chlorine.
Currant reacts particularly well to the introduction of 1-2 kg of ash under the shrub in the fall under loosening the soil. It contains phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and trace elements.↑ to the content ↑
When to apply fertilizer for currants
During the growing season for currants, there are two maxima in the consumption of nutrients that must be considered when applying for it fertilizers. This is spring-summer and summer-autumn.
In the spring-summer period there is an active growth of the root system, then flowering, the growth of berries, the maximum growth of all young shoots. During this period, the bushes consume large amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and other elements.
After the harvest, in July, the second maximum of root growth begins, the plant creates a supply of nutrients in the roots and shoots, the formation of buds takes place, the harvest of the next year.
In accordance with these periods of maximum nutrient intake, it is necessary to build a currant fertilizer system, taking into account soil fertility at each of them.
On floodplain loamy relatively poor soils, we apply a year under one bush:
- organic fertilizers - 6-8 kg,
- ammonium nitrate - 70 g,
- of potassium salt or potassium chloride 25-30 g,
- sometimes 1 kg of ash.
Nitrogen fertilizers are applied during the growing season in three terms:
- in early spring during the budding period,
- after flowering,
- during intensive growth of berries with 15-25 g of ammonium nitrate under each shrub.
Most often nitrogen fertilizers are applied with phosphate and potash fertilizers or we use a complex fertilizer - nitroammofosku. We carry out 4-5 fertilizing, we bring in with irrigation water dissolved nitroammofosku 25-30 g per bush.
After harvesting, since July, we basically exclude nitrogen fertilizers from top dressing. At this time, the growth of the shoots is completed - the period of their maturation, laying and formation of buds has come, and for these purposes mainly phosphate and potash fertilizers are needed.
In July-August, 20-25 g of superphosphate and 15 g of potassium sulfate are added to the dressings under a bush with irrigation water. We spend them in 12-15 days.
In order to increase the resistance of the bushes to powdery mildew, smol, sugar accumulation in berries, the best formation of buds on the shoots, during the growing season of currant we spend 3-4 foliar feeding with a solution of potassium permanganate 3 g + 50 g of potassium sulfate per 10 liters of water. Spray the bushes in the evening.
In the balance of applied fertilizers we do not allow the excess of nitrogen fertilizers. We make them at the right time for the plants, in the required doses, this must be done on a high background of phosphorus and potassium. This ensures a good growth of strong young shoots, tying, the formation of strong buds, good harvest, good resistance to diseases, pests, of course, in conjunction with other agro-activities.
Red currant, as well as black, does not tolerate chlorine, it is better to add potassium sulfate, ash, and other non-chlorine fertilizers to it. The rest of the fertilizer under it is brought in the same way as under the black currant.
D.G.Sobolev "Niva Kuban" - 2003