Water heater repair their own hands: simple ways to recovery

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Electric boiler - an effective solution to the problem of hot water supply for private houses. Such equipment, however, like any other, breaks periodically.

If desired, you can repair the water heater with your hands, provided that the failure is simple. But serious breakages will have to remove the service center.

In this article, we analyze common types of failures and give recommendations for their elimination, which will handle the repair of any more or less experienced master.

The content of the article:

  • The principle of operation of the heater
  • Common faults and repair methods
    • Problem # 1 - Failure of PETN
    • Problem # 2 - thermostat failure
    • Problem # 3 - Failure of the control board
    • Problem # 4 - tank leak
  • Recommendations for repair at home
  • The basic rules appliance service
  • Conclusions and useful videos on the topic

The principle of operation of the heater

To minimize problems with the instrument, should examine its structure and principles of operation. Commonly used in private households does not flow, and

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storage modelWhich allow you to use electricity more efficiently. Such a device consists of a tank-exchanger, which is installed inside the heating element - heating element connected to the power supply.

An important part of the device - the thermostat. This element allows to maintain a constant water temperature inside the drive. The water comes through the pipes to the heat exchanger. If the temperature is too low (and since it is usually the case), the thermostat signals and includes a heater.

The water is heated until it reaches the desired temperature. After that the thermostat is triggered again and turns off the heating element. Hot water is taken from the tank and replaced by cold, a heating process repeats again and again. It is a general diagram of the device and operation of conventional water heater.

Apparatus storage water heater

The storage device water-heating devices is not too difficult. The most vulnerable elements such device - the tank, heater, thermostat and gasket

Also popular among consumers flowing water heatersWhich are represented on the market in a wide range. Such models are arranged somewhat differently. They heat the volume of water is not static, but flux. They use a more powerful heating elements which start to operate when the water is turned on and stopped when it is turned off.

To further explore the work and the device specific model, you need to carefully get to know its accompanying technical documentation.

The tank heater is a solid stainless steel container with a thickness one or two millimeters. Whatever the material is resistant to corrosion, though these processes are periodically appear and develop, which leads to water leakage from the device. One of the common causes of failures - elektrokorrozii.

Apparatus instantaneous water heater

Instantaneous water heaters are usually broken for the same reasons as the storage model. Diagnosis and repair of such devices is carried out by methods similar

To prevent it, you need to regularly, ie annually replace mounted within the magnesium anode. This element is designed precisely to prevent galvanic corrosion. Over time it wears and owners of storage tanks overlook this important replacement parts.

As a result, the tank regularly serves some time, suddenly he begins to flow. Invalid state magnesium anode may also reflect on the state of PETN. Outside storage tank is typically enclosed in a housing made of metal or plastic, as well as it has a heat insulating sheath, which prevents heat loss.

Cleaning the water heater

Regular cleaning of the inner cylinder and the heating element from dirt and scale, as well as the replacement of the magnesium anode will decrease the likelihood of breakdowns

Damage to the outer sheath and insulation are rare, usually happens due to careless handling of the device. Cracks and chips on the heater body can not break it work, but it will lead to a deterioration in heat insulation properties, and have a negative impact on the functioning of the instrument as a whole.

Pipes for input and output of cold water - hot usually not cause any problems if installation of the storage or flow Heater made correctly.

Schematic diagram of domestic water heater device

Electric household water heater circuit of the device will perform repairs properly, which usually consists of replacing the damaged items

Usually water heater is equipped with two thermostats, one of which is designed to control the water temperature, and the second monitors the state of the first device.

Sometimes using a third thermostat that determines the good order of PETN. In any case, a broken thermostat will have to be completely replaced. Distinguish capillary, stem and electronic types of thermostats. The design is different, but the principle of their operation is similar.

The insulating spacer serves not only to seal the heater element compound, it is also necessary as an electrical insulator. This element replacement is recommended routinely at every service water heating device.

Thermostat shows to what temperature it is water heated in the appliance. If this element fails, water heater still will carry out his functions, although the degree of heating of the data will not arrive.

Common faults and repair methods

Next, consider the most common problems with the water heater and present ways to repair at each of the breakdowns.

Problem # 1 - Failure of PETN

Faulty heating element - a characteristic problem for the flow, and storage water heaters. This element works under high load and thus wear out quickly. If the power supply is connected, but the water in the tank is heated, most likely the problem was due to the TAN.

Replacing the heating element of the heater

TEN should be removed from the tank with caution, especially if a significant amount of scale has accumulated on its surface. Abrupt movements may cause deformation and breakage of some elements

To begin, you should check whether the electricity is supplied to the heating element and thermostat. The connection points of the cable tester check for voltage.

If voltage is not present, you may need to replace the cable itself, or check whether the electricity is switched off throughout the house.

types of thermal relays

Regardless of the model type on each thermostat has a power button. When pressed, the device is turned on, and when disconnecting the button returns to the original position

If electricity is available and the cable is OK, the problem arose with the TAN, which have to be replaced, or the thermostat. To understand what went wrong, you need to remove the thermostat and check the tester.

Testing serviceability PETN is as follows. First, the scale measuring device to expose interval 220-250 V. Then measure the resistance at the terminals connecting the heating element to the mains.

If voltage is present, disconnect the heater from the mains and check the potential at the terminals of the heating element. The lack of reaction of the tester indicates that the device is defective. If the reaction is, we need to continue the diagnosis.

First disconnect power from the water heater. Then, the heating element is disconnected from the thermostat so that the heating element contacts were not isolated.

These contacts are applied tester and watch the reaction. If it is - TEN serviceable, if not - you substitute TAN. It does not matter what kind of numbers gives the tester, it is important only the presence or absence of the reaction.

These methods for determining faults are suitable for the storage of electric water heaters, and for the flow type models.

Tester for the diagnosis of the water heater

To determine the serviceability of PETN and thermostat used elektrotester. Typically, the presence of voltage at the terminals indicates the health of the element, and its absence - of the need to repair

Problem # 2 - thermostat failure

To check the serviceability of the thermostat removed from the water heater, you need to install the control knob to maximum and make measurement of the input and output device. If the needle of the tester remains calm, ie its position is not changed, it means that the thermostat is faulty and needs to be replaced.

If the arrow is rejected, it is necessary to continue testing. Now it is necessary to set the thermostat minimum position and attach the probes on the tester contacts. Alone continue diagnosis will not be easy, will have to fix the probes, or ask someone to hold them for a while in the correct position.

After that, you need to take a lighter and heat the tip of the temperature sensor. If thermostat works, the chain will open, and on the scale of resistance tester dramatically go down, the thermostat can also be considered serviceable. If the system does not react to heat, then this element is broken and needs to be completely replaced.

Sometimes the water heater may stop working because of the operation safety valve as a result of dangerous overheating. Enough to properly adjust operation of the instrument, he began to work as usual.

Dismantling the heater

First we need to unfasten the fasteners heaters and thermostat (red arrows) and then spun screw (green arrow) and nuts (blue arrows. Thermostat circled yellow line

Problem # 3 - Failure of the control board

If it is determined that heater, and thermostat are good, most likely, problems have arisen with the control board. Repair at home such an element is almost impossible.

Need to replace the new, it will have to take the help of a specialist who can help set up electronic equipment. Most often, you just need to contact the service center, where the desired pick up the item, and set correctly.

Replacing the heating element of the heater

Typically, the heating element is secured by means of six bolts and nuts (marked with red pointers). When reassembling recommended tighten them evenly

Problem # 4 - tank leak

Leakage of the tank - a serious problem, which is to fix yourself is not always possible. Some models will have to be replaced or the tank, or the entire heater.

Sometimes you can solder a leaking place, but one should take care of restoring the integrity of the outer shell and the thermal insulation layer. Typically, these measures are insufficient and short-lived, soon leak occurs again.

Leaking water heater tank

If the water flows from the places designated by the pointer in black, you probably need to replace the gasket or PETN, with red pointers marked the spot leaks in case of damage of inner tank

water heater tank is most often occurs when:

  • damage occurred inner tub;
  • deteriorated heating element;
  • sprung a leak gasket.

If the water flows into the attachment point of the heating element may actually repair the tank and do not have to. At this point, establish a special gasket, it can be caused by a leak of its damage. Replace the gasket and thus solve the problem.

Leaking water heater tank usually occurs because of neglect or untimely maintenance, which also includes the replacement of the magnesium anode. Another common problem - the lack of grounding. It can also lead to the development of corrosion processes and the emergence of a leak.

Replacing a water heater pads

If you need to replace the gasket, it should pick up a new exact same size and shape and made of suitable materials

If you need to replace the gasket or TEN, the best first remove the defective item to take it with you and find the exact analogue. Acquisition of parts "by eye" can lead to unnecessary costs. Perform this replacement is relatively difficult.

But if problems arose with the tank have at least contact the service center. Immediately necessary to find the documents on the water heater and to clarify the terms of the warranty and service terms.

Repair of the water heater

Before starting repair or cleaning of the heater, remove the protective cover, which can be located at the bottom, in the middle or on the side

Recommendations for repair at home

Regardless of the nature of the damage before repairs you must first turn off the power, remove the protective cover, disconnect the wires, pipes and drain the water.

Wall models are usually removed from the brackets. Protective cover that hides the place of connection of cables and fixing the heating elements can have different positions depending on the model.

In such devices, horizontal type element is typically left on the vertical heaters - at the bottom, and in models of small size - ahead. In some devices, you must first unscrew the main fixing bolt is located in the center. Sometimes the item is hidden under a decorative sticker.

Then you need to gently remove the thermostat, and then remove the tube temperature sensor. They must be handled very carefully. If the integrity of the thermal sensor tube is broken, they will emerge from the liquid vehicle. As a result, the water heater will have to just throw away and buy a new device.

duct temperature sensors

Dedicated blue line duct temperature sensors must be protected from any deforming impact during their break will have to completely replace the entire device

Replacing the thermostat

If the thermostat Domestic water heater fell into disrepair, it will have to be completely replaced. Models such devices are varied, it is best to choose the analog device with the same characteristics and

If the body has adhesive labels on which the serial number is specified, they must be maintained, even if it interferes with the maintenance and repair of the product. This may affect the performance of the manufacturer warranty, as well as to facilitate the work of the service center staff.

The basic rules appliance service

For a long and trouble-free operation of the heater it is important to observe its operating rules and service. Otherwise, failure is inevitable.

The fact that the devices have a problem, may indicate some changes in its mode of operation:

  • increasing the water heating time to a predetermined temperature;
  • the appearance of unusual sounds, accompanying the operation of the device;
  • occurrence of impurities in tap water, changing its color, odor or taste.

If there is at least one of these symptoms, you should immediately carry out cleaning of the heater.

It will have to perform the following operations:

  1. Disconnect the appliance from the power supply.
  2. Remove the protective cover.
  3. Disconnect electric wires contact.
  4. Close the delivery of cold water.
  5. Use the hose from the tank to remove the remaining water.
  6. Unscrew the bolts that hold the heating element.
  7. Remove the heater and clean it from scale.
  8. Clean the inside of the drive from dirt and scale particles.
  9. Thoroughly rinse the device.
  10. Check the serviceability of the magnesium anode.
  11. If you want to immediately replace the element.
  12. Wait for the complete drying of the cleaned tank.
  13. Fit the heater.
  14. Perform reassembly device.
  15. Check the tightness of all fasteners.
  16. Connect the water heater to the power supply.
  17. Check availability Ground.

TAN of the tank should be removed carefully, the bolts may be too intractable and sometimes difficult to remove the heating element due to too large scale layer.

Purification of PETN operate by mechanical or chemical means as well as the removal of dirt from the tank. If the device detected a large amount of scale, you should consider revising the operating mode of the heater.

This phenomenon is often observed when the unit is used continuously at maximum capacity. It is recommended to set the maximum heating temperature is not higher than 60 degrees, to increase the period of operation of the device and reduce the number of breakdowns.

If the housing has a heater current may have occurred deformation and rupture of PETN or are breakdown in the control system.

Conclusions and useful videos on the topic

A detailed video on the diagnosis status, maintenance, and self-repair of household water heaters can be viewed here:

Repair the water heater is not so difficult when it comes to replacing some of its elements. In case of serious damage would be wise to contact a qualified service center. The correct use of the instrument and its timely maintenance will save a lot of trouble and expense.

You are a long time doing repair water heaters and want to supplement our material helpful hints and tips to eliminate various types of failures? Or the first time you have encountered a failure and can not find the cause? Write your comments, ask questions, share your thoughts at the bottom below the article.

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