Pave the wiring in two ways - open and closed. In the first case, communication masked, and the probability of damage is minimal. Installation of outdoor wiring is easier, cheaper and less time-consuming, but necessary to protect the cable from moisture and mechanical damage.
In this article we consider the existing methods of laying electric wires, focusing on the features of the external wiring and give recommendations on how to choose the appropriate option.
The content of the article:
- What do they think about the electrical wiring open?
- Features external laying electric cables
Ways to open wiring
- Method 1 - installation of wires in the brackets
- Method 2 - especially in stacking pipes
- Method 3 - laying in conduits
- 10 common mistakes linemen
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
What do they think about the electrical wiring open?
Cons have an open (external) wiring is much more than the hidden (internal).
Cables, closed plaster, not damaged, do not interfere with the repair and totally invisible. Open wiring devoid of such advantages, and in case of a short circuit will turn it more likely than secret. Outdoor wiring methods often choose to
The wooden houses of laying electric cable surface - is a necessary measure, since concealed cable management is difficult or impossible
Some advantages of the open method of installation is still there:
- simplification of packing. When laying electric cables do not have to Stroebe walls. This reduces labor costs, the amount of work. After the installation is almost no construction waste.
- price reduction. Here we are talking about saving on paying electricians services.
- Ability to change the wiring scheme. If future plans include redevelopment of the wiring, it is better to choose an open method of installation.
When you select an open method of laying electric wires should be aware that they will have to mask and protect from external influences. There is always a chance of moisture or accidental damage.
When installing the boxes, sockets, switches often have problems. Before starting work, you should carefully examine the features of their installation or entrust the work of an electrician
If the house is habitable, it is necessary to weigh all three. It is advisable to consult with an experienced electrician and the installation should take into account the increased risks and carefully monitor the observance of safety measures.
Features external laying electric cables
External installation is suitable when you want to lay electric cables in the corners of the room, at the junction of the ceiling and walls, along baseboards.
Most often, difficulties arise in the regeneration of open wiring in homes with suspended ceilings. Cables can not be conducted on such a ceiling, it is necessary to fix them to the wall.
One of the downsides of the open posting - unpresentable form, but it would fit perfectly for the retro interior. The only nuance - it is necessary to invest in additional styling. It is expensive
If you spend a lot, it is better to put in the transport channels. When designing the installation scheme should be carefully choose the place where will be connected and the connecting junction boxes. Should remain readily accessible for inspection and possible repair of communications.
Ways to open wiring
Initially, the only way to open the installation was laying twisted electrical wires on the walls and ceiling. They are mounted on ceramic insulators.
In some houses, built about a century ago, is still wiring is run that way. Relatively recently, a similar installation again gained popularity. This is due to the fashion for the old days.
If a hundred years ago, open wiring on ceramic insulators was considered the norm, but now it is stylized antique. In an era of mass unification of things, pieces of furniture and interior very popular acquire unusual ways of interior decoration, and this is one of them
When making a space in retro style often arise from material sourcing issues. Some manufacturers produce ceramic insulators, sockets, switches "antique", but such a luxury costing very expensive.
Suitable materials for the wiring design in retro style can be found not only in high-end stores. They are often purchased from rag pickers, buy from the owners of homes built in the last century, and the cables are made independently, twisting stranded copper wire.
Designer's imagination knows no bounds. Often can see the interiors, designed using elements of different styles. One of the most successful option - a combination of retro and a loft-style
In an open wiring design in retro-style is better to give preference to cable cross-section 2.5 mm.kv. and double insulated. If these cables are led in a wooden house, you need to strictly follow the rules of electrical and fire safety
Interior fashion is fickle, so you should seriously consider whether to issue wiring retro need. It is better to choose a more popular and reliable option. Then, in the case of repair does not have to deal with electrical works again.
We offer detail the popular methods of laying open posting and choose the technology that best suits your home.
Method 1 - installation of wires in the brackets
To connect the outlets and switches choosing electric wire section 2.5 mm.kv. and for lighting - 1.5 mm.kv. Sometimes it takes more thick cables. If the thickness of the wire is 1.5-6 mm.kv., they can simply attach to the surfaces of the walls and ceiling brackets.
When you purchase cables should give preference to high-quality products. If the choice is made in favor of the cheap cables, then assemble them under non-flammable pads to reduce the risk of fire in case of short circuit.
By their choice should be treated very carefully, because they determine the future functionality and safety of a home electrical outlet. See also information on how to calculate wire cross-section for household wiring.
In most cases, use of the metal strip or asbestos. Their fixed so that the incombustible pad advocated cable limits by at least 1 cm on each side. As for the material, it is best to choose the metal, because Asbestos is harmful to human health: proven link with cancer.
Sometimes, to ensure fire safety equip a gap of 1 cm between the power cable and the wall. This method resembles the lining wiring on ceramic insulators in retro style. It is used in wooden houses, country houses, non-residential premises
Fastening on brackets - cheap and easy way wiring installation. Of the minuses - it's unsafe and ugly. If several cables laid, they catch the eye and spoil the impression of the interior. In a residential house is better to lay the wires in the cable channels.
Method 2 - especially in stacking pipes
Modern industry produces special electrical pipes. They can be made of metal or plastic, is well protected against fire, accidental mechanical damage and shock.
For installation more convenient to use corrugated pipe. They are flexible, so that when wall mounting is not necessary to further flatten the surface. Wiring in the corrugated pipe - ideal for wooden log houses. It is comfortable and looks much neater than the individual wires.
Due to the questionable aesthetic corrugations its infrequent use in homes, but it is perfect for eyeliner cables from overhead power lines. Sometimes in order to improve the appearance of open wiring colored corrugated pipe is used inside the rooms.
When installing cables in a wooden house address specific building materials. Through the wooden wall wiring is laid with the help of special metal plugs. They need to protect the cables from the pinched if the natural wood will shrink
In calculating the diameter of the corrugations are oriented on the total thickness of all the wires that will be routed therein. This figure is multiplied by 2, since the lower section of the tube it is difficult to route cables.
To facilitate laying use corrugated pipe with a special probe (wire, which is pulled via cables). To probe attached wires and pulled them through the tube, keeping it firmly in his hands.
If you want to build a relatively small piece of wire, it is possible to dispense with the probe, but for large sections is better to use special devices.
Corrugated pipe electrical fastened to the walls on the screws, dowels, nails or plastic clips. The distance between the fastening points is calculated depending on the diameter and, accordingly, the intended weight. If corrugated pipe diameter of 16 mm, the seat fasteners located at a distance of 30-40 cm, and for the pipes of 32-40 mm, this distance has less - 20-30 cm.
Before starting electrical work up scheme. It is important that corrugated pipes do not overlap and do not cross, because it violates the security requirements and looks ugly
The clip is mounted on the wall, and then simply inserted into the corrugated them. This method of fixing is convenient in that when removing enough to pull the pipe clip and easily detached.
Method 3 - laying in conduits
For wiring use harsh electrical boxes, cable channels, Plinth. These devices made of metal or fire-retardant plastic. In contrast to the corrugated pipe, rigid structures can not be installed on uneven walls, because Surface defects only become visible.
There are many types of cable channels: one, two, three-section. they also differ in the installation location, purpose, size. Sales models can meet any type - to from perforated flexible, angled or transparent. It is important to choose products that are suitable for the specific operating conditions
Ducts, channels, baseboards feature snap-on lid, which can be easily removed, which is convenient for installation of additional wiring. If necessary, upgrading wiring the entire process will take a few minutes.
There are other pluses:
- Design. Boxes, cable channels and plinths are available in different colors, allowing you to decorate the room. You can always choose the right option.
- easy installation. Laying cables in ducts does not require much effort. The main thing - the right to fix themselves protective structures.
- Convenient installation of sockets and switches. Boxes can be mounted on the wall outlet, and they will not spoil the overall look.
Installation work begins with a drawing diagrams swept walls. He needed to accurately calculate the necessary materials, the number of fasteners and accessories.
should be defined in advance with the cross section and the number of cables for the channel selection by size. Plan ready to be exact, with no errors in measurements and calculations.
Wires pave not only on flat surfaces, but also in the corners. Sometimes it is necessary to equip the branch channels. For these purposes, use different types accessories. When developing the project should calculate the number
Technology mounting external wiring in cable ducts:
- Drafting. It is necessary to determine the number, type and location of sockets, switches, boxes and think cabling scheme bypassing gas and water pipes, sewer system.
- selection of materials. After the design can proceed to the selection and purchase of materials. If you plan on laying more cables, you should choose a box with dividers. Accessories must conform to the channel in color and size. It makes sense to buy a protective box with accessories for the installation of sockets.
- Mounting boxes. Plastic construction can be cracked, if they immediately fixed to the wall, so first make holes in the boxes cabinets, and only then fasten them to the ground. Cable-canals are joined together, and excess material is cut.
- Wiring. Cables are laid into the channels of the housing, and capped their latched. It remains only to check the fixation of the covers - and the design is ready.
Electricians are advised to pay attention to the base material, as It depends on the choice of fasteners. So, on a wooden wall boxes fastened with conventional screws. For brick, concrete and stone surfaces use dowels. For panels, plates made of composite materials, plywood is better to choose fastening tie.
It was not necessary to adjust the shape of the boxes in the internal and external corners, they can be cut using conventional carpentry Miter. Then the product will look neat, and the risk of overspending of the material due to marriage in significantly reduced
Each of the mounting methods has its own dignity, and rarely happens that only one method. Often have to combine cable channels with corrugated and / or metal pipes, fasteners on the braces.
When designing the wiring of the project should take into account the floor plans and features of cabling on each of the areas - whether it is a bedroom, kitchen or bathroom.
10 common mistakes linemen
Open method of laying electric cables easier closed, but still there are nuances that can not be taken into account until a certain practice.
We offer a review of typical errors made when installing wiring:
- The absence of the scheme. Often wiring mounted on the principle of design: first, do the wiring in every room, and then combine the cables. This dramatically reduces the reliability of the whole system.
- Savings on materials. Substandard wiring, appliances and accessories - direct and shortest route to the fire. It is better to overpay for products reliable brand than to solve problems with the circuit and fire.
- Calculation of wiring without reserve. The cross section of the cables and their amount must be 20% more than the calculated value. Otherwise avoid unnecessary twists and the risk that the network will not sustain loads.
- Connecting the power devices through the outletRather than using a separate cable from the switchboard. Even high-power socket does not solve the problem, because there is always a risk that the cable will not cope with a serious additional burden.
- Compound of high- and low-voltage cables in one box. In this case it is almost guaranteed problems with technique work throughout the house.
- The extra twist. To connect the wires better use special terminals.
- Compound veins of copper and aluminum. contact points to overheat, which can lead to problems. For connection is necessary to use the terminal, and it is better to avoid aluminum wires and lay only copper.
- Neglect of safety precautions. TB rules are written based on the bitter experience of many unfortunate electricians, and yet are still brave men who work under stress.
- Improper positioning of junction boxes. They must be 20 cm below the ceiling. Otherwise there is the risk of accidental damage. The box must be accessible for inspection and repair.
- Improper installation of ground loop and connect the RCD. These devices protect the mains, so their installation should be taken very carefully.
Beginners electrical permit and other errors. We have listed only the most common.
It is important to remember that the wiring is associated with many risks, so before starting work should be carefully considered technology.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
We picked up a useful videos that help avoid common installation errors and to organize an external wiring in the house.
Briefing of electrical wiring in the cable channel:
Useful tips for installing outlets:
The main mistake that you connect the RCD:
In theory, open wiring arrangement technology looks simple and understandable. But when it comes to practice, many homeowners commit a lot of errors.
Grasp the self-assembly only in the event that has the necessary expertise to develop and implement the project. If not, then do not risk life and entrust the work to electricians.
You are well versed in the installation of open wiring theory and have practical experience in electrical work? You may want to supplement our material contained clarifications or useful recommendations? Write comments in the box below the article, share your experiences with the newcomers - many users will thank you.