Rainwater harvesting system: types of reservoirs and the use of rainwater in the house

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The use of precipitation will provide significant savings in water produced from a well or a well. In addition, it will help reduce energy consumption, as it allows to turn on pumping equipment less frequently. However, you do not know how to collect a free “gift” of nature for further use?

We will show you how to do it. The article discusses the rainwater harvesting system and options for the use of precipitation for domestic use. The device, constructive specificity is described, the efficiency is estimated taking into account the money spent on the organization of alternative water supply.

For interested visitors, we picked up an organization chart with an underground and above-ground reservoir location, presented photos with options for masking the storage tank, collected useful video clips that allow you to organize the collection of water with your own by forces.

The content of the article:

  • Precipitation options
  • Organizing rainwater collection for the home
    • Step # 1 - choosing the optimal shape of the roof
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    • Step # 2 - selection of water tanks and reservoirs
    • Step # 3 - Organization of the drainage system
  • The device is a simple system with a barrel
  • Scheme of the device with an underground tank
  • Rainwater in the heating system
  • Conclusions and useful video on the topic

Precipitation options

With the supply of fresh water in Russia, everything is in order, but the most economic owners of private lands have increasingly begun to think about the rational use of natural resources.

As well as solar panels and with homemade windmills, they create universal rainwater harvesting systems that give a positive result on dry days or during periods when water ends in the well.

Excellent practical experience exists in Germany, Holland, Belgium and other countries of Europe. Considering that it is simply inexpedient to spend the water from the tap to flush the toilet cistern, the Europeans have come up with many ways to use absolutely free, but no less useful natural water.

The scheme of water supply home rainwater

The scheme of the domestic water supply system includes the following important components: a field for collecting water (roof), a pipeline, a storage tank, pumping equipment, a filtration system

Thanks to the use of rainwater, the consumption for depreciation of pumping and cleaning equipmentpersonal budget savings occur.

The system is so simple that in the absence of a fully finished factory model, you can always assemble it yourself.

The main purpose of the catchment system is to collect the maximum amount of rainwater and move it to the storage tank. Then the liquid is used for various household needs: washing, washing, cleaning, watering.

No additional cleaning is needed for irrigation, but for shower or dishwashing the water must be filtered. To this end, several filters are inserted into the plumbing wiring, and coarse and fine cleaning is required.

Rainwater supply

To drain the excess water or to perform cleaning procedures, another hole is drilled in the tank and a branch pipe is installed leading into the sewer system.

A reserve tank of water can help out when there is a shortage of water from the main source, and when force majeure occurs.

If you decide to clean the well, then bulk tank will allow and wash, and wash and water the country culture. Instead of one capacity, you can install several, then do not have to save.

Organizing rainwater collection for the home

Installation of rainwater collection equipment does not require permits or compliance with any strict regulations. At its core, this is a variant of the usual drainage system, but more rational.

In order for the accumulation and transportation of water to be more efficient, it is necessary to take into account some nuances - the condition of the roof, the types of storage tanks, the ability to quickly transfer water to the house.

Step # 1 - choosing the optimal shape of the roof

There is a popular belief that only sloping roofs are suitable as a work surface for collecting water. Indeed, when water flows by gravity into the gutters located along the perimeter, it is easier to organize its movement in the right direction. To do this, you do not need to install additional "traps" and lay communications under the roof.

In fact, there are systems designed for flat roofs. When laying layers of insulation and waterproofing observe a slope - not less than 3%, and at the lowest point install a chute or tray to collect water.

Among the drainage devices for flat roofs are funnels attached to drainpipes. The risers can be located inside the building or installed on the outer wall.

To stimulate the movement of water to the intake funnel around it, a fall is arranged within a radius of half a meter.

Funnel on the roof

The siphon-vacuum outlet funnel “sucks” water, therefore it is suitable even for roofs without a slope. It is designed in such a way that water without air enters the system.

The design of the funnel may be different. For example, for inversion roofs there are two-level, collecting and draining condensate from under the layer of insulation and rainwater from the surface of the roof.

Traditional flat roofs are equipped drainage devices with one level, thanks to which rainwater is redirected to the drainage system.

All types of water intake devices should be equipped with a net protection from volatile pollution, foliage and dust. For trays, gutters and funnels, they release security devices in the form of perforated panels, mesh baskets, etc.

On flat roofs in use, flat protection is installed flush with the surface, on unexploited, it rises above the roof. In addition to the main funnel set several backup, in case the main clogs and fails.

All devices lead to the same pipeline. It has an internal arrangement, that is, it is under the roof, and a sealed, closed form, more often the form of a rectangular box. The gravitational channel is wider, siphon-vacuum narrow. The outlet is located above or near the storage tank.

Metal roof tiles

Metal tile is a practical, relatively inexpensive and convenient material for roofing work. Polymer color coating that performs a protective and aesthetic function, does not affect water quality

The shape of the roof also does not affect the composition of the water, and the roofing material can cause poisoning or disease. As you know, asbestos is very dangerous, which is just a part of asbestos slabs and slate.

Now these materials are rarely used for roofing, but if you decide to provide the catchment system with an old house, be on the alert. Copper and lead are also dangerous, they can be contained in pipes, gutters or fasteners.

Safe roofing options:

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Galvanized Steel Sheet

Galvanized sheets are often covered with a layer of protective paint, but this does not affect the safety of the roof.

Ceramic tiles of various shapes

The tile from the burned clay - one of the most expensive and environmentally friendly materials for roofing works

Baked clay tile

The flexible elastic tile is suitable for finishing of a roof of a difficult configuration, perfectly keeps on cattle surfaces

Galvanized steel tile

Metal elements are covered with a protective layer of acrylic coating, which does not collapse under the influence of precipitation, wind and temperature changes

Galvanized Steel Sheet

Galvanized Steel Sheet

Ceramic tiles of various shapes

Ceramic tiles of various shapes

Baked clay tile

Baked clay tile

Galvanized steel tile

Galvanized steel tile

Absolutely safe and modern PVC drainage systems, the most convenient for installation do it yourself.

Step # 2 - selection of water tanks and reservoirs

Precipitation falls irregularly, so there are no devices without a “transshipment base” connecting the trays directly to the water points. It is necessary to organize a large container for storing the collected water, which will allow it to be used only as needed.

The prototype of all modern tanks has become an ordinary barrel. It can now be found in the suburban areas, installed directly under the drainpipe.

The efficiency of the use of the barrel is conditional, as it has a small volume and is not suitable for water supply at home. In addition, in its design is not planned overflow systems, all the excess spill over the edges and enter the ground.

Barrel to collect water

The purpose of an ordinary metal or wooden barrel is to collect a small amount of rainwater runoff and then use it for household purposes: for watering or cleaning

For water accumulation systems, volumetric tanks are made, which can be divided into two categories:

  • groundinstalled under the drainage system against the wall (or inside the building);
  • undergroundburied in the ground around the house.

The material for all types is the same - it is polyethylene, less often concrete, fiberglass or steel. Synthetic rainwater accumulators are leading, because they are not inferior in performance to their counterparts from other materials, at the same time much easier than them, respectively, more convenient for transportation and mounting.

The volume of ground tanks - from 750 to 2000 liters, underground - from 2000 to 5000 liters.

Rainwater collection tank

Modern products are fully ready for connection - they have a large hatch in the upper part and a fitting with a crane in the lower part (at the ground versions)

Large underground tanks equip surface or submersible pump to force water to dismantle points. The use of various equipment requires additional cleaning fluid. For this, a filtration system is used: a coarse filter is installed at the tank inlet, the same at the outlet.

Plastic reservoir options for collecting and storing rainwater:

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Small plastic barrel

This is the most popular type of water collection tank, which is used daily for domestic and household needs.

Large rectangular tank

The main advantage of the volume tank is the ability to store a large amount of water for irrigation or gardening.

Compact capacity, decorated

The decorative design of the plastic container on the outside allows you to keep the exterior style of the building.

Tank buried in the ground

Storage tank, completely buried in the ground, has one big advantage - it saves space

Small plastic barrel

Small plastic barrel

Large rectangular tank

Large rectangular tank

Compact capacity, decorated

Compact tank decorated "under the stone"

Tank buried in the ground

Tank buried in the ground

If water comes to the sinks for washing or washing dishes, fine filters with a mesh of no more than 5 microns are required, as well as multi-stage carbon installations.

Step # 3 - Organization of the drainage system

Suppose your private house is equipped with a full-fledged shower, including a set of gutters and trays, drain pipes, grit chambers and sewer small septic tank.

Is it possible to install a structure for using rainwater in the house without major changes? Of course, but it is necessary to supplement the scheme with cumulative capacity and related equipment.

To begin with, it is necessary to analyze the state of the accumulating plane, that is, the roof. It should check its integrity, purity, and if necessary, change the roof covering to a more secure one.

If the storm construction of pipes and trays is in order, you can attach a factory-made large polyethylene tank directly to it. At the bottom of the tank install the fitting - for emergency drain.

Storage tank

In order not to disturb the downpour design, it is easiest to install a volumetric plastic barrel for irrigation, but it will not work for home maintenance.

If the need arises to install a large underground tank, it will be necessary to make adjustments to the old design - most likely, to change the location of the sewer pipes. Having dug a ditch and having established the pump equipment, it is necessary to lay again communications for drains.

We offer two options for the installation of rainwater utilization systems - with surface and underground reservoirs.

The device is a simple system with a barrel

To assemble the lightest scheme, you will need a set for the installation of drains, a filter, a ready-made water tank, a short hose and mounting fittings.

Rainwater Storage Barrel

The result of the work will be the simplest system for collecting water from an inclined roof with a large plastic tank as a storage tank.

Plastic gutters, trays and pipes of the required size are purchased at the hardware store. If you are not satisfied with plastic, use parts made of galvanized steel, self-made or factory made.

We assemble the drainage system in the following order:

  • with the help of special brackets or hooks we fasten along the edge of the gutter roof;
  • on the corner, in a place convenient for the installation of the tank, hang the drain pipe;
  • we connect the main elements of the receiving funnel;
  • sealing seams and joints.

With installation of drains ensure that there is a slight slope in the direction of the pipe (2-3 cm by 1 m). The dimensions of pipes and gutters depend on the roof area. For example, a diameter of 80 mm is sufficient for a slope equipment of 25-30 m².

Collecting a corner pipe to which the tank will be attached, do not forget to insert the filter. The same filter for the delay of debris and sand can be equipped with a funnel.

The installation scheme of the barrel

Next, we need to remove a small fragment from the pipe, and in its place insert a compact collector that redirects water to the reservoir.

Marker apply marking, determining the height of the installation of drainage at the top of the tank.

Pipe cutting out

We take a hacksaw for metal or plastic (depending on the pipe material) and carefully cut out the area corresponding to the size of the insert

We take out the sawed-off area and in its place we insert a collector.

Collector installation

The collector is assembled, consists of two parts: the top element is strung on the edge of the pipe, located on the top, the bottom - on the segment below

Hermetically tighten the water intake, then attach the hose to it. This is easy to do if you pre-install the fitting. Under the lid of the tank, cut a hole of a suitable diameter, insert the second end of the hose into it.

Connecting hose

If instead of a plastic or steel connecting element to attach a flexible elastic hose, the container can be moved or tilted

An important nuance: well-prepared base will help excess water to freely go into the ground (or sewer well), and not to pour along the house or to flood the foundation.

The site for the installation of the tank is covered with gravel, the top is made a stand of ceramic blocks or bricks.

Another installation instruction for the Aquacan water tank:

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Step 1 - Kit Verification

Upon delivery to the home or at the time of purchase in a store, it is necessary to check the complete set: capacity, hose, fittings

Step 2 - Mounting the Valve and Valve for Hose

Remove the plugs from the two holes in the housing and install a valve and a valve to connect the hose

Step 3 - the inlet in the sump

Nozzle on the drill of the desired diameter is included. In the designated place, make a hole under the inlet hose

Step 4 - hole in the drainpipe

Drill a hole in the drain pipe with the same nozzle so that the slope of the connecting hose is 5 degrees

Step 5 - installation of the connecting sleeve

On the plastic corrugated hose put on both sides of the adapter, then insert it into the holes in the pipe and in the sump

Step 6 - testing the operation of the crane

If there is no rain, water is poured into buckets inside the tank, then the operation of the crane and screwed hose is checked.

Step 7 - Decorating the Watershed with Flowers

The cover of the tank is a stand. You can put a flower in a pot on it or fill it with soil and plant the plants.

Step 8 - elimination of installation errors

If, after testing or in the first days of operation, a leak is detected, the parts are reinstalled, additionally using seals or sealant

Step 1 - Kit Verification

Step 1 - Kit Verification

Step 2 - Mounting the Valve and Valve for Hose

Step 2 - Mounting the Valve and Valve for Hose

Step 3 - the inlet in the sump

Step 3 - the inlet in the sump

Step 4 - hole in the drainpipe

Step 4 - hole in the drainpipe

Step 5 - installation of the connecting sleeve

Step 5 - installation of the connecting sleeve

Step 6 - testing the operation of the crane

Step 6 - testing the operation of the crane

Step 7 - Decorating the Watershed with Flowers

Step 7 - Decorating the Watershed with Flowers

Step 8 - elimination of installation errors

Step 8 - elimination of installation errors

Assembling factory models is good because all the necessary parts and even some of the tools come with the tank.

Scheme of the device with an underground tank

Large capacity, installed near the house, will be able to satisfy the need for water by 50%. Thanks to the special wiring, rainwater will flow to the water points that do not require high quality liquid: to the toilet cisterns, kitchen and watering taps. But in this case filters are installed.

The tank can be installed under drain system on the surface, in the basement or in the trench dug near the house. We will choose the third option, in which the tank will be completely immersed in the ground, therefore, not will begin to occupy a free area near the building and not spoil the beautiful landscape with its technological kind of.

Underground tank installation scheme

Another advantage of a reservoir sunk into the soil: chilled rainwater is an inappropriate environment for the development of bacteria, therefore, it will not “bloom”

Choose a capacity of 2.5-3.5 thousand. liters, and, based on its size, we are looking for a place to install. In addition to the size when digging the pit, we must take into account the horizons of groundwater and the level of freezing.

The depth of the pit should be about 70 cm more than the height of the tank, since 20 cm is gravel-sandy. a cushion, 50 cm - a layer of earth above the reservoir (freezing in the middle lane and northern regions in the winter period).

Further we act according to the scheme:

  • we get the soil, we take the excess one to the side;
  • arrange a gravel-sand rammed pillow;
  • in the center of the pit set the tank;
  • we fall asleep from all sides with a mixture of soil and sand;
  • we install the pump equipment and pipes (drain and leading to the house).

Of course, before connecting electrical equipment, it is necessary to adjust the water supply system from the roof and make internal wiring. Installation of drains occurs in the traditional way, the pipe through the hatch supplies water to the tank.

The pipeline from the tank leads to certain, pre-selected points. Inside the house, in the back room or in the basement, equipped with a place to install the pump, filters, monitoring equipment.

Scheme of system components

Diagram of using the rainwater collection system: 1 - water level sensor; 2 - float device; 3 - filter; 4 - surface pump; 5 - water tank; 6 - siphon; 7 - filter

After installation and connection it is necessary to make a control start: pour water into the tank and turn on the pump. If everything is in order, the liquid will quickly flow to the points of the water intake.

The container should not be empty, as the ground movement can cause the deformation of the body. If water runs out during a drought, it is necessary to fill it from the main source. In order not to measure the water level with the help of available tools, it is possible to draw a peculiar scale with divisions in fractions or liters from the inside on the wall.

Rainwater in the heating system

In some cases, rainwater is used instead of distilled liquid or antifreeze in the heating systems of private homes.

Natural characteristics - softness, absence of extraneous inclusions and purity - make it suitable for pouring into the heating network. To remove possible pollution, "caught" in the atmosphere, it is initially driven through a filter.

Installation of the tank in the room

Option of installation of accumulative capacity in the house (in a boiler room, the cellar or a utility room): the pump, filters, the manometer and distributing of the pipeline is located nearby

In addition to cleansing procedures, enrichment of the fluid with special inhibitors and surfactants, which reduce the tendency of water to form corrosion and plaque, helps. Chemical compounds contribute to the dissolution of lime and other deposits.

Conclusions and useful video on the topic

Educational informational videos will help you to independently install a storage tank for collecting rainwater.

Video # 1. How to make a rainwater harvesting system with your own outdoor tank:

Video # 2. Useful theoretical information:

Video # 3. Preparation of plastic barrels for autonomous water supply:

The cleanliness and natural softness of rainwater allow it to be used for household needs, watering, and sometimes - for filling the heating system.. Due to the large storage tank and pump, you can always use a backup water source that is relevant during the emptying of the well.

If you have interesting information, valuable recommendations, your own experience in the device system, built to collect rainwater, please leave comments. For their placement below the text of the article a block form is open.

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