Essential once incandescent lamps are disappearing. They were replaced by others, advanced light sources. They are more economical, easy to use and durable. Among them, the halogen lamp type, which can be considered a direct "descendants" of the instrument plug.
Such lighting equipment has several varieties. Very much in demand, low-voltage halogen lamps 12 volts. On their device, varieties and scope and we'll talk in this material. Also consider the best producers supplying the market in the lighting lamps 12 V.
The content of the article:
- The principle of operation galogenki
- Halogen low voltage lamp
Types of low-voltage halogen light sources
- Devices directional light
- Capsule or finger device
Review of the best producers galogenok
- Location # 1 - The German company Osram
- Location # 2 - Dutch brand Philips
- Place # 3 - a Russian company Navigator
- Place # 4 - Hong Kong brand Camelion
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
The principle of operation galogenki
halogen lamp device is comparable to the structure
To increase light intensity, it is necessary to increase the temperature of the incandescent body. Which in turn increases energy consumption. When heated, the tungsten of which the filament is made, begins to evaporate.
The atoms are deposited on the inside of the flask. As a result, over time the number of outputted light lamp invariably decreases. The higher operating temperature of the lamp filament, so the process is faster.
Halogen lamps devoid of these disadvantages due to the fact that is so-called halogen additive inside the flask. By filling the gas therein is added bromo or iodo. Filament lamps for such is made from special grades of tungsten and has a spiral shape. When heated, the tungsten starts to evaporate and connects present inside the flask volatile halogens.
Halogen lamps - the improved filament devices. Their operating principle is the same. However, the gas composition that fills the flask differs considerably, which explains the difference in performance
As a result, tungsten halides are formed, which do not settle on the walls of the shell. They return to the filament, which are decomposed into tungsten and halogen, whereupon the cycle repeats.
Thus during operation the bulb is transparent, and does not burn spiral, which greatly prolongs the operation halogen lamps.
Flasks of small size devices can be filled with xenon, which at times increases the light output and lamp brightness.
Using the so-called halo-tungsten cycle significantly increases the life of the lamps and prevents darkening of the inside of the bulb
This kind of lighting is in demand among consumers. About varieties of halogen lamps and choosing the best option we We are talking here.
Halogen low voltage lamp
All bulbs halogen type can be divided into two groups: high and low voltage. The first power from the AC voltage of 220 V, the latter can operate only in the presence of a lower voltage.
This gives them a number of advantages:
- Long service life up to 5000 hours.
- Brilliant color and high quality light.
- Small size.
- Consistently high brightness light.
- The increased strength due to the quartz envelope.
- Economy, which achieved a good luminous efficiency.
However, these lamps have some peculiarities, many tend to think of their shortcomings. First of all, they can be operated with low voltage 12 only in, but there are other varieties to 6 V and 24 V. In order to connect a lamp to a network, you must use a step-down transformer. Last you need to choose the right, otherwise the lights will not be able to function normally.
Halogen low voltage lamp can not be included in the network. They can only work with a reduced voltage. so the need to connect via a transformer. An example of such a connection is shown in Scheme
The transformer may be electromagnetically or electronically. The second type is compact and at the same high performance. Most often, the transformers must be installed hidden. This is what happens in the regeneration of lighting on the ceiling or inside the furniture. In this case, we must remember that during the operation the device generates heat, so you should leave enough free volume for its dispersion.
In addition, a small operating voltage requires a considerable increase in the current strength flowing through the wire. It can be 18 times more than that at a similar tension arises in the network to 220 V. This requires competent calculating section and the length of the wires used and the high quality of their contacts.
Even small errors in the calculations would lead to a substantial decrease in the brightness of the glow lamps. All these features significantly complicate the process of installation in 12 galogenok. However, the calculation of the competent and correct installation ensures their trouble-free operation.
All kinds of halogen lamps are equally sensitive to impurities in the flask. The presence of dirty areas causes a redistribution of heat and filament failure
Have devices and undeniable flaws. These include a large amount of heat released during the work, which inter alia considerably reduces the efficiency of the device.
In addition, the lamp housing is not desirable to touch. Even minor contamination cause redistribution of internal temperature, which results in its blackening and subsequent lamp failure.
Types of low-voltage halogen light sources
low voltage galogenki widely used. They are used for arranging various kinds of illuminations, in lamps with special caps, automotive headlamps, etc. Mainly produces two varieties of such lamps.
Devices directional light
This lamp, fitted with a reflector or reflector. With this device the light beams emitted reallocated and sent to a particular portion of space.
The design consists of a miniature halogen lamp, installed at the reflector center. The latter can be made of various materials, which determines the operational characteristics of the product.
Halogen lamps with an interference reflector called cold light devices, because the heat generated by them evenly scattered around the device
In most cases, reflectors are made of aluminum or other metals. Their feature - the direction of the heat released during the device together with light rays forward. If for some reason undesirable, the device is used with the interference reflector. The so-called cold light lamp.
A reflector of such a device is made from glass coated with a very thin metal foil. The coating reflects only certain wavelengths, whereby visible light is reflected by the eye in a predetermined direction, and the thermal or infrared radiation is scattered.
Such lamps have another feature - the reflector passes a number of rays of light, giving them different shades of color.
This phenomenon is advantageous to play on the designers in different types of lamps. Despite the name of the lamp with an interference reflector, it would be a mistake to think that if their work does not generate heat. Just as in the mirror reflector devices they emit heat in an amount of about 90% of the power device.
Due to the properties of the material from which the reflector is manufactured, it is dispersed uniformly around the lamp. That is, the temperature near the operating device is still enhanced. For this reason, even devices "cold light" can be set only with certain restrictions relating to fire safety.
Low-voltage halogen lamps equipped with special pin (bayonet) caps. On the label must indicate the distance between the pins
There is another kind of reflex devices - is an IRC lamps. They have a special coating that is able to reflect infrared radiation. It is a kind of "locks" infrared rays inside the bulb, guiding them back to the spiral.
Thus it is possible to increase the filament temperature with less power. IRC-lamps are characterized by an increased service life. In addition, they have a lower power consumption.
Device with a reflector can be manufactured with a special protective glass or without it. In the latter case, they are only used in closed-type lamps.
Safety glass can be transparent, opaque or colored. This makes it possible to equip any decorative illumination. Virtually all UV protective glass delay and hard IR radiation is not good for the man.
Lamps with reflectors are separated by light distribution.
Depending on the direction of the rays are distinguished:
- narrow the light beam from 8 to 12 °;
- average from 18 to 24 °;
- wide light beam from 36 to 60 ° or more.
Often you can find and letter markings.
- SSP or NSP designation supernarrow beam to 8 °;
- SP narrow 8-12 °;
- FL Intermediate 24-30 °;
- WFL a 36-38 °%
- VWFL very wide, more than 60 °.
Emissions - a very important indicator of the lamps ability to create certain types of lighting.
It is important to know what the angle of a light beam reflector lamps suggests. The only way to pick up the device properly to perform certain functions
For example, devices with a wide light beam ideally suited for overhead lighting and narrow - to illuminate at a relatively long distance, or to create bright spots of light.
Capsule or finger device
Their main distinguishing feature - a small size and high power from 5 to 100 watts. Capsule halogen bulbs 12 in a small power is 5 W and 10 are proven in the decorative lighting. This creates bright light spots or marks. More powerful devices are used as light sources for all kinds of lamps, including suspended ceilings.
In addition, the lamp capsule placed in small spotlights for interior lighting or spot, as they are called professionals.
There are two types of finger devices other than the direction of the filament. It is a horizontal, or axial. Depending on this, several changes the quantity of emitted light device. this is not essential for ordinary lamps, but it is very important for the spots.
Capsule halogen bulb - tiny bright light sources. They are widely used for arranging various types of decorative illumination
spotlights light distribution is disturbed significantly when an error in the selection of lamps. I must admit that the best use of capsule lamps without reflectors.
Making spots rather laborious and requires careful focusing and adjusting the lamp. Much easier to buy a device with a reflector, which is essentially a prefabricated spot conditions.
Lamp bulb capsule can be coated with a special composition inside reflecting infrared waves. The result is an IRC-appliance, characterized by an increased lifetime and consumes less power. Quartz glass, which is made of shell lamps, can be protected from ultraviolet radiation. It must be indicated on the product label.
Halogen capsule lamp bulbs are different body location. It can be axial (a) or horizontal (B). Embodiments arrangement shown in Figure
Both types of low-voltage galogenok and reflex and capsule equipped with special caps pin type. They come in several forms and are equipped with an alphanumeric label. The figures provide information about the distance between two pins, which is expressed in millimeters.
Review of the best producers galogenok
Performance characteristics of halogen lamps, including brightness and durability, are largely determined by the quality of products, which in turn depends on the manufacturer. For this reason, experts recommend to choose products of well-established companies. These can be safely attributed such brands.
Location # 1 - The German company Osram
History of the German company began more than a hundred years ago, when in 1906, Osram products first appeared on the market the brand. They were incandescent.
A little later, the manufacturer teams up with several companies engaged in production of lighting fixtures. Today, the brand specializes in the development, manufacture and sale of various lighting products.
Halogen lamps Osram brand are among the best. The manufacturer offers a wide range of different lighting devices
The product range is represented by a large number of lighting devices of different purposes. This car equipment, energy-efficient household lamps, Projection devices, the display optics, sensors, light control system, a UV disinfection device for the water.
The brand focuses on developing new technologies to maximize meet the needs of users.
Osram production capacity located in 17 countries. This 46 large enterprises equipped with the most modern equipment. Millions of lighting fixtures are produced here, then coming to the realization of more than 150 countries worldwide.
Each of the lamps are manufactured is tested before sale, which consists of 28 trials, where it is checked tightness, durability, precision manufacturing, etc.
Customers are confident in Osram products and consider it a good choice. It is proved that products of this brand is several times longer than similar products from other manufacturers. The company a significant portion of their profits invested in engineering, allowing it to become the author of the new trends in the field of lighting.
Location # 2 - Dutch brand Philips
The company has released the first production of more than 125 years ago, almost immediately after Edison patented his invention. Initially it produced only incandescent, but with its range expanded over time.
Today, the brand - one of the world's leading manufacturers of lighting equipment with an extremely wide range of products.
The company Philips undisputed leader in the production of "smart" lighting. The brand is successful developments in this area and introduce them into production
Phillips appeared in the Netherlands, its headquarters is still located there. Whereas production facilities scattered around the world.
Most of the company's factories in China and European countries. This assembly plants to accurately debugged Dutch engineer cycles. Product quality is monitored at every stage of production.
Brand is considered one of the pioneers LED lighting, Here we have been developed and introduced the first LED production.
Today the company is keen to translate the idea of lighting on the digital level. It owns leading positions in the development and production of "Smart" lights and lamps, as well as lighting control systems.
The company produces multi-function devices that can not only light, but also to collect, store and transmit information. They are well installed in the system smart house. Phillips is considered the hallmark of the highest quality products, their thought functionality and durability.
Place # 3 - a Russian company Navigator
The first products under the brand brand entered the market only recently, in 2006. It was an attempt to create their production company Battery Team, dedicated to the sale of lighting products.
The attempt was successful, today the product under the brand Navigator are well known not only in Russia but also in other countries. The product range is wide and is constantly updated with new products.
Navigator Company produces inexpensive, but high-quality products. It is very popular in the mid-price segment
The brand produces a variety of lamps, lighting fixtures for residential and industrial use, extension cords, lights, various batteries, spotlights and more.
Our manufacturing plant is located in the town of Klin. Technological cycle involves production of high quality products, which is closely monitored at all stages of production.
All products of the brand Navigator has increased the warranty. In particular, the lamp she is two years. Producer deliberately keeps the price of their product in the middle segment, which makes it very affordable. The quality remains high. Thanks to this brand manages to successfully compete with the very well-known brands.
Place # 4 - Hong Kong brand Camelion
It begins the story of a Hong Kong company in 1962 with the release of a variety of power sources. Gradually, the range of electrical products and added Kamelion today can be considered one of the leaders in the production of lighting.
The company produces different types of lamps, lamps of all kinds of purposes, projectors, lights, and more.
Kamelion brand originally specialized in the production of batteries, which did not prevent him later to open the production of lighting. Quality and very reasonable cost of the lamp in demand by buyers
lighting products production started with one plant, today there are more than ten. On each equipped with modern production lines, which allows production of high-quality products.
Before sending the products to customers Kamelion thoroughly tested, which makes it possible immediately to identify and weed out manufacturing defects. The company holds the most affordable prices buyers for their products.
The brand follows all innovations in the field of lighting and introducing them into production. Digital "smart" equipment gradually appears in its portfolio. Furthermore, started production of lighting control systems that make it possible to create a variety of lighting schemes.
The company confidently takes its place in the middle price segment, the output of sufficiently high quality at affordable prices.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Video about the action the principles and benefits of galogenok:
Why low voltage transformer galogenki need:
What you need to know about the operation of the halogen lamp:
Low-voltage halogen lamps - a practical solution for the arrangement of illumination on the ceiling, furniture or room area. They are distinguished by a pleasant eye color light output and high brightness. However, they are long enough, especially if sound operation.
Manufacturers offer many varieties of such lamps, which makes it possible to create any, even the most complex lighting system to your liking.
Galogenki use 12 volts? Share your experience with the newcomers - tell us what products manufacturer do you prefer? Add unique photo of your light bulbs below under this article.
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