The cellar for storing vegetables, food stocks, preservation is a traditional, indispensable element of country life. A well-constructed cellar keeps almost the same temperature, no matter what time of the year it is. Thus, you can be sure that vegetables, fruits, pickles, jams will be safely stored. No one will say that the cellar with his own hands is simple. Of course not. But the information about "what and how" does not hurt.
- Why is the basement the coldest place in the house?
- Cellar - how to do?
- Ventilation of the cellar
- Waterproofing the basement from the inside
- Insulation of the cellar
- Stairs in the basement
- Plastic cellar
It is worth considering that the cellar and the basement are different rooms, but they have one goal - you can store food, seasonal produce. Proper ventilation of the basement - the main factor that you need to pay attention to when building.
Equipped storage under the house( in other words - the cellar in the cellar) is convenient, since everything is close by: in winter you don’t need to dress to go outside, as if it was placed separately. Also, you do not need to make wall insulation, floors, because such a room always keeps the temperature above zero.
The cellar is a purpose-built building, it can have any area, it can be equipped with all kinds of shelves, supports, shelves. Properly adjusted ventilation system, waterproofing, heat insulation will create the optimum temperature level for storing products. In contrast to the basement, a cellar can be built in any place you want for your home.
Separately located cellar can become part of the design idea, harmoniously complement the style direction of the garden plot.
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Why is the basement the coldest place in the house?
This factor is explained by the laws of physics - despite the message of the basement space with the outside air, in the summer the basement will be the coldest place in the house. In winter, the basement will be warmer, even if the rooms upstairs are not heated.
This phenomenon is due to the fact that warm air flow is much easier than cold air, so they rush upwards. And the cold air rushes down, concentrates in the basement.
In the summer, the house receives heat from the sun-heated roof, warmed walls, and the basement, of course, does not reach the sun's rays. But even if in the winter you do not live in the country, and the house is not heated in any way, the basement will keep the temperature slightly above zero. The lower the basement is recessed, the warmer it will be in winter.содерж to contents ↑
Cellar - how to do?
It’s better to start planning the stages of building a cellar with the onset of heat, but it’s better to determine the level of groundwater in spring or autumn.
There are three main types of cellars: ground, buried, semi-buried. Soil with a high level of passage of water can be a major obstacle to the construction of a classic cellar. In such cases, it is recommended to choose a semi-buried or above ground type of storage.
- Initially, you need to decide on the size of the future premises - they must contain all the planned reserves. The ditch rumbles in view of the “extra” 1.5 meters on each side of the cellar - this factor is necessary for the convenience of future work. You can dig a pit with the help of special equipment, or you can manually, with your own hands. On a site with a high level of passage of groundwater, the pit should be deeper and wider by about half a meter; subsequently, this niche is filled with waterproofing materials. For reliable protection from moisture, a layer of crushed stone, crushed brick, which is filled with resin( bitumen), is placed at the bottom of the future cellar.
- For the construction of walls, you can use traditional, time-tested materials: cinder blocks, concrete slabs, bricks, foam blocks. The masonry is made using cement mortar or sand-clay mixture. For the arrangement of the floor is best suited cement screed, reinforced reinforcement. Use sand and gravel as a “cushion”.A ceiling can be made of concrete slabs, reinforcement, boards. External insulation can be made with the help of tar, which covers the sides of the cellar. Also, the walls can be covered with roofing paper, which is placed on the appropriate mastic.
- When erecting a cellar with your own hands, you should remember that when laying out rows, you need to leave niches for ventilation openings( pipes).The walls are laid out to the very top of the pit, all sides should be at the same level.
- One of the highlights is the installation of floors. Overlaps can be of different types, the simplest method is to lay concrete slabs on top. For combined ceilings, beam beams, wooden flooring, roofing felt, reinforcing bars, waterproofing materials are used. The resulting structure at the end of the work is filled with concrete.
- The interior arrangement of the cellar is made according to the preferences of the owner, but the requirements for ventilation, waterproofing, insulation must be strictly observed.
Ventilation of the cellar
Ventilation of the cellar, basements is an important factor in maintaining acceptable temperature conditions for the storage of food stocks. Excessive dampness is the eternal satellite of all underground spaces. If you do not intend to deal exclusively with the cultivation of mushrooms, then you should take care of controlling the humidity of the air.
If the cellar is located in the basement of the house, the vents in the basement of the house( which are laid during the building) will purposefully perform the ventilation function. For a small basement, about 5 square meters, this air exchange system is fine. To prevent rodents from entering, it is better to cover the vents with metal nets, and to close them tightly during frosts.
If you need a large basement area, then forced-air ventilation based on natural ventilation will be the best solution. For a separately constructed cellar, as well as a basement, it is necessary to foresee two air ducts in advance. The thickness of the pipes( best of PVC) depends on the size of the floor space. The most commonly used diameter is 20-60 cm.
The principle of operation of such a system is based on the temperature difference inside and outside the cellar. The hood( exhaust pipe) is located under the cellar ceiling, passing through the ceiling, leaving one end on the roof. The intake pipe is also displayed on the roof, but its other end, which is inside the room, must be no higher than 100 cm from the basement floor. Grids, dampers at the outer ends of the pipes will protect the air ducts from precipitation and help regulate the level of heat in the room, if necessary.
Cellar ventilation scheme:
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Basement waterproofing from the inside
The cellar and basement should be dry - this is an axiom. In addition to the standard waterproofing mastic( Aqua, TechnoNIKOL, BITUMAST), plasters( Monolith, Polimin, Scanmax) it is advisable to use waterproofing penetrating action( for example - Penetron or Millennium).
- Penetrating waterproofing is effective, easy to use: applied with a brush on slightly damp walls, the floor is environmentally friendly. Before use, it must be diluted with water to obtain a homogeneous consistency.
- It is best to apply liquid rubber on pre-primed walls, floor. It is desirable that the surface is smooth - this will contribute to the ideal application of the bitumen-polymer layer, will provide optimal adhesion. After applying and drying the first layer of liquid rubber at strategic locations( seams, joints, areas of communication), you can apply the second layer again.
- Waterproofing a basement with liquid glass works in the same way as types of penetrating insulation. This is an extremely effective method with a durable effect, has good breathable and water-repellent qualities.
It is advisable to take care of the cellar insulation during the construction stages. After applying waterproofing layers, foam plastic is most often used( with a density of 25) or polystyrene foam plates - they sheathe the walls of the cellar both outside and inside. These materials are good because they are not affected by the fungus, mold, easy to fit, have a low cost.
Stages of floor insulation:
- The draft surface of the floor is leveled and covered with waterproofing material.
- Installation of insulation( approximately 4-8 cm).
- Polyphenol( multilayer reflective insulation).
- A reinforced screed is put on top of all layers.
As for the walls, the layer-by-layer effect also works here:
- Waterproofing layer.
- Installation of foam plates( or other suitable material), to fix which you can use the appropriate adhesive composition.
- Cement screed( small thickness), reinforced with reinforcement for greater reliability. Cement brand M-100 is optimally suited for these purposes.
- Since the cellar is a room with high humidity, to enhance the effect, you can further treat the walls with waterproofing composition over the screed.
- The finished surface can be revetted with any finishing coating that you like( tile, wild stone, etc.).
It is better to carefully fill all available joints with assembly foam.
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Stairs in the basement
The staircase is an important structural element of the cellar, basement. Your safety depends on them, so the stairs must be properly made and installed. Most commonly, hardwood, metal or concrete is used for construction. The staircase can be straight, swivel, screw or side - it all depends on the individual design of the cellar or basement, as well as your preferences. The ladder should be strong, reliable, it is desirable to have a railing. The thickness of the steps depends on the width of the step.
No matter what material the ladder will be made of, but the building code must be strictly followed. The correct width, clearance, slope - these are the main parameters of the construction.↑ to content ↑
Plastic cellar is an innovative alternative to standard cellars or cellars. In fact, this storage is a ready-made plastic cube( box), with strong walls, the presence of shelves, stairs, a tightly closed lid. Such storage is quickly assembled, then it is not afraid of moisture - and this is an important factor for storing food stocks. For the manufacture of such a container is used plastic, which is composed of fiberglass or polypropylene. The ready-made factory version comes with a ventilation system.
The plastic cellar can be installed in any desired place of the local area or under the garage, house, any construction. The only important nuance is the correct installation of the box.
- lack of temperature extremes;
- humidity control;
- protection against rodents;
- does not absorb odors;
- easy cleaning and disinfection;
- does not corrode;
- operational life of more than 50 years.
Installation Process In General, Phased:
- Dig a ditch of the appropriate size.
- The bottom of the excavation is concreted( or a ready-made concrete slab is installed).
- The box is installed on the concrete bottom, fixed with a sling( or as recommended by the manufacturer).
- The pit with the box is filled with a mixture of sand and concrete, only the entrance cover is visible from the outside.
It is also worth mentioning the addition, which is sometimes made by the owners of such cellars - we are talking about the insulation of the walls with foam. Here opinions are divided, since the construction itself is self-sufficient and, in theory, does not need to be improved. This issue is decided only by the owner, but the additional insulation of the box does not hurt.
Whatever type of storage room you choose, you need to take into account the characteristics of the soil on the site, pay close attention to all construction parameters. A plastic cellar, a separate building, or a basement in a private house, equipped with its own hands for a summer gift store, require precise preliminary calculations. If you adhere to all construction rules, a cellar with your own construction will delight you and your loved ones with high quality products for many years.