Tap water is almost universally unfit for drinking and requires advance preparation. Boiling and advocacy - the method is simple, but not too effective.
Household filters cope with this task much better, but the highest degree of purification provides reverse osmosis plant. expensive method, but totally worth the investment.
Purification of water by reverse osmosis is the most advanced yet. Its working principle is similar to sharing a living organism substances. With it manages to rid the water of virtually all impurities, viruses, bacteria, nitrates, etc.
Installing reverse osmosis with their hands easily, he's going to, as a designer, and performance of work requires no special tools - just the minimum set of the fan.
The content of the article:
- The principle of operation and purpose of the system
- Components Typical kit
Installation of a reverse osmosis system
- Step # 1 - study the functioning of the filter
- Step # 2 - select the optimum installation location
- Step # 3 - set the drinking valve
- Step # 4 - To connect to the water supply
- Step # 5 - crashed into the sanitary sewer system
- Step # 6 - put the valve on the tank
- Step # 7 - assemble the filtration unit
- Step # 8 - Filling and flushing filter
- Operation Tips
- Replacement of filtration elements
Install the accessories
- Item # 1 - pump pressure boosting system
- Item # 2 - UV lamp
- Item # 3 - mineralizer water
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
The principle of operation and purpose of the system
Reverse osmosis is the process in which the water flow is divided into two unequal parts with different densities. One part is a pure water, and the second - the water with a large amount of impurities.
For this separation, a special membrane with very small holes. Their size is 0.0001 microns.
Water passing through the prefilter cartridge, freed from suspended particles, residual chlorine, organic compounds.
The main component of the system, performing superfine purification and preparation of drinking water, - a membrane filter. In the configuration presented on the photo bottom laid horizontally module
The membrane filter is a multilayer polymeric web having a pore size of 0.0001 microns
Through a membrane filter water flows under pressure, "parting" with all kinds of impurities and organic matter, including bacteria and viruses
The membrane filter is mounted in a plastic housing with one side connected to the inlet hose, from the second - to a hose outputted to the drain. Water flowing through the membrane is supplied to the consumer, all that had passed, drained
Reverse osmosis system - the filter membrane
The structure of the membrane filter
reverse osmosis filter retains contaminants
The components of the membrane filter module
Once in the reverse osmosis membrane, water flows through the semipermeable layers and it further divided into two streams.
One of them, a concentrate is discharged into the sewage system and the second permeate, enters the storage container, which compensates for the inability of the membrane to provide a flow-through mode sufficient for the user productivity.
Only particles can penetrate through the membrane pores whose size corresponds to the size of water molecule or less.
Large particles through the membrane barrier does not penetrate, but they can clog the fine pores, so before the water is subjected to reverse osmosis process, it is necessary to prepare.
The pores of membrane 200 times less for viruses and 4 th. time less than bacteria. It passes through itself only water and oxygen molecules
To mechanically remove contaminants using two filters with holes respectively five and one micron. Between these two filters set another - with carbon filler. It retains molecules of different chemical substances dissolved in water: iron, chlorine compounds, heavy metals, etc.
The molecules of some substances are smaller than water molecules. If pre-treatment is not available, they can penetrate the membrane and contaminate the water.
Products obtained by reverse osmosis is called permeate and concentrate. Last - is that part of the water in which concentrated pollution. This portion is generally about 60-65% water, it is disposed of down the drain.
Reverse osmosis is used to purify water at the molecular level.
Permeate - is very pure water purification degree reaches 98%. Together with harmful contaminants and membrane filter ensures that many useful substances, which give the natural drinking water taste and unique properties. To fix this little flaw, the permeate passes through another filter.
To enrich the water minerals, used mineralizer. Bio-ceramic filter with tourmaline allows you to bring permeate the structure to the natural state. There are also post filters with the ability to expose water to ultraviolet radiation.
The easiest post-filter contains activated carbon and coconut shell. With it, the permeate is subjected to further purification and give it a pleasant natural taste. If desired, of such modules can be dispensed with, but if water obtained from the reverse osmosis system will not be as tasty and wholesome.
In this diagram, reflected in detail the procedure for connection and operation of the reverse osmosis system and marked all its basic elements
The basic kit includes the necessary elements that can provide effective reverse osmosis work.
If the contamination exceeds the rate of water or water system can not ensure a normal operation of the device, it will improve with the help of additional equipment.
Group filters, part of the reverse osmosis, multistage produces water purification. Membrane filter system carries out processing at the molecular level,
The unit includes Hepa 3 - 5 modular replaceable filter storage tank and the cock for supplying purified water
If the discharge of water through the existing pressure treatment system is not sufficient in the booster pump circuit includes
Installation of water purification systems without any problems, you can perform your own hands. All the elements are simply connected, secured only need to filter holders
Operating a reverse osmosis
Components installation Hepa
Boost pressure pump
Installing the system with their own hands
Interesting facts, pros and cons of membrane treatment are presented in this article.
Components Typical kit
Typically, reverse osmosis systems are supplied as a kit, which already have everything you need, even the fasteners.
The list of equipment may vary depending on the model and include the following elements:
- reverse osmosis membrane;
- block with flasks prefilter in which three filters are installed, two mechanical and one carbon;
- the post-filter;
- tap for drinking water;
- key to replace the filters;
- Key for the membrane body;
- set of tees-connectors;
- mounting panel for a crane;
- a set of flexible hoses, etc.
Before buying you need to decide on issues such as the performance of the membrane and the presence of additional modules.
For example, you can simultaneously install and post-filter and mineralizing and bioceramic cartridge or confine postfilter.
Installation with a reverse osmosis function is a multi-stage water treatment system cleans it at the molecular level
The standard set of three filters pretreatment system, a membrane filter and a module for aligning the taste and odor of purified water
Modules with a filter element arranged in a clear manner. First, the water passes a coarse cleaning and disposes of 5 micron size particles. Then, through a charcoal filter and a fine filter retaining particles 2 microns
At the end of the pretreatment water enters the membrane filter retaining mineral and organic inclusion of up to 0.0001 microns. It also filters out bacteria and viruses
The water passed through the membrane filter is fed into the coal cleaner, leveling smell and taste, or to a storage tank and then to the consumer
At the request of the owners of the system can be switched mineralizer, enriching water composition useful mineral components
In regions with characteristic hard tap water pretreatment filters have to be at least three
Where water supplies soft water or water canal conducts enhanced cleaning, pretreatment number of filters can be reduced
hyperfine water purification system
Standard filter set
Obligatory arrangement of the modules
Reverse osmosis membrane
Coal water treatment filter
Mineralizing - an optional component
Options for areas with hard water
The system for areas with soft water
When choosing a reverse osmosis system, should pay attention to the size of its elements. Often Popular models have standard sizes. This allows the replacement of membranes or filters to select appropriate options different production companies.
But if the size of the model is unique, you may have to install only specific branded ink cartridges, which is not always advantageous and convenient.
Installation of a reverse osmosis system
A variety of reverse osmosis systems is very large. Therefore, the installation of the filter will be further discussed on an example of the most common - with five purification and storage tank.
Installation fine water purification system includes a number of standard steps that are performed in the same manner regardless of the brand
Step 1: The first thing you are connecting the filter modules, perpetrated in order specified by the manufacturer. Swap filter elements can not be
Step 2: To assemble complex filters connected hose required for connection to the water supply system. From the membrane unit is displayed in the sewer pipe
Step 3: The node is connected to the water supply system is going according to the sanitary rules using sealants and sealant
Step 3: The connection to the water supply unit is equipped with a ball valve, necessary to disconnect the installation if necessary
Step 5: To enable installation in a water reducer is used, which connection is performed with forming the sealing gaskets
Step 6: To connect the installation to the sewer system drilled hole, around which the seal is pasted
Step 7: At the siphon installed clamp to which is connected a hose from the membrane unit. In order to coincide the opening before fixing the bolts into the holes it is necessary to introduce the hose
Preparing to install a reverse osmosis
Connecting the filter modules
Hose connection to a range of filters
the connection node to the water
Use of the scheme in the ball valve
Connecting to the water supply system
the connection node to the sewer
Installation clamp for hose connection
Step # 1 - study the functioning of the filter
Before installation can not hurt to understand exactly exactly how fluid moves through the system. First you need to make a sidebar in the water pipe to connect it to the hose connecting the water supply to the pre-treatment filters. The water passes the filters, leaving in their cartridges, pieces of mechanical and chemical contaminants.
Then the flow moves to the prepared membrane and pass through its body. From the membrane unit moves two hoses. One of them is to concentrate and connected to the sewer system.
With this hose disposed of contamination. According to a second hose permeate, i.e. purified water is supplied to the expansion tank. Here the water is collected and stored. To do without such a capacity and ensure the normal operation of the reverse osmosis system is virtually impossible.
The fact that the average consumer of the membrane performance is usually around seven liters per hour. For domestic use such a slow stream at some point may not be enough.
Storage tank completely solve the problem. It stores a sufficient amount of pure water, which is constantly updated in descending liquid. After expansion tank water can be fed directly to the tap for drinking water, but it is rarely done.
reverse osmosis elements are small enough in size, so they are not difficult to install in the space under the kitchen sink
If we decided to provide a home-quality water, it makes sense to pay for a quality post-filter, mineralizing, or other similar device. Some people prefer to use several such blocks.
In this case, you need to select faucet with two valves. It is connected in such a way that in one valve came only purified water, and in the other - rich in minerals.
This is done in order not to use mineralized or structured water for cooking, as by boiling, this effect will disappear. Thus, the use of a crane with two valves helps to extend the service life of the mineralizer.
Step # 2 - select the optimum installation location
Immediately, select the installation site itself reverse osmosis and drinking tap water. In most cases, this element is put on a kitchen sink, which in its housing a small hole is drilled.
If desired, the location of the tap drinking water can change. But then be sure to provide access to sanitation to accidentally fracture of the edge of the water tank is not spread all over the kitchen.
In the spacious kitchen you can put another small sink specifically for drinking water, but such a need arises rarely. The most convenient way to install elements of the system close to the drinking water tap and from each other. The shorter the hose, which moves the water, the system works effectively.
Traditionally, the system is installed in the same place and Household filters - under the sink. The dimensions of the storage tank and block filters quite allow to do so. Before you start, check the system for compliance with the input parameters.
Having all the elements of the system is checked without opening the packages. Otherwise, the manufacturer will not accept claims for incompleteness
It is necessary to verify:
- Pressure in the membrane tank;
- incoming water temperature;
- the pressure at the inlet of the reverse osmosis system.
Indicators may be different, they each manufacturer indicates in the instructions for each model separately. Install the system away from heat sources, in a place out of direct sunlight.
First, overlap the current cold water, but if the mixer has only one handle, then disconnect and also hot. Then open the valve to release pressure and then close it.
Before mounting the connection tube, a membrane and reverse osmosis cartridges must be sanitized their hands.
Step # 3 - set the drinking valve
If the sink is already available an additional hole, for example, liquid detergent dispenser, it is quite possible to use a drinking faucet reverse osmosis system. If such openings are not available, it will have to do yourself.
Particular caution should be exercised when working on an enamel surface to prevent damage to the protective layer.
The installation is carried out on the edge of the sink or countertop near the sink area. Suitable for mounting a flat horizontal surface with a diameter of about 4 cm. Before installing, make sure that the space under the sink allows you to fix the faucet and take the tube without kinking.
In order to work accurately, all the surfaces on which the chips will fall when drilling, veiled cloth or paper. After the end of the chips can be mounted quickly gather
Some shells are provided holes for the installation of an additional tap.
If not, then perform these steps:
- Prepare holes. Drill with 6 mm diameter drill hole at low speed in the sink or countertop. To avoid damaging the surface and to prevent chipping, can be pasted on her patch. For ceramic or stone surfaces are used carbide drill.
- Expansion openings. Further, taking a drill diameter of 11-12.5 mm, increase the hole and remove the patch. If the edges turned ragged, they smooth out needle files or file.
- Shoe surface. Clean chips, carefully remove the metal, until she left rust stains on the surface of the sink.
- Sealing. Before setting the tap in the hole in its lower part wear and decorative plate rubber washer for sealing compounds.
- Assembly. Lower base tap is inserted into the hole bottom wear on it a rubber, a plastic and then metal washer. The resulting construct nut is tightened with a spanner or wrench to the tubular 14.
On the lower base of the fitting is screwed inside which should be a rubber gasket.
Connecting standard tap carried out according to Scheme producer. Similarly, the double tap is connected, with a mineralizer used for purification systems
Step # 4 - To connect to the water supply
First, of course, necessary to block the flow of cold water. Water connection comes with an adapter-adapter. The most convenient place to install - Connect the water pipe and flexibles kitchen faucet.
Under this portion is substituted basin for draining residual water and the installation is carried out:
- Flexible liner is detached from the pipe mixer with the water, check for the presence of the rubber seal in the adapter and it is not screwed on both sides liner by tightening wrench.
- Spun with the adapter nut ball valve, to put it in a plastic tube.
- Tube pull on the ball valve. Tighten the screws by hand, not putting much effort.
To improve tightness of the outer thread of the adapter and the conduit is wound a teflon tape.
When you connect a reverse osmosis system to the water supply using a special tee. All threaded connections compacted linen thread or ribbon-FUM
Step # 5 - crashed into the sanitary sewer system
To drain the contaminated water which remains after passing through the reverse osmosis membrane is carried out connection to the sewer drain via the collar.
Place tie should be at a level above the water seal, ie, siphon. On the vertical or horizontal portion of the drain pipe of the siphon above, make drill holes 7-8 mm in diameter.
Do not install the drain clamp on curved, uneven terrain. To achieve sealing of joints in such places would be impossible
Before you install the clamp on its bracket with a hole glue the rubber gasket. Then the fixed clamp, tightening the screws evenly, and to ensure that the bracket from opposite sides were parallel and were firmly pressed, and the openings in the drain pipe and clamp are aligned.
The fitting of the drain pipe clamp is inserted into the black greased with silicone grease and pre-wearing nut, which is tight, but not much spin.
Clamp supplied filter and is suitable for most plastic pipe (diameter 32-50 mm), which are used for sewerage device
Step # 6 - put the valve on the tank
The accumulator serves for creating water reserves and maintain a stable pressure. Since cleaning of the reverse osmosis method is slow, back-up capacity helps to quickly get the required amount of water that has been purified in advance.
Usually drive mounted vertically on a special support. But if the need arises, it can be placed horizontally or mounted on brackets.
If the space under the sink is not enough storage tank put anywhere near, for example, in the neighboring kitchen cupboard. Hose have to do small holes in the walls of the kitchen furniture.
Storage tank reverse osmosis systems are often mounted vertically on a special stand. During installation check operating air pressure in the tank and adjust it according to the regulatory parameters
Sam tank before installing the need to prepare - to a threaded joint is necessary to attach the plastic tap. At wind the thread storage tank FUM tape in two or three layers.
Then, without using tools, wind on her cock until it stops. The tap fitting is inserted into a plastic tube. The other end is connected to the coal postfilter (the last stage of the process).
The new water-filled tank not set the internal pressure at 0,34-0,48 atm., So it is impossible to open the valve at the bottom, so as not to release the gas that it generates
Another important point - the pressure in the tank. Pressure was measured in the pressure gauge and pump up the air tank when needed.
Step # 7 - assemble the filtration unit
When choosing a place under the sink for the filtration plant take into account that the pipes that supplied, usually have a length of 1.5 m, and they should be located freely without strain and excesses.
If necessary, filters can be hung on the inner wall of the cabinet. It is also necessary to ensure free access to the ball valves. The flasks pre-filters are fixed to a special bracket, which can be hung on the wall of the kitchen cabinet under the sink.
The location should be easily accessible, it was convenient to replace the used cartridges. To access the bulb, use a special key.
The first step is set prefilters cartridges according to the instructions. One should not confuse their location, or can lead to device failure.
Flasks with prefilter mounted on a special support which is hung on the wall. It is important to provide free access to these elements in order to carry out the replacement cartridges
To install the cartridge and remove the protective film is placed in a housing which is mounted back in place. It follows that the seal rubber has no bias. Once the filters are installed on top of the special holders mounted housing, which houses the reverse osmosis membrane.
Above the diaphragm is fixed post-filter and mineralizing or other modules. Thereafter all system elements connected hoses are secured by special locks.
Holes for hoses in the reverse osmosis system is protected with transport covers. These plugs must be removed just before connecting hoses
The order of connection is usually fully described in the instructions. We need to connect the water supply to the pre-filter. Withdraw water from the membrane filter, and then the membrane to hold two hose: to drain and to the storage tank. By the drive output tap hose to the post-filter, and then - to the tap drinking water. Another hose is passed through the mineralizer.
Installing membrane body is as follows:
- disconnect the tube from the fitting body;
- using the key cap is unscrewed;
- is inserted into the housing and the membrane is pressed until it stops;
- close the lid and insert the tube into place.
Tube for connecting filtration elements lubricated with silicone grease or Vaseline, and connect in this order:
- a water supply tube connected to the inlet of the first filter.
- Storage capacitance connected to the input of a filter, performing the fifth step of purification.
- Fifth stage output is connected to the tap of purified water.
- The second end of the tube, which is connected to the sewer is attached to the outlet of the flow restrictor.
After making sure that all connection pipes can be considered as the equipment is ready for use. It only remains to fill it with water and carry out washing.
To carry out the connection tube cut length of the desired length at a right angle, is inserted all the way into the convector. Pressing with a force utaplivajut another 5-6 mm, in general it is recessed by approximately 17 mm. Check the clutch can be gently pulling the tube in opposite directions. To disassemble connections, pressed a finger to stop the collet and pulling the tube
Step # 8 - Filling and flushing filter
Before the first filling of the filter cover and the valve on the tank shut-off valve pipeline.
Next, operate as follows:
- The tap is opened for drinking water;
- Spun a common valve water treatment system;
- Open the ball valve supplying water into the reverse osmosis filter.
The first 5-10 minutes, the water should not expect - air will escape from the system. When the water begins to flow, her head will be small, because at this point turn off the tap capacity. Open it until you need it is necessary to wait to the water for two hours to wash the filter device.
Draining certain amount of water faucet device overlap and leave alone for another 10 minutes, at which time the installation is checked for leaks. If a leak is detected, tighten the leaking connections. Making sure that the system is working properly, open the tank valve.
After installing the filter unit is necessary during the week to check it for possible leaks and faults
Filling the tank can last for several hours, the speed depends on the water pressure. Then again washed system - drinking water, are not recommended to the first tank filling.
You can only start using purified water after the second tank filling.
The first treated water may have a milky appearance - it is normal - extends displacement of air bubbles and create such an effect
Stored in the primary water tank should be completely drained into the sewer. Thereafter, water again opened for cleaning. When the tank is full, you can begin to use the system in normal mode.
If after the system starts drinking water is milky and contains small air bubbles, it is not necessary to worry. This effect of dissolved air in water, it is not dangerous. This effect will disappear after a few days or weeks.
Too rapid contamination of pre-filters, and the presence of mucus in the cartridge may be a symptom of low blood pressure in the water network. The problem is usually solved by using a pump.
Sometimes washing the charcoal filter can contaminate the third filter immediately after installation. To avoid this, a third filter is better to install after is rinsed carbon cartridge. But do not try to wash the charcoal filter under running water, so it can spoil.
Do not neglect washing coal cartridge, as this may lead to rapid clogging of the membrane. The same effect can produce a too high pressure in the water system is too sparse Replacement pre-filters or the use of poor-quality ink cartridges, clogging drain.
If you boil water in the kettle is formed a scum, you should check the connection order. Possibly connected to a drinking tap hose on which arrives concentration, and purified water goes down the drain.
If the treated water has got not a characteristic smell and taste, as soon as possible to check the pre-filter. Perhaps their resources exhausted, need a replacement. Also, this phenomenon may indicate a bacterial contamination.
Cartridge reverse osmosis membrane is in a plastic housing. It must be replaced every 3-5 years depending on the salt content in the treated water
prefilter cartridge should be replaced every six months or more. The new membrane is usually necessary to put every three to five years. Every year should check the condition of the treated water. If the salt content exceeds 20 mg / l, the membrane must be replaced.
Replacement of filtration elements
To their hands to replace fillers cartridge cover off valves and water supply device. Then open the valve of purified water and decanted liquid residues.
Further, the plastic tube is disconnected and removed from the cabinet and machinery. Remember the location of the tubes can be, conducted their labeling or using a camera (if color tubes).
Screw cap housings and extract the resource exhausted cartridges, filter membrane. Plastic bottles and caps wash dish detergent.
When installing the new filter elements carefully observe the order of installation, check the presence of the rubber seal on the lid.
Sealing rubber ring before mounting wiped dry. Collected and washed system as well as in the installation of the new device.
Replacement of replaceable filter elements is carried out with this frequency:
- RO membrane - every 24-30 months;
- carbon post-filter - once every 12 months;
- Prefilters - once in 6 months.
Replacement period depends largely on the quality of water. New interchangeable elements are replaced by the same, referring to their mark.
Using cartridges have exhausted their resources, can bring even greater health hazard than the raw water
Install the accessories
Work even with such a serious equipment like reverse osmosis filter, can be made more effective by setting additional elements.
Such as, for example:
- Pressure regulator. The equipment is designed to protect the components from plumbing pressure drops, exceeding the allowable values at the inlet of the filtration system and compensation water hammer.
- The system of protection against leakage. Installed upstream of the filter and closes the water in case of leakage and the ingress of water. It minimizes the risks and limits the extent of the damage, but does not completely eliminate the possibility of leaks.
- nitrate prefilter. Used to effectively remove nitrate, the installation location is agreed with specialists.
- Icemaker. Connected via a tee in the connecting tube rupture, leading to a drinking faucet.
Before installing the filter was measured line pressure gauge. For values greater than 6.6 atm., Set the gearbox, with less than 2.2 atm., The pump is installed, which will create greater pressure.
For devices that are often used to improve the functionality of reverse osmosis, followed by a more detailed description.
Item # 1 - pump pressure boosting system
The membrane filter, which is the basis of a reverse osmosis system, but can fully function at a certain water head in private house or apartment.
If the maximum pressure not exceeding 2.8 atm., Then for the normal operation of the filter must be installed pump.
If you have to buy more equipment, it is best to do it with the same manufacturer and be guided by it develops, connection diagrams.
An example of one possible scheme. The pump may be located in the gap before the first tube povodyaschey prefilter, and after the second or third
the pump only in a pair with a set pressure control sensorWhich is responsible for its inclusion at a pressure drop and off when a jump to the maximum.
The sensor is mounted to the storage container, a tube gap. When the poor quality of tap water upstream of the pump set main strainer.
Secure the pump pressure rises to a horizontal or vertical surface by means of special brackets and screws
If there is a danger of increased water pressure in the system up to 3-4 atm., In order to prevent leaks before the pump is necessary to install a special pressure reducing valve.
Item # 2 - UV lamp
Sometimes reverse osmosis filter conditions are favorable for rapid microbial growth as a consequence of increased water temperature or outage for a long time.
This leads to fouling organisms prefilters, pressure reduction and a decline in equipment performance. And then use UV filters for water disinfection.
The apparatus consists of the parts: stainless steel housing with a UV lamp, located inside the power supply and, which converts the mains voltage to the values required for the lamp and protects it from shocks voltage.
Water passing inside the enclosure is illuminated with ultraviolet rays and disinfected.
UV light can be adjusted after or before the filter. When mounting the lamps to the filtration unit it is often used together with prefilter
Place the UV lamp unit may depend on the objectives to be achieved:
- inlet filter - to remove the strong biological contamination of tap water;
- between the crane and the container - to protect the microorganisms from getting into the tank of drinking tap water.
The lamp for ease of installation are two clips are provided to help secure it to the filter unit or on any other surface.
Item # 3 - mineralizer water
Water flowing through a membrane filter at 90-99% cleaned and rid of any impurities, including mineral and essential mineral elements. Such water is sour in taste.
Mineralizer compensate for the lack of essential minerals, adjust the level of PH. Cartridges mineralizers different brands may differ in composition and resources, and to enrich the water with calcium, zinc, magnesium and other elements.
mineralizer installation is carried out after a membrane filter and preferably connected to a double tap. Thus, the user can choose between a simple and purified mineralized water
In some models, reverse osmosis filters mineralizer filter also plays a role and is set as the last stage of the process.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Clear video on how to install a reverse osmosis can be viewed here:
This video contains useful information on the replacement of pre-filters:
To perform a reverse osmosis filter unit with your hands is necessary not only to prepare tool, but also to the analysis of water, explore options, and water filtration system devices.
You need to carefully study the instructions and accurately implement the recommendations of the manufacturer. Properly selected equipment - a 50% success rate. And then the installation itself will not make difficulties. A timely maintenance and replacement of exhaust systems elements will provide quality drinking water to the house.
Share your experience with our readers to improve the quality of drinking water. Please leave comments on the article and ask your questions on the topic. The feedback form located below.