Growing high-quality onion heads from a sev is quite simple, especially since the technology has many advantages. There is a high productivity, rapid ripening of root crops, the release of arrows occurs less frequently than when growing turnips. With proper care, planting in the open field does not cause difficulties.
Sow sevok in the country can be in the northern regions, Siberian regions and Novosibirsk. It is important to observe the rules of sowing, care properly and protect from frost.
. ContentsThe correct time for planting onion sets in open ground
The optimal period for planting - end of April .Early term due to the resistance of culture to cold. Also used is a method of growing onions from a tree planted before winter( in the second half of October).
The landing of a landing at a later time leads to a rapid drying of the upper layer, with the result that the soil quickly loses the moisture accumulated during the winter. This has a negative effect on the rooting of the bulbs, which delays the emergence of shoots. As a result, roots are not fully mature.
In the Urals and in the regions of Siberia, plans to plant seedlings from the beginning of May on ( from 5-10 numbers), when the soil temperature is from +7 degrees .
. Methods for growing and planting onion
. Place under the beds is selected well-lit by sunlight and aired by .This is necessary for normal growing season, eliminating the formation of rot and fungal diseases.
Soil is suitable light fertile with neutral or slightly acidic medium .To reduce the acidity, lime is introduced into the soil( up to 4-5 kg per hundred parts).Also suitable for these purposes: dolomite flour, wood ash, crushed chalk.
It is not worth dividing the beds at the place where the garlic is grown, the land after the spicy crop is very depleted, which will reduce the onion harvest. But after tomatoes, eggplants, pumpkins, cereals and potatoes, planting sevok possible.
When enriching the soil with fertilizers, it is not necessary to simultaneously introduce lime into it, as this leads to a significant decrease in the amount of nitrogen. And it is necessary for normal growing season.
When preparing the beds for onions in the fall, humus( up to 5 kg per m2) is introduced into the plot. During the work of the earth they dig up to a depth of 20 cm .Spring work begins with cleaning the area from debris and fertilizing the soil with minerals. Superphosphate( 6 g / m 2), urea( 1 g / m 2), potassium chloride( 2 g / m 2) are scattered on the ground and cultivated.
Disinfection of soil is a mandatory preparatory step. To do this, 7 days before disembarking, it is poured over with a solution of blue vitriol( a tablespoon of money in a bucket of water).
is used to disinfect the soil. Planting material also needs to be disinfected before planting. Proper preparation of affects yield and crop resistance to diseases and pests. Seed processing consists of the following steps:
- soaking in a weak solution of potassium permanganate( copper sulfate 0.35%);
- drying followed by storage for 20 days at +20 degrees ;
- heating heads for 10 hours at a temperature of +40 degrees ;
- seed growth treatment.
Onion seedlings are grown in several ways:
- in spring;
- before winter;
- in the greenhouse;
- bridge method.
In the spring on the bed
Spring disembarkation is done according to the following pattern:
- row spacing with manual processing of the beds - 25 cm ( if there is a motoblock - 60-72 cm);
- the distance between the holes - from 5 to 10 cm ;
- immersion depth - 3-4 cm .
After planting, the bed is mulched(2-3 cm) of peat, paper, sawdust or other suitable materials.
Under the winter into the soil
The method of landing sevka for the winter has several advantages:
- there is no need to ensure the storage conditions of the sevka in the winter period up to the middle of spring;
- early terms harvest( mid-July);
- by the time of the appearance of the pests, the culture is completely formed and mature.
In the vacant place, you can have time to grow the harvest of some fruits with a short period of ripening.
The peculiarity of the choice of the place for the bed is in the preference of the plot located on the hill. There, the snow melts faster, moreover, the stagnation of melt water is excluded.
The landing time is from October 5 to 20 .Planting material should be properly prepared: calibrate, disinfect and heat. The scheme is used standard or with a narrow aisle up to 15 cm .The seeding depth is 5 cm.
With the onset of cold weather, the bed surface is covered with mulch material. In the spring of the old protective layer must be removed.
In the greenhouse
Growing sevka in the greenhouse provides a number of preparatory measures:
- decontamination of the surfaces of the structure;
- loosening the soil;
- introduction of humus( 5 kg per 1 m2);
- mineral fertilizer beds with minerals( superphosphate - 30 gr., Potassium chloride - 15 gr.);
- mixing and leveling the ground.
The seed is selected with a diameter of 30-50 mm. Any bad material is rejected. The landing of the prepared seeding is done in the second half of October according to the following pattern:
- the distance between the heads is 20-25 cm;
- immersion depth - 4 cm.
Over the beds, a mulch of straw or sphagnum moss is lined with a layer of up to 20 cm .
Spring work begins with the cleaning of the mulching material before planting and growing. Next, fertilizers are introduced twice nitroamofoskoy( up to 15 g. / M2).Irrigation is done as needed. Starts actively rising in mid-April and early May. When the height of the pen reaches 20 cm, the crops are harvested.
This method of growing onions on the feather is used more often on balconies or in small greenhouses. The essence of the technology lies in the penetration of the seam in the ground in one row at a minimum without intervals between the heads. Thus, it turns out the bridge, which served as the name of the method.
From baits it is recommended to apply:
- superphosphate and potassium chloride - 2 g / 10 l of water;
- ammonium nitrate.
Baits are introduced on the 8th and 14th day of the growing season.
When growing planted on open ground with a spring planting, shoots appear above the soil surface at 9-11 day .If the landing work was carried out in October, then the first green is breaking through, depending on weather conditions, more often it occurs in early to mid-April.
Greenhouse cultivation also guarantees different timing of emergence of seedlings, due to the type of construction and thermal conductivity of its surfaces. In the most common polycarbonate greenhouse you can see the greening soil from the soil in late February and early March.
When using the bridge cultivation method, the first shoots can be obtained at 5-6 days after the landing of .
How to care and loosen
After the emergence of shoots above the ground surface, it is necessary to every 2 weeks to loosen the soil on the beds to prevent the formation of the earth's crust.
This process is often combined with weeding to remove weeds, which creates favorable conditions for disease and onion rot. Moreover, this neighborhood contributes to the formation of a thick neck, which subsequently complicates the drying of the crop.
Onions are related to crops that can do without , but this is the case when the soil is fertile. Many gardeners use 2-3 one-time bait mode:
- 20-25 days after planting the seeding is carried out by watering with a solution of manure( 1 kg per bucket of water);
- application of mineral fertilizers( urea, nitrophoska) before irrigation.
Watering of beds is carried out by with strict control of the degree of soil moisture .Lack of moisture is just as unacceptable as its abundance. If you carefully observe the plant, you can understand what the slightest changes indicate. Water should not be salty, when contaminated need to be slightly drained from the bucket.
The appearance on the leaves of a bluish-white hue indicates insufficient watering, and the paleness of feathers indicates an abundance of moisture. The first couple of months sevok irrigated weekly( 7-8 liters per 1 m2).Since July, the amount of water is reduced, and 3 weeks before harvest, it stops altogether.
200 grams of salt is taken on a bucket of water, the amount of liquid is prepared at the rate of 300 ml per bush. The procedure is repeated 1 time in 3 weeks .If the treatment was ineffective, the concentration should be increased to 450 g / 10 l of water.
Is it afraid of frost and what temperature does
withstand Onions are afraid of freezing and night-time minus temperatures. The temperature indicators of the air at the landing should be within +12 degrees, the soil at a depth of 10 cm - not less than +5 degrees. The planting material grows at 4-5 degrees .Mature onions of specially selected varieties withstand frost down to -7 degrees, while sweet varieties die at -4 degrees.
Onion care is quite simple, if done properly preparatory work. Monitoring the condition of the feather of the plant will be a hint, and the plan of measures will not let you forget about important procedures that guarantee a high yield.