Potato is one of the most important foods in our country. The yield of the “second bread” in Russia ranges from 115 to 137 centners per hectare, whereas in the USA and Holland it is 400, and in Canada it is 250 centners. The main way to increase it is to introduce best practices, for example, the Dutch, where the greatest successes have been achieved. Practice has shown that growing potatoes using Dutch technology is promising. But is it effective in the Krasnodar Territory?
- Fertilization, soil preparation, tuber treatment
- Comb ridge planting potatoes in Holland
- Features of storing potatoes in Holland
The main task of the Dutch technology is to create a loose, optimal soil structure. The soil for planting is prepared very carefully, deeply treated in the fall, in the spring so that a well-loosened wet layer forms at the top not less than 7-8 cm.
Potato Precursors. Of great importance is that it grew to potatoes on this soil, that is, what kind of culture was the predecessor. The Dutch believe that winter crops are the best. When autumn plowing organic fertilizer is applied under the predecessor. Mineral fertilizers are first scattered, and then plowed during cultivation, that is, shallow.
Fertilization, soil preparation, tuber treatment
The Dutch pay special attention to introducing nitrogen, and 2/3 of the norm is embedded in the soil before planting( ammonium nitrate), and 1/3, as a top dressing, is applied 20 days afterseedlings. Phosphorus in the form of superphosphate, potassium in the form of potassium sulfate contribute in the spring, before planting.
In spring, the land is not plowed up, but cultivated with a cultivator, that is, they are loosened superficially to a depth of no more than 12-14 cm.
The quality of planting material is of particular importance. It should be characterized by high reproduction, one hundred percent varietal purity, germination, the size of tubers with a diameter of 3-6 centimeters. Be sure to seed dressing.содерж to content ↑
Cresting method of planting potatoes in the Netherlands
The Dutch everywhere use the combing method of planting with rows 70 centimeters wide. Usually combs cut for 3-4 days before planting tubers. For planting, only pre-germinated seed potatoes are used.
Another important condition is a shallow( 10-12 cm) planting of tubers in the ridges. This technique has a number of advantages: it accelerates the emergence of friendly shoots( up to 2 weeks), contributes to a better development of the plants, the tubers are tied, are formed faster, the growth of roots and stolons is accelerated, the stems and leaves develop well. Especially well these advantages are manifested in wet seasons.
Potato Disease Treatment. Against phytophthora, according to the Dutch technology, 5-7 treatments are performed. The first is completed before the onset of signs of the disease( before the closure of potato tops), and the next - after 7-10 days. Before the appearance of phytophthora, contact drugs are used, after the appearance - systemic drugs( Ridomil, Arceride).
Preparation for cleaning. Harvesting is preceded by the destruction of the tops by chemical means( desiccation) or mechanically with the help of a botterbiter, as well as by their combination. After the destruction of tops, the tubers are kept for ten days or more to form a peel. Only after such an exposure start harvesting.содерж to content ↑
Features of potato storage in Holland
Many farmers in Holland use small storage facilities to store their crops. With ventilation and a temperature of 4–5 degrees, potatoes are stored for up to 8–9 months, and losses over such a long period do not exceed 1.5–2%.
Why it is impossible to completely copy the Dutch technology in the Kuban region, is it possible to completely copy the Dutch technology? The answer is unequivocal - no.
Dutch technology is primarily developed for its varieties, its soil and climatic conditions. And these are light sandy and sandy soils, moderate temperature during the growing season, plenty of moisture. An important factor is a high level of material and technical base, including a set of the most efficient equipment used for soil preparation, plant care and storage of the crop.
The conditions for potato cultivation in Kuban are in sharp contrast. These are heavy black soil, high night and daytime temperatures, moisture deficiency, high infectious background, lack of fertilizers, herbicides, specialized equipment.
What can be taken from the Dutch potato growing experience. Nevertheless, if not all of the technology, then many of its elements are not something that can be, but need to be applied.
Let's start with the use of Dutch varieties. Netherlands catalog contains more than 115 varieties. Of course, they are most adapted to their local cultivation conditions. There is not a single variety that would produce equally good results under different agro-climatic conditions. For this reason, most Dutch varieties are not suitable for our conditions. But there are varieties that are of practical interest to us.
For example, the middle zone of Russia - many farms in this zone have already started cultivating such varieties as Diamant, Escort, Cardinal, Premier, Fresco, Corine, which have high nutritional technological properties, as well as increased plasticity, that is, adaptability to different soil and climatic conditions.
Taking into account the experience of Dutch potato growers for the conditions of the Krasnodar Territory, we recommend the following technology.
At first it is very important to choose a place. For the southern zones of Russia, which includes the Krasnodar Territory, which is characterized by high temperatures, lack of moisture, potato crops should be placed on soils well supplied with moisture. Since potatoes are demanding on loose soils, sand, peat, and organic can be introduced as regularly as possible. This significantly improves the mechanical structure of the soil, facilitates its processing, increases productivity.
One of the best predecessors for potatoes is virgin. The virgin land will allow to get high yields without applying large doses of fertilizers. However, if it is not possible to leave an unoccupied area, then beetroot, cabbage, cucumber, and carrots give good results, like previous crops.
An important agrotechnical element is soil preparation. Potatoes are very sensitive to its density. If the soil is poorly cut, compacted, the plants develop poorly, the tubers are deformed. Therefore, without careful processing of our Kuban black soil, it is impossible to obtain high yields.
The soil should be started in the fall. It is advisable to cut the ridges in the fall, which is planned for planting potatoes. The ridges are cut with cultivators from north to south. The distance between the ridges is 70 centimeters, the height of the ridge is up to 20 centimeters.
In winter, under the action of rain, snow, and frost, large clumps are crushed and settle somewhat. Therefore, in the spring, as soon as the soil warms up, the cultivators carry out pre-planting loosening of the ridges and the local application of mineral fertilizers.
Before planting , seed potatoes must be prepared. The first method is to remove patients who are not typical of tubers, sort them into fractions: fine( 25-50 g), medium( 51-80 g) and large( 81-120 g).
An important technique is planting potatoes with germinated tubers. This is not a difficult agrotechnical reception provides uniform early shoots( shoots appear 10-14 days earlier than when planting unsprouted tubers), increases the proportion of fractions of large tubers by 13-17%, and increases productivity by 20-40%.In practice, this is typical for all varieties.
2-3 weeks before planting, selected calibrated seeds are germinated with natural light at a temperature of 10-25 degrees. The germination of tubers is designed in such a way that by planting the length of green shoots does not exceed 1.5-2 cm. For these purposes, boxes of various designs and mesh bags are used.
It is very important to choose the optimal landing period. On the one hand, sowing even 10 days later than the optimal period reduces the yield by 17-20%.But on the other hand, very early landings are undesirable. The optimum temperature of the soil at a depth of 15 cm for seed germination is not lower than + 7 ° C.At lower temperatures, stolons with a large number of nodules prematurely appear on the surface of the tubers, that is, tuber sprouting occurs. This phenomenon is most often observed when planting in cold( below + 7 ° C) soil.
On the basis of this, it is recommended to plant potatoes as soon as the soil warms to 7-9 ° C.This usually happens when setting the average daily air temperature above + 10 ° С( third decade of March).
However, in the Kuban, for the early harvest, seeds are often planted during the “February windows”.Therefore, it is very important to choose a variety that, in addition to all positive signs, must tolerate cooling, without undergrowing. Most of all these requirements are met by our variety of national selection of Mike and grade Reserve.
Potato tubers with well developed strong sprouts are planted in the ridge mode: on heavy soils to a depth of 6-8 cm, on light ones - 10-12 cm. The distance between bushes on production crops is 30-35 cm, on seed crops - 22-24see
. If it is not possible to use the ridge cultivation technology, then you can apply the usual method of smooth planting using elements of the Dutch technology. Autumn soil preparation is the same as with the ridge technology, but without cutting ridges.
If according to traditional technology the depth of landing is 14 cm or more, then according to the Dutch technology it is 6-8 centimeters. When planting, a crest of up to 10 cm in height is formed. After two weeks, when the first shoots begin to appear, they start forming the ridges. The height of the ridge is 22–24 cm. The distance from the soil surface to the tuber is 10–12 cm.
Planting potatoes is the most important agrotechnical set of measures. This is weed control, maintenance of loose soil, chemical care system, the main task of which is to suppress weeds, diseases and pests.
The first period of plant life is the most responsible - the foundations of the future harvest are laid. The better the conditions for the growth and development of young plants, the stronger the root system, the more productive stolons are formed, the faster the vegetative mass is formed.
The seeds of many annual weeds germinate as early as 4-5 days after planting, so it is important not to be late with the first treatment, to destroy the sprouted, but not yet sprung weeds that are in the white thread phase. At the same time, up to 80% of sprouted but not yet raised weeds are destroyed. In addition, in the spring, after planting potatoes, it often rains to promote the formation of a soil crust that disrupts normal gas exchange, which leads to a slower germination of tubers. To obtain earlier friendly shoots every 7-10 days is carried out pre-emergence loosening of the soil with hoes or cultivators.
After emergence of shoots, the land is treated 2-3 times. The soil, prone to compaction, is treated to a depth of 14-17 cm. In the sandy areas, the loosening depth is 8-12 centimeters. The last mechanical tillage - before closing the tops, when the plants reach a height of 15-20 cm - conduct deep hilling.
However.if the potato field is heavily clogged, then the mechanical methods of weed control may be insufficient, then, as an addition to them, it is necessary to use chemical control measures. But we must remember that herbicides for the destruction of weeds, as a rule, are used before the emergence of potato shoots. After this period, it is recommended to use only mechanical treatments.
For the effective use of herbicides take into account the characteristics of the soil. On light soils on the mechanical composition, the minimum rate of the preparation is taken, on heavy chernozem - the maximum.
After application of herbicides, subsequent mechanical tillage is recommended no earlier than 6-8 days after spraying.
Late blight is caused by late blight. During the cold rainy spring, this disease can completely destroy the crop. Therefore, for the prevention of the season, it is recommended to carry out 1-3 spraying fungicides.
For the control of late blight, drugs of both contact and systemic action are used. The difference between them is this: contact preparations act only on the surfaces of plants. After rains, they are washed away, their action ceases, whereas systemic fungicides enter the interior of plant tissues and may protect the plant from diseases for a longer time( 12-15 days).
The main contact fungicides against late blight: copper oxychloride, polycarbacin, 1% bordeaux liquid.
Systemic medications: Arceride, Ridomil, Tubarid, etc. The consumption rates for each drug are different, read the instructions before use.
The first preventive spraying against late blight is usually recommended during the formation of buds. However, if the spring was cold, rainy, the treatment should begin much earlier. Against late blight, it is not recommended to use only contact or, on the contrary, only systemic drugs. The best effect is obtained with their alternation.
Colorado potato beetle inflicts heavy crop losses. If in the middle zone of Russia, as a rule, two or( very rarely) three generations of this pest are reproduced per season, in our south - 4-6.Therefore, in order to effectively combat this dangerous pest, it is necessary to carefully select both insecticides and know well at what stages of development of the beetle they should be used.
The greatest effect of the known drugs from the Colorado potato beetle is shown by: decis;karate;cymbush;ambush and others. The most sensitive stage of development of the beetle to insecticides is the stage of the larvae. If the terms of the fight against the Colorado potato beetle and late blight are the same, it is possible to combine the treatments, that is, dissolve, mix together the fungicide and insecticide, and process the plantings.
Potatoes - a crop demanding on soil moisture. The highest yields are obtained when, during the growing season, soil moisture is not lower than 75%.Especially critical period of need for moisture is the period of tying tubers, which coincides with the stage of budding. The lack of moisture at this time leads, as a rule, to abrupt( up to 40%) crop shortages, these losses can no longer be filled by later watering or rain.
In the conditions of the Krasnodar Territory, the spring period is most often cool and rainy, i.e.watering can not hold. However, starting from the budding stage, when tubers grow and develop( June), high temperatures and droughts are most often observed. Be sure to spend at least 2-3 watering. Without irrigation, not only the yield is reduced, but its rapid degeneration is observed.
It is necessary to start harvesting potatoes from the middle of July( in the Kuban), when the natural dying of the leaves of the lower tier begins. The delay in harvesting even by ten days leads to a very negative result: under the action of heat, drought, the tubers gradually leave the state of dormancy. Already in October-November begin to germinate.
The first agrotechnical method during harvesting: removal of tops. To do this, you can use a chemical method to desiccate the tops of a 3-5% solution of magnesium chlorate or reglon. But a simpler and more accessible method is mechanical, using a scythe or a bot chopper.
7-10 days after the removal of the tops, when a thick protective skin is formed on the tubers, they start harvesting potatoes. Dry sunny days are very suitable for this. When cleaning in wet rainy weather, the tubers must be dried.
Before moving potatoes for winter storage, it must go through a treatment period. To do this, the tubers for 7-10 days are placed in a shaded cool place, most often under a canopy. These conditions contribute to the formation of cork tissue, which contributes to better storage of tubers.
In conclusion, it should be said that in the conditions of the Krasnodar Territory, not all elements of the Dutch potato growing technology can be observed. However, when the goal is set - to obtain the highest possible yield - it is necessary to strictly observe literally all parts of the technology - from the choice of variety, the availability of high quality seed material to the use of modern, highly efficient agrotechnical methods of cultivation.