- Where to dig a well in the country?
- How to strengthen the well
- Decoration of the well
- In conclusion
For many inhabitants of the cities, the well has already become something archaic, even an object of folklore, with which many legends, fairy tales and signs are associated. But the well continues to be a reliable source of autonomous water supply. His presence is necessary even in those areas where there is a central water supply, just a well has already become a true attribute of suburban and country life. In comparison with the wells, this is a very simple construction, which has its advantages: fresh water from there you can get it, even if there is no electricity, which is so necessary for the pump to work wells. But the arrangement of the well, despite its relative simplicity, also requires compliance with certain rules and requirements.
Where to dig a well in the country?
Probably, the first question if you want to equip a well in your territory, it becomes the question,
There are a number of ways to find on your site the very place where a well should be located:
- Scientific. It is best to invite to the site of professionals-hydrogeologists who are exploring the territory, will conduct Exploratory drilling, will analyze many factors, and in the end will provide the most complete picture. They will tell you not only where to place the well better, but will prompt which type to choose, how best to build and strengthen, and how much it will cost. The professional should also conduct an analysis of the quality of groundwater and identify the impact of external factors on them, and even advise how best to fit such a simple engineering structure into the landscape. When choosing a place for a well, factors such as the height of the territory, the location of dangerous places, etc. are taken into account. So, if you dig a well in the low part of the plot, the cost of the work will be low, but it is likely that the water will get into the water from melting snow, rain, etc., the high-altitude parts of the site are more protected, but the place where the interplastic water. It is better to dig a well at maximum distance from possible contamination: landfills, drainage pits, swimming pools, bathhouses, etc., and the exploration process should be conducted in dry weather. All this and not only must the hydrogeologist know, which as precisely as possible will determine the best place for the location of the well.
- Popular folk way -dowelling. Explanations of the nature of this method have not yet been given, but, nevertheless, it gives stably correct results. The simplest option is to use a twig of viburnum, pussy-willow or hazel, while it must have a V-shape, and an angle of at least 150 degrees. The branch is picked up at two ends and slowly traverses the site with it, observing the behavior. In the place where the branch bends to the ground, most likely, and there is water. A more modern method is the use of aluminum frames. Aluminum wire up to 1m long is bent at right angles, so that the length of the end is 10-15 cm, it is better to insert it into a tube made of a woody elderberry. Holding these frames, deployed from each other by 180 degrees, slowly walk around the site, and look where these frames unfold to each other - it is in this place there is water. Turning them simultaneously to one side is a sign of the direction of the flow of water in a certain place. The place of contact of two wires will point to the place where you need to dig a well. In most cases, this method works, and if the branch does not fall or the frames do not touch, it means that you need to look for water elsewhere.. . . .
- Bioindication- another way to find water on the site, it is only necessary to take a closer look at the plant and animal life. There are some types of plants that adore moisture and grow only in places where groundwater is not deep. Such plants include willow, mother-and-stepmother, sedge, cane, nettle, foxglove, horse sorrel, evening mist, etc. If their foliage has a rich green color, then the water is exactly lying not deep. Also, the evidence of the aquifer is the pillars of midges, an abundance of mosquitoes, but a large number of anthills and the presence of red ants in them indicate that there is no better water here to look for. Apple trees, cherries, plums grow on too wet soil will not, so if they get sick and dry out, then most likely there is water under them, and it is in this place that you can try to equip a well.
- Other methodsalso refer to unscientific and based observations. So, if you turn the jar or glass, then it may appear dew if the ground is shallow water. In the morning, fog is low over such places, snow patches are present in winter, and salt may get wet in dry weather. All these features in combination with those described above will help you to more or less accurately determine the location for the well on the site, but still hydrogeological research will do this with 100% accuracy, in parallel giving information about the quality and depth of occurrence water.
When choosing a place for a well, it must also be taken into account that the distance from it to the toilets, dumps, animal places should be at least 30 meters. Take into account and those buildings that may appear in the suburban area in the future, as well as location of the personal house, because the well for convenience of use should be located as possible closer to home.
How to strengthen the well
When the place for the well is defined, proceed to its immediate arrangement, which begins with digging. You can rely on your own resources, you can hire a team of assistants, or you can use a mechanized method. In any case, the result is a deep round or square shaft, which rests on groundwater, suitable for human use. The depth of the well in each case is different, depending on many factors, but on average it is 5-10 meters, and only in some cases can reach 25-30 meters.
The construction of the well consists of a head - this is the aboveground part, the mines are the foundation of the well, the longest part of it, and the water intake is the place where underground waters accumulate.The bottom of the wellit is necessary to provide a filter for water purification, which usually consists of several layers of gravel and crushed stone, the size of the fraction increases from the bottom to the top. If the soil is viscous, then before the arrangement of the filter, the plank floor is also laid.
The shaft of the well can be made of stone, brick, wood or concrete, but today it is most often usedready-made concrete rings. At the same time, the reliability of the well will depend not only on professionalism and compliance with all the necessary rules, but also on the quality of the products. So, for example, the factory "Young drummer" specializes in the production of concrete products, including rings that can withstand influence of the environment for an incredibly long time, which is especially important in such difficult conditions that are created in wells. High quality of products is due to compliance with all requirements and using the most modern equipment.
There are two basic approaches to strengthening the well with concrete rings.The first wayapply whenthe water is shallow, about 5-8 meters. In this case, the first ring is installed in the place of the future well so that it is several centimeters above the ground level, and then spend excavation of the remaining soil from under it: the soft ground is first removed from the middle of the well, the solid - along its perimeter. When the first ring is lowered to the ground, a second ring is mounted on it, and the procedure is repeated. It is very important at this moment to make sure of the absolute verticality of finding the first three rings, which is checked by the level. Then the whole process repeats until the desired depth of the well is reached, and the rings are stapled in three places and concreted. In this case, it is better not to work alone: one person will fill the bucket with earth, and the second will raise buckets full on the surface. It should be borne in mind that the excavation of the soil should be carried out so that the rings do not bend, but maintain their even position. When calculating the number of required rings, it's easy to make a mistake, so it's better to buy one or two more than necessary. When water starts to appear on the bottom, build up the rings is stopped, and the well is left for 12 hours, then the bottom is again cleaned until the water veins are visible. The well is left for a day, covered with a lid - it must be filled with water. The bottom is made of gravel-gravel mixture: first, small fractions, and then larger.
In the shallowest wells in general, you can useconcrete pipes, but more often it is the rings that are used. It is important that they are clearly and tightly adjacent to each other, do not deviate, which can cause a violation of the integrity of the entire structure. Sometimes in the arrangement of wellsgrooved rings, intended for septic tanks, but their use is not always advisable: they are more expensive, and not all ground conditions are suitable. In any case, the described method is as safe as possible and perfectly suited for self-construction of wells, being one of the most popular.
Ifthe depth of the aquifer is more than 6-8 meters, then use a slightly different method of equipping the well. First, dig the shaft before reaching the water, and only then strengthen the walls. If the walls start to pour, then they go to the first method. If everything goes well, as the aquifer reaches the well, the concrete rings are lowered, using a loader crane or a winch. Often, after lowering the last ring, the well is deepened by 1-2 rings by the first method. This option has its own peculiarities: it is necessary to monitor the smoothness of the walls of the shaft, and to ensure that their width does not exceed 120-125 cm, and there is always the possibility of collapse of the walls. But this method can boast of speed and convenience.
Whichever option is chosen, it is important to take into account certain subtleties. For example,shaft diametershould be 10 cm more than the diameter of the concrete ring, and then the gap between the ground and concrete is covered with crushed stone, and the top is compacted with clay. It is believed that the water level in the well, the meter is normal - it's about rings.
In places with a high level of groundwater at the level of the upper three rings, it is better to doclay castle. Such waterproofing protects water in the well from contamination with melted and rainwater.
Earlier our ancestors didwells made of wood: now this method is considered a special glamor, and it is rarely resorted to. Plus such a well is that many tree species have antiseptic properties, and water, being in them, is rendered harmless, acquires a new pleasant taste. In terms of environmental friendliness, a wooden well is much better than concrete, only its cost is twice as expensive, and the repair will be costly. Most often used such species of trees as aspen, larch, oak, willow, birch.
Decoration of the well
When the main part of the well is ready, you can proceed with its design. The upper part, the headpiece, can be seen from almost any end of the site, so it must match the chosen landscape design and be aesthetically attractive. A well house is also necessary to protect water from contamination.
Most often, in the construction of a well, concrete rings are used, one of which crowns the entire structure and is at the very top. Gray and unsightly appearance of concrete can spoil any site, so the easiest way is to paint the well: you can Use one color, combine several, create patterns, using your own artistic talents or stencil. Fantasies here can not be boundaries, because with the help of paints and brushes your well can be turned into something originally Russian or, conversely, Japanese, Mediterranean or Alpine. Instead of paints, you can use any finishing material, and then there are an infinite number of variants of the arrangement.
The only rule that must be observed isharmony of the well with the landscape and other structures in the territory.
The design of the well depends to a large extent on the design chosen. So,Russian wellis equipped with two poles, on which the drum is fixed: a chain with a bucket is attached to it, the winding and unwinding of which are regulated by means of a handle located on the side.Shadoufis more suitable for very shallow wells: here the crane design is used to extract the bucket with water. Although now these wells are very unusual in the suburban areas, but previously they decorated almost every yard, and their design can be found a very interesting approach.
You can transform your well as you like, but here are some good examples for inspiration:
- country style. The country style uses mainly wood and stone, so it is great if the house is also built of wood. The head can be decorated with a frame, the canopy can also be made of wood, but the roof should be made the same as the roof of the house. If the house is decorated in the style of the tower, with carved shutters, then the well should receive a shade of fairy-tale: it can be decorate with an interesting carving, animal figures, and the head can be made of wood or even brick masonry. Around the well in the rustic style, you can plant more bright colors to finally fit it into the created landscape, but you must leave the path to it for easy access;
- East stylegot accustomed to landscape design, because its simplicity and minimalism impress leisure in nature. Well in the culture of the eastern countries pay special attention, guarding it from dust, dirt and evil eye and covering the roof for this. The well can be made of wood or stone, using images of mythical creatures, gods, etc., and the roof will be slightly turned up at the corners. For its arrangement most often use soft tiles, which perfectly takes the given form. Located next to the garden of stones, dry creek, juniper thickets will perfectly fit into the landscape;
- sea style. If you stretch your imagination a little, you can create a well in any style, for example, in the sea. The headpiece should be made with an artificially aged tree, decorated with sea figures, animals, shells, ropes, etc. Instead handles to attach the steering wheel, and instead of a bucket to use a beer barrel, and all - the well turns into an original element of the landscape design;
- The well can be shapedmill or even a miniature house: so the water will be protected to the maximum from external influences, and the site will be decorated with an interesting element, successfully harmonizing, for example, with a barbecue area, where the presence of fresh water does not interfere;
modern well. If the dacha is made in a modern style, using plaster, siding, etc., then there is no sense in decorating the well for antiquity. In this case, it is better to decorate it with forging or red brick, and use a polycarbonate sheet as a canopy.. . . . .
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In the design of the well, it is possible and necessary to use any remaining building materials, and then its transformation will not take a lot of money. So, from a bag of cement, you can prepare a solution, cover the headband, and cut fresh brickwork on fresh, then paint - a well in medieval style is ready. The remaining ceramic tiles can also be used: split into small pieces and create a mosaic, as a result we get an interesting eclectic.
Facing with stone, using a frame, decorating with flowers and stones, different shapes, using buckets of different designs are welcome, and eventually the most common well can turn into a real masterpiece.
The well is a relatively simple engineering structure, the arrangement of which, nevertheless, requires a careful and considerate approach. It is important to clearly define where the site will be located, for which you can use the services of professionals or people's ways. It is equally important to properly excavate and strengthen it, for which the concrete rings are most often used, and the decoration is the most pleasant process, revealing the creative potential of everyone and turning the well into a unique decoration site.