- №1. The main types of ventilation in the apartment
- №2. How much fresh air is needed?
- No. 3. Checking the natural ventilation in the apartment
- №4. Types of forced ventilation systems
- №5. Forced ventilation in the apartment
- №6. Forced exhaust ventilation in the apartment
- №7. Supply and exhaust ventilation in the apartment
Trying to keep the precious heat in the apartment as much as possible, we systematically get rid of all the cracks. In less than a decade, almost all changed the old wooden windows to modern sealed double-glazed windows, put the doors close to the box, and closed all the cracks in the walls. We received the long-awaited warmth, but it came not one but with uninvited guests - stuffiness, dampness and mold. We ourselves are guilty, because they sealed the dwelling to such a degree that they saved it from the influx of fresh air. Trying to solve the problem, we open the windows and windows, making it worse than before, and it's not difficult to solve such a problem - we need a well-thought-out ventilation system in the apartment. We deal with the basic types of ventilation and decide which option is most applicable in each specific case.
№1. The main types of ventilation in the apartment
Ventilation is just as necessary in any modern apartment as water supply or heat supply, although many still do not pay due attention to it. You can classify ventilation systems by several parameters.
The main difference between all ventilation systems is the way air is moved. For this parameter, ventilation can be:
Natural ventilationexists due to different temperatures of air inside and outside the room and wind pressure. Under the influence of these factors, polluted air enters the street through specially equipped channels with fans (there is in each apartment and private house), and the net comes in through leaks in windows. Such systems are cheap, reliable, most simple, but highly dependent on external factors, and when a small difference in internal and external temperature or in the absence of wind their effectiveness is reduced to zero. In addition, such systems can not be configured, and in winter, too cold air enters the apartment.
Artificial or mechanical ventilationsettles down when the natural power is not enough. Such systems use a fan, filter, heater and other elements capable of providing qualitative diversion of contaminated and optimum quality of incoming air under any external conditions environment.
By appointment, as already clear, ventilation happens:
- supply, which is necessary to supply fresh air to the apartment. Cheap systems simply hold street air, more advanced systems can heat it and clean it;
- exhaustallows to get rid of the exhaust air containing a large amount of carbon dioxide and moisture.
Supply and exhaust ventilation are always used together, the need for which is unnecessary to explain. If the balance is broken, the pressure in the room will be excessive or insufficient, and the effect of the slamming doors will not keep you waiting.
In the service area, ventilation is:
- local. It is used mainly in industrial conditions, and is necessary in those cases when the sources of harmful substances release are localized and it is possible to prevent their spread throughout the premises. In conventional houses and apartments, an example of local ventilation can be a kitchen hood;
- general ventilationAllows air to circulate immediately throughout the room. Similar systems are installed in all apartment buildings.
According to the design, ventilation can be:
- type-setting- A system that is assembled from separate elements. It is flexible in customization, it can be used for any premises, but requires professional calculation and it takes a lot of space, it needs a separate room, but sometimes this system is hidden behind suspended ceiling;
- monoblock system, or ventutochnaya, combines all the necessary elements in one housing. Install it easier, and the noise from it is less.
Ventilation of the premises is provided by ventilation ducts, technological gaps, valves, fans, special installations, but sometimes as a supplement you can use simple airing and split systems that can take air from the street and serve it Inward. As independent, such solutions can not be used.
Correctly organized ventilation system in the apartment will provide clean air without dust and humidity, and this is good for the skin, respiratory system, plants and furniture. Experts say that in apartments with a well-functioning ventilation, even dust on the surfaces is much less collected.
№2. How much fresh air is needed?
Ventilation or modernization of an existing system is preceded by an analytical stage, which consists indetermination of air exchange rates. For different zones in the apartment this parameter is different. The network has a lot of convenient calculators and programs for the most accurate calculation, taking into account all the features, but you can use the averaged values, according to which:
- for residential areasThe air exchange should be at least 30 m3 / hour for each person. If the area of the residential area is less than 20 m2 per person, it is necessary to provide air exchange at a level of 3 m3 per square meter of the room;
- for kitchenair exchange should be 90 m3 / hour if a gas cooker is used for 4 cooking zones, and 60 m3 / hour when using an electric cooker;
- for the bathroomair exchange 50 m3 / hour with a combined bathroom and 25 m3 / hour for the bathroom and toilet when separate.
If there is a fireplace or a furnace in the apartment, the air exchange rates increase.
No. 3. Checking the natural ventilation in the apartment
What is in private homes is that in multi-unit natural ventilation works the same way. This is the simplest option, giving, under certain conditions, good results. The principle of natural ventilation was described above. At all reliability such system not always copes with the task. The ventilation ducts account for about 40% of the heat losses of the apartment in the winter, when installing modern windows disappears source of fresh air, so you have to equip valves or other systems that convert natural ventilation into compulsory. In addition, the natural system often becomes the cause of drafts and noise in the apartment.
The effectiveness of the natural ventilation system depends not only on the possibility of fresh inflow air, but also from the ventilation duct - it must be clean to allow the exhaust air to flow.
Check the work of natural ventilation in the apartment is simple:
- it is necessary to bring to the ventilation grate a lit match or a candle. The flame should bend towards the channel - it is a sign that the air quietly leaves the apartment. A small piece of thin paper is also used, it must adhere to the grate;
- if the flame remains stationary, then you can try to remove the grate and remove the accumulated dirt and dust from the channel;
- After cleaning, the test is repeated, and if the results are disappointing, then it is necessary to improve not only the intake ventilation, but also the exhaust ventilation. If everything is normal with the ventilation duct, but in the house it's still stuffy and damp, then only ventilation will require modernization.
To improve the efficiency of natural circulation in the kitchen, it is recommended to install a hood.
№4. Types of forced ventilation systems
Depending on the goalsforced ventilation can be:
- forced supply with natural exhaust;
- forced exhaust;
- forced-air supply and exhaust with heat recovery or without it.
№5. Forced ventilation in the apartment
The task of forced ventilation is to provide the apartment with fresh air, while the exhaust air leaves through the existing ventilation ducts, i.e. through the holes in the kitchen and bathroom. Variants of the influx of mass, but the choice depends on the requirements for comfort and budget.
The ventilation system can be arranged with the help of such devices:
- valves, which are installedin the wall or on the window. This is the simplest version, which is an analogue of the most gaps in the design, only the valves are a more attractive and slightly more functional way of ventilation. The flow of air through the valve is manually regulated, filtration is either not provided, or is minimal and allows the screening of insects and large debris. As a rule, air heating in such systems is not provided (so it is better to place them in the area of the radiator heating, so that the air in the winter at least slightly heated), and from the noise in the window valves, saves the sound-reflecting visor. Such valves work best in winter. To equip the wall valve will have to make a through hole in the wall;
- mechanical ventilators- these are more modern devices, they can have different power and functionality, and the process of supplying fresh air becomes manageable. Even if the conditions are unfavorable for the natural flow of air from the street, it can be overtaken compulsorily. The filtration is represented by a large dust filter or a carbon filter, which is already quite good. In the most advanced devices there is even heating of air. Typically, these ventilators are equipped with a control panel or remote control. With all the advantages of such systems, do not forget that they will take more time to install, and the operation will require the use of electricity;
- breather- even more perfect installation, which allows not only to supply the premises with fresh air, but also Clean this air with HEPA filters, such as those used in modern vacuum cleaners. Such filters detain not only dust particles, but also allergens, microbes, pollen, mold spores, so breathers are ideal for apartments where children, asthmatics or allergies live. The filtering system includes other types of filters. The device can heat air, and the fan, as a rule, works in several modes, allowing to provide the necessary quantity of air. Brisers are equipped with a display and a control panel, the unit takes up slightly more space than the indoor unit of the air conditioner. The only disadvantage of such devices is the price;
- air supply system with mechanical drivethe most difficult and expensive. It consists of a system of air ducts that hide behind suspended ceilings, and massive ventilation equipment that is put on the balcony. It consists of fans, filters, humidifiers, heaters, coolers and even flavors. Air penetrates into the rooms through ducts with diffusers. The system has its advantages, but it is too expensive and difficult to install.
№6. Forced exhaust ventilation in the apartment
In each apartment, the exhaust openings are located in the bathroom and kitchen - rooms, where the concentration of humidity and odors is increased. If the natural exhaust ventilation does not work well enough (according to the results of the experiment described above), it is necessary to improve it, for which:
- wall fans, which are mounted instead of the usual ventilation grille;
- kitchen couplings.
Installing the fan is easy, and the effect from it should be very good - the device will push the exhaust air through the ventilation duct. When choosing, pay attention to such factors:
- fan performance, which must meet the requirements put forward to the premises;
- Availabilitymoisture protectionRequired;
- a common system - ventilation is switched on simultaneously with the inclusion of light in the bathroom. Such a solution is not particularly effective, so it's better to overpay it slightly and choosefan with timer;
- check valveon the fan in some cases will be irreplaceable. It will come in handy if your neighbor has already put a fan on the vent, and it's more powerful than yours. Otherwise, the neighbor and your own exhaust air can return back to the apartment.
A fan, as a rule, is equipped with a bathroom. It can be installed in the kitchen, but in this room the extractor that more effectively works removes all odors and moisture directly from the source of their formation.
№7. Supply and exhaust ventilation in the apartment
The supply and exhaust ventilation is a way to take all the air movements in an apartment under control. Such a system is indispensable for apartments and houses where natural exhaust does not cope with its tasks, and the fan is not very efficient.
The supply and exhaust ventilation system is a complex system consisting of a unit and air ducts. In the block there are fans, filters, supply and return channels with the systemrecuperation. Since the latter are located side by side, it becomes possible to take away heat from the exhaust air and with it to heat the air entering the apartment. The savings on air heating are significant at the same time. There is the possibility of additional heating or cooling the air. Air ducts are laid behind suspended ceilings. Such systems can be fine tuned, and with their help, it is possible to accurately adjust all the air parameters in the room. Such a system can be supplemented with sensors for the apartment, timers and other elements for maximum economical operation. Minus the system - the cost and need for air ducting.
To air circulated better around the apartment, it is recommended to leave a small gap between the floor and the interior doors. In addition, split systems with fresh air supply and normal ventilation also contribute to maintaining the optimal indoor climate.