Drilling wells in the country site will provide its owners with water required for personal purposes and irrigation. Own source will allow to build an independent water supply. However, there are times when excavation produce no results. How to avoid such "promashek"? After drillers will have to pay, even if the water is not.
We'll tell you in great detail how to find water to wells. We introduce all possible search methods of minerals. We represent the technologies used in the industrial scale, and popular methods for determining the presence of underground water.
For a thorough study of the subject, we have collected and systematized deserving of attention the information available on the network. Submitted to the consideration of information complemented by photos, graphics, illustrations and video reviews.
The content of the article:
- The simplest classification of underground water
- Method electrical sounding
- seismic technology
- Drilling of exploratory workings
- Making holes with their hands
Traditional methods for determining
- Orientation on natural features
- With dowsing rods
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
The simplest classification of underground water
Before embarking on the search for water on the hole should fix the presence of those underground resources and determine what depth in a selected area of the aquifer.
Depending on the location and depth of the groundwater divided three types:
- perched - lies in the range of 2-5 meters from the surface. It is formed by ifiltratsii precipitation. Due to the shallow waters of this type may vary: the rise after rainfall, the fall in the dry season.
- groundwater - aquifers in sedimentary rocks, lying roughly in the region of 8-40 meters below the surface. From above they are protected by several layers of rocks, so do not depend on the change of seasons. Sometimes they are in the depressions they make their way on their own springs, supplying delicious clean water.
- artesian water - most often found at depths of over 40 meters. Spread them through cracks in the limestone bedrock. Water is characterized by lack of mineral salts and clay slurry. Debit artesian wells is quite stable.
Of key importance are the qualitative and quantitative parameters of the aquifer.
Earth strata is formed from rocks, some of which prevent the penetration of moisture - confining layer, and the other, opposite, form aquifers
When looking for water development wells You can use different methods like using improvised means, and taking advantage of modern technology. But most of all hydrogeologists use in the search for the aquifer and determining its depth preliminary exploration method.
To get to the source, which will provide high-quality, clean water, need to get a decent depth
Calculate the aquifer is the easiest way on the basis of geotechnical investigations. It will help to clarify the picture of a geological section showing the features of the structure and sequence showing naplastovyvaniya rocks over mine.
At the stage of preliminary exploration solved two problems at once:
- Study site hydrogeologic conditions.
- It carried out a qualitative and quantitative assessment of the used source.
Services such studies provide organizations involved in engineering geology and hydrogeology, specializing in well drilling.
According to the results of preliminary exploration determined by the size of the aquifer, the source of operating conditions, and the ability to cover the stated needs
On the most promising Device for water intake areas identified in the preliminary investigation, subsequently studying engineering and geological features: land subsidence, the probability of landslides reveals drillability category of rock, the nature of its sustainability well ...
As a method of working a large-scale hydro recording may be used. In the course of detailed survey mapped aquifers, and revealed the composition and supply of groundwater. Based on the data it is possible to determine the feasibility drilling on the site at the same time to know how deep the water is.
For well-studied regions, which already have the experience of exploitation of underground sources of water reserve assessment may be based on the degree of reliability of the category C2. Prospective resources in this category are calculated on the basis of geological and geophysical data explored deposits, occurrence of which are similar.
Garden borer, stackable when deepening steel pipe segments - booms can be independently drill exploration well in the area
However, the most accurate information can be obtained without an investment of effort and resources in companies, conducts engineering-geological studies in the area
Information on groundwater occurrence, physical and mechanical properties of rocks above the roof and under the sole aquifer the reservoir can be obtained in the construction organizations, conducted the research to develop the project under construction
Purposefully conduct drilling exploration wells before the water wasted. Typically, once drilled boreholes to not pay twice or more for the development of a water source
Tool for manual drilling
Geological drilling rig
Equipment for the bored foundation
Small-sized drilling rig
Method electrical sounding
To identify promising sites on the water is most often used method of electric sensing. It is carried out by sensing the vertical ground. Specific electrical resistance of breeds and different aquifers.
Thus, water saturated soils have a lower electrical resistance than mineral skeleton malovlazhnyh rocks.
With registrars current resistance can be determined at each horizon, designating itself for those areas where the groundwater layer is present
The only drawback of this method is that there is always a probability of error of calculations provided presence in the soil deposits of iron ore or the proximity of metal fences, and railroad networks.
Methods based on the measurement of seismic waves kinematics. With devices determined places where there is an increased seismic background, which reach peak frequency of 4 to 15 Hz.
seismic bottom line is that the first measurement is carried out on the territory located in the vicinity of the search space of groundwater which has similar geological incision.
The downwardly generated waves reaching the rock, which is different from the upstream reservoirs, like echo reflected upwards. Then for an hour the same measurement is carried out in the area of search for groundwater.
The depth of the reflector is calculated from the values obtained seismic sensitive devices. The presence of artesian water is judged by the improvement of 5-10 times the level of the seismic background in the area of the test sites.
Frequency values in the range of 4-15 Hz, which exceed the natural background level of the Earth, having because the water-filled reservoirs are more dense medium to pass acoustic environment
When passing the acoustic waves through the liquid having the greater density, a change occurs in the high frequency side.
Drilling of exploratory workings
This method allows to determine as accurately as possible form the geological formations of land. But since it involves high financial costs, it is used only in situations where it is planned to equip large water intakes, calculated on the number of houses.
To increase the reliability of research at the location indicated on the search of underground water to drill two or three exploratory wells
Experts identify three methods of exploratory drilling:
- kolinsky - is used for drilling to greater depths. The principle of operation is built on the fact that the rotary core barrel, the end of which is equipped with a drill bit cuts through the rock. And then destroyed rock under pressure supplied through tubing string wash solution or compressed air is ejected onto the surface.
- rotary - based on the transmission of rotary motion to the drill string through the rotor surface. This type of drilling is accompanied by washing the face of the rock with a special solution or plain water.
- Shock-cable - works by breaking down rock under the action of incident drill, end fixed to the rope. Tool simply rock chips and shreds the ground, and then use the bailer takes it to the surface.
The choice of drilling method and drill It depends on the type of rock, the depth of the reservoir or the lens and the financial possibilities of the customer. But drilling speed and performance in this regard win rotational methods.
Price exploration well is determined by multiplying the cost of one meter of depth in the trunk. The total amount is calculated from the difficulty of penetration of the diameter and the need to use casing tubes.
Hydrogeological data obtained by drilled wells, into account when drafting prognostic evaluation of prospective area. They help to explore changes in the properties of water-bearing rocks in the vertical section.
Making holes with their hands
But the drilling of exploration wells - rather expensive method. It can afford not many owners of suburban areas. As an alternative, test drilling can be performed independently, using screw method.
This method is similar to cutting a hole in the ice during the winter fishing. Helical structure simply screwed into the ground. When removing the screw on the surface of the blade taken along the crushed rock.
A screw drilling method involves loosening the soil and immersion in the bit by means of which the soil is removed and outwardly
To carry out the work required auger with blades provided with a drill head. Buy a screw tool can be in any hardware store. Included with it are patterned rod, which is useful for building construction as penetration into the soil.
The work is performed in the following sequence:
- In a selected area a guide hole dug depth of 60-80 cm.
- The auger is lowered into the pit and begins to rotate the drill bit buried.
- After the screw rod completed 1-2 m deep soil recovered drill, removing the loosened ground. As you move the helical structure is important to monitor the position of the vertical well.
- When the screw reaches a depth at which the tool has already operate inconvenient design building up the drill steel. Simultaneously, the implementation of the drilling by the centrifugal force of planting occurs wellbore.
- Drilling is performed as long as the screw shaft reaches the aquifer.
The generated soil conveyed by the same screw, which is a single screw conveyor to the surface. Thus lifted outwardly ground due to friction enhances the barrel wall. This helps reduce costs for the drilling of plastic soils, since there is no need to use casing.
But it is necessary to take into account that the screw method is effective only when searching groundwater occurrence rate does not exceed 50 meters, and the rocks are plastic and loose category.
Traditional methods for determining
Produce their own exploration in the search for aquifer making shallow drilling or needle-hole can be, even if the surrounding areas there are no reference points.
Orientation on natural features
Signs of the presence of water-bearing soil cores may be:
- Observing the behavior of animals and insects. Pillars of mosquitoes hovering in the place where there is a water source, and red ants, by contrast, are trying to live away from him.
- There was widespread in the area of moisture-loving plants.
Indicators proximity groundwater from herbaceous plants protrude nettle, horsetail, sedge, sorrel, cane. Treelike plant with taproot, such as cherry, willow, birch, black poplar, sarsazan indicate that the water is at a depth of up to 7 meters.
In the hot afternoon, animal digging the earth in search of coolness in those places where the underground water located close to the surface
Soil and its underlying rocks under a layer which passes the source, characterized by high humidity. It will surely evaporate, forming a cloud of mist in the morning; only need to observe the terrain.
Pay attention to the terrain. It is noticed that the water carriers lie almost horizontally. Therefore, in the troughs of water area of the likelihood of occurrence is always higher.
With dowsing rods
Does not lose popularity and the old method based on dowsing effect, in which a person reacts to the presence of ground water, and other bodies established in its thickness and heterogeneity of different configurations sizes.
When the water searching for siting under water wells on the site dowsing method pointer acts as a wire frame or tree branch with a fork, which is in the hands of a human operator. It is able to determine the presence of an aquifer, despite even separates from the water layer of soil.
Dowsing - ability frameworks come into motion under the influence of external factors, such as vibrate and approach each other at places where rills
Dowsing rods can be made of a calibrated aluminum, steel or copper wire with a diameter of 2-5 mm. To this end, the ends of the wire segments in length of 40-50 cm bent at a right angle, giving them a T-shape. sensitive shoulder length will be 30-35 cm and 10-15 cm handle.
Operator task - to ensure the free rotation of the "tool". To make things easy on the bent ends of the wire worn wooden handle.
Bending the arm at a right angle and by taking a tool for wooden handles, you need to slightly tilt them away from you to wire rods have become a continuation of the hands.
To achieve the goal you need to tune in and consciously articulate the task. After that, just need to move slowly over the site and observe the rotation of the frame.
In the place portion where the hidden underground water rods frame scratch each other. The operator should note this point and continue research, but moving in a perpendicular direction with respect to the original line of motion. At the point of intersection marks found and will be located the desired source.
Dowsing rods react, interconnected ends at the point where the area are water-bearing veins
It is believed that the best time to search for water by dowsing is summer or early autumn. The most favorable periods:
- from 5 to 6 in the morning;
- from 16 to 17 days;
- from 20 to 21 pm;
- from 24 to 1 o'clock in the morning.
L-shaped frame is convenient to use in the field, but in the absence of wind. To work with the tool you need experience and dexterity. After all, the scope of the deviation may depend even on the emotional state of the operator.
For this reason, before working with the framework is better to refrain from drinking alcoholic beverages. Before you start searching, you need to learn to work with biolokatorom and "hear" it. Due to this in the search for water for the well operator will distract even the presence on site of closed pipelines.
But it is worth noting that the popular methods can not give a 100% guarantee of getting the expected result. After all, even with a successful outcome there is always a risk of water well low productivity.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Tips for beginners, how to determine the place in the arrangement of the well and to drill its own hands:
Exploratory drilling with the use of the probe:
For such a demanding exercise, as the search for water wells, should be approached with the utmost seriousness, using for this purpose the modern methods of exploration, or else entrust this work to professionals.
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