To build a water well at the site is not the last task of the owner, who decided to carry out an autonomous water supply at the site. In order to be able to use the facility for decades, it is necessary to regularly maintain the well for water. For optimal results, you need to know how it is produced. Do you agree?
We will tell you what points to consider when operating a hydraulic structure. The article submitted for consideration describes in detail how to carry out these activities on its own. Taking into account our recommendations, your water source will work long and flawlessly.
The content of the article:
Rules for putting a well into operation
- Static level definition
- Performance hydraulic structures
- Preparation of pumping equipment
- Chemical analysis of water
Service intake facilities
- Well performance measurements
- Verifying pump operation
- Water control
- Bleeding and preventive washes
Frequent breakdowns and solutions
- Sand in the water at the bottom of the well
- Violation of the patency of the filter
- Foreign objects
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Rules for putting a well into operation
A constructed water intake system with a circular cross-section of small diameter needs to be prepared before being put into operation. Upon completion of the installation, a trial run of the water-lifting equipment is carried out. Subsequently, the necessary repair facilities.
Repair operations are based on the data of the passport attached to the drilled well.
The long period of inactivity of the drilled well adversely affects its performance, and therefore the main task of the owner is to equip the operational lift
It is recommended to drive the well into operation immediately after the completion of the flushing and trial pumping procedure. If this event has to be postponed for any reason, then the wellhead is temporarily closed with a metal lid pre-welded to the casing. Such measures help to protect foreign objects from entering the structure.
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For normal well maintenance, it is necessary to equip its wellhead. The budget method - the construction of the pit with the strengthening of metal walls, used bricks, etc.
If the well is planned to be operated only in the summer period, it is sufficient to install a cap on the casing to arrange the wellhead
If the area of the suburban area allows, for the maintenance of the well it is better to build a caisson of brick or concrete rings
It is much easier and much faster to build a caisson; installation of a finished container made of metal or plastic
Arrangement of the mouth of the water intake
Low-cost solution for summer water supply
Construction of solid brick caisson
Prefabricated caissons for wells
Static level definition
When equipping a hydraulic structure, it is important to know its static and dynamic level. Both indicators are determined by the simplest measurements of a water mirror by a hydrogeological flapper or by replacing it with a conventional polymer pipe.
In contact with the annular edge of the pipe or crackers with a water surface, a kind of cotton is distributed.
To determine the static level should be about a day before the measurement does not pump out water from the mine. The static indicator should give us the distance between the surface of the day and the groundwater surface at rest.
The dynamic level is determined vice versa after pumping. This indicator is also needed to determine the exact depth of installation. submersible pump. In addition, the difference between static and dynamic values will determine the flow rate of a personal water source. It is necessary for the selection of pumping equipment.
Knowing the dynamic level of the drilled well, it will not be difficult to calculate the depth of installation of the pumping equipment used for pumping
The pump is placed 3-5 meters below the dynamic level. During the operation of the equipment it is important to control the height of the water column below it.
For example, when using vibratory type submersible pumpsIt is recommended that between the bottom of the excavation and the bottom of the device be at least 1 - 1.5 m. A number of centrifugal pumping systems can be positioned at a distance of 0.5 m from the bottom.
The permissible installation depth of the pumps is indicated by manufacturers. Their recommendations should be scrupulously studied and observed. In the case of an unstable and slowly recovering level in a water intake well, it is recommended to purchase pumps with sensors that detect a lowering of the mirror below the permissible limit.
The automatic device will automatically stop the pump if the water column is not sufficient for normal pumping of water.
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For shallow low-rate wells, a series of pumps with a float detector is produced. The device protects the unit from "dry running"
Submersible pumps with float are suitable for wells with a wide barrel. The maximum depth of immersion Karcher is only 7 m, the Russian Water cannon PROF is immersed to 35 m
Pumps in this category are focused on shallow workings embedded in the sand. To protect against agitated sand, the bottom of the unit is equipped with a filter
When moving the water mirror below the limit indicated by the manufacturer of the equipment for normal operation, the float switch stops the pump
Well pump from Karcher BP series 2 Cistern
Specific use of equipment with a float
Built-in filter in the base of the equipment
The principle of operation of the float device
In case the water well in operation has a low static level, test pumping is carried out with a small pump capacity. And the subsequent operation begins with a minimum flow rate, increasing it over and over again until it reaches the estimated performance indicated in the passport.
Performance hydraulic structures
The first procedure of water sampling should last at least one and a half to two hours. To determine the amount of water supplied from the well, use a ten-liter bucket.
When filling the container, you need to fix the time with a stopwatch. To determine the flow rate, it remains only to divide the resulting volume of 10 liters by the elapsed time.
In the case of sustainable selection, the amount of incoming water should be determined, which should not exceed the estimated flow rate indicated in the construction passport.
Normally considered performance:
- for sand wells - 1.5 cube / hour;
- for artesian - 3 cube / hour.
Comparing the obtained figure with the norm, if necessary, correct the operation of the pump. In case of large measurement discrepancies, before proceeding with the installation of the pump, it is still necessary to consult with the experts of the relevant organizations.
Preparation of pumping equipment
The first step is to check the inside diameter of the installed casing. This parameter should be 2 to 4 cm longer than the unit being installed. Measurement work carried out to a depth of 10 meters within the mark where it is supposed to locate pumping equipment.
Pumping devices should only be installed into the well of those construction types that are recommended in the passport attached to it. Installation of equipment also needs to be made in strict accordance with the passport and the operating instructions attached to it.
The pump is immersed in the wellbore and positioned in the manner indicated in the technical documentation from the manufacturer
When you first start the pump, turn on the installed equipment as smoothly as possible, first with productivity of 40-50% of the design performance, and gradually increasing to the recommended value water intake.
In the next few start-ups at the initial stage of operation, the pump should also be launched “incrementally”. In this case, it is desirable to avoid short and frequent shutdown of the unit.
If a water level is detected during the pumping process, or the flow is intermittent, the pump must be turned off for a while. Such a phenomenon may occur when the device is improperly assembled. Solve the problem can only be through repairs.
The equipment should also be disconnected if clay and sand admixtures are detected in the pumped water. But before that you need to reduce the flow of water through the valve installed on the discharge pipe. Otherwise, small parts, hitting the pump casing, will settle in its flow-through part, provoking the disabling of the mechanism.
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Installing a submersible pump into the water intake allows pumping water from a depth of 20 meters or more.
For mounting the pump, its body is equipped with eyelets through which the nylon cord is passed. It is considered stronger than steel, because less wear on the borehole walls
To supply water to the branch pipe located at the top of the pump a pressure pipe is connected. Water is taken by a device located at the base.
From the ingress of foreign objects, dust and debris in the well bore, the mouth of the mine is protected with a tip
Well arrangement with a submersible pump
Fastening equipment kapron cord
Connection Features of Submersible Pumps
Garden bore hole for irrigation
Chemical analysis of water
At the end of the selection, it is desirable to hold chemical analysis of water. This will determine whether it meets the standards, and, if necessary, choose the best option for the water purification system.
If the drilled well has not been exploited for any reason for three or four weeks, and the water has acquired turbidity, it is necessary to re-pump it
Chemical water analysis is recommended not earlier than three weeks after the launch of the hydraulic structure. At this point, the static position of the water level is stabilized, and the overall picture will become clearer.
Service intake facilities
To ensure long and trouble-free operation of a hydraulic structure it is important to provide qualified service. Ideally, it is better to entrust this work to an experienced specialist who has studied the geological documentation and who knows all the nuances and subtleties of well operation.
But in the absence of the opportunity to use the services of a master, the operation of a water well can be carried out on its own.
Supervision over the work of a facility includes a number of basic types of work.
Well performance measurements
Regular measurements of well performance should also be performed during operation. They are performed using the same technology that was used when the hydraulic engineering structure was first launched.
The first year of operation of the well, measurements of the static and dynamic water levels, as well as the calculation of the flow rate should be carried out once a month.
If two measurements taken with a certain time interval show a different filling rate, this indicates the instability of the flow rate. This means that pumping equipment should be selected by the highest value.
Keep in mind that exceeding the operating parameters entails a premature failure of the pump unit.
An excessively powerful pump in the workings with a small flow rate can cause water shortages and will not create enough pressure. However, its performance should be sufficient to provide water for all existing water intake points at the facility.
Verifying pump operation
Pumping equipment, even with successful operation, should be checked at least once every six months.
The check is performed in the following sequence:
- Visually inspect equipment to determine the integrity of the body and tightness of all types of connections.
- Turn off the unitthen open the intake valve and measure the pressure in the system. This parameter should fall to the “0” mark.
- Check the pressure in the hydraulic tank. This is done using a car manometer, which is connected to the nipple of the tank. The difference of values when the pump is on and after it is turned off should not exceed 10%. If necessary, through the same nipple using a conventional compressor pumped air.
- Turn on the pump and watch it work. When the pressure parameter set by you on the device relay is reached, the pump should turn off.
- Re-check system pressure, but in the absence of consumption. If the equipment is working correctly, the relay indicator should be on the red arrow, which corresponds to the maximum pressure mark.
- To check the correct operation of the pump, the water tap is opened for a while.. When the pressure in the system drops, the pump should turn on automatically. Then shut off the valve, re-check the pressure level and turn off the unit.
The frequency of preventive examination of pumping equipment is usually indicated in the passport to the product.
To restore the correct operation of a hydraulic structure, sometimes it is necessary to simply pump it, and silting residues will come out with the water.
The results and marks of routine inspections of the well should be entered in a special journal, indicating the date and name of the employee who performed the control. These readings will help diagnose possible malfunctions of both the pumping equipment and the well as a whole.
Preventive repair of pumping equipment with the replacement of worn parts should be done at least once every six months. For equipment operated irregularly, the interval between preventive measures can be increased to 9 months.
Daily should be monitored and the physical properties of water:
- smell - normal natural water should not smell.
- Colour - the color change depends on the substances that are dissolved in it, for example, iron paints it in a yellowish tint, and clay in red-brown;
- turbidity - this indicator is manifested with an increased concentration of contaminants in the water;
- taste - deterioration of taste indicates the presence in water of a high concentration of manganese, magnesium or iron.
A standard comprehensive analysis of microbiological and chemical studies can be ordered in public institutions or private laboratories.
Chemical and microbiological analysis will provide comprehensive information on whether the selected water meets sanitary standards.
To obtain the most accurate result, it is important to use only a clean sterile container made of plastic or glass with a capacity of up to 2 liters. Bottles must be filled in such a way that air bubbles do not form.
Selected water must be delivered to the laboratory within 72 hours. Samples of water delivered later lose their properties and therefore do not give a clear picture.
Bleeding and preventive washes
The drilled well is necessarily pumped, clearing it from sediment that has crumbled during drilling.
Work can be performed using for this:
- special installation for washing;
- 12 atmospheres compressor;
- submersible pump.
Any of these methods is based on the fact that air or water under pressure will push dirty water along with inclusions to the surface.
With the help of flushing, only particles of sand and silt accumulations can be eliminated, but the salt deposits on the filter cannot be dislodged by this method.
Sequence of actions when swaying well:
- At the bottom of the well with a strong cable immerse the pump, which will pump the liquid.
- The hose is fastened to the outgoing branch pipe of the unit and is taken away from the well in order to prevent re-contamination of the structure.
- Start the unit and pump out the liquid until it becomes clear. The process can take several hours. During this period, a layer of coarse sand or fine gravel may accumulate in the area of the filtering section of the casing, which subsequently will act as a filter.
Some firms engaged in drilling wells, recommend and in the process of operation of facilities from time to time to carry out their washing and sand cleaning. The main argument is to prevent silting of the lower part of the trunk.
Preventive washing only makes sense if the well is used seasonally and with long break intervals. For permanent facilities such washing is not needed. After all, the well is washed daily by the pump.
If the well is used irregularly, the silting of the walls of the structure is likely, and to eliminate the sediment you just need to pump it well
Additional flushing may be required only if there are any malfunctions in the operation, or the pumping equipment does not cope with the task.
Frequent breakdowns and solutions
During the operation of hydraulic structures there is always the likelihood of damage. Some of them can be eliminated on their own, without resorting to the services of expensive professionals.
Sand in the water at the bottom of the well
This can occur due to casing leakage, or else if the wellhead is periodically flooded with sewage. This is confirmed by the appearance of new impurities and turbidity in the water.
Solving the problem is helped by cleaning the barrel with a cylindrical bit.
To extract sand from the well, the sink on a strong cable is lowered to the bottom of the structure, and then several times alternately, then raised by half a meter, then dramatically lowered down
Scooping silt and sand drilling hole, the well is pumped through with a pump until clean water appears. Later, in order to prevent a repetition of the situation, from the outer side of the casing wall, voids are filled with impermeable clay, covered with a layer of gravel or filled with cement mortar.
Violation of the patency of the filter
The reason for this is all the same small particles of sand or gravel, which clogs the holes. Usually this problem occurs after a couple of years since the launch of the sand well.
Sludge and sand mostly settle only on filters of primary purification, but some particles can get into fine filters, eventually clogging them
In case of integrity violation well filter or critical bandwidth drops solve a problem by replacing.
But this method is used quite rarely, only as a last resort, since it is not always possible to dismantle the casing without destroying the walls of the structure.
It often happens that due to improper installation, the cable fixing the pump and the hoses break under the load and vibration during the operation of the equipment. Or a stone or bolt, accidentally falling into the well and falling into the gap between the pump unit and the wall, wedges the equipment and causes the device to get stuck.
Since the gap between the equipment and the walls of the well is only a couple of centimeters, the pump can only be pulled out with the help of special tools.
You can remove the pump and fasteners using hooks or cat accessories. The extraction operation should be carried out with the utmost care.
If in the process of lifting devices break off and remain in the barrel of the column, the task of removing the device is complicated several times.
If the unit is stuck tightly, the most correct decision is to call a team of specialists. Using an underwater video camera and other equipment, they will be able to diagnose the problem and fix it without damaging the structure.
Most often at wedging pumping device in the second or third of the top link casing, it is partially removed from the production. Then disconnect the pipe to the place of driving from the barrel and take out the pump. If necessary, the damaged links are replaced with new pipes of the same diameter.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Video # 1. How to equip the well after drilling:
Video # 2. Sand pumping from the well:
Video # 3. How to determine the presence of heavy metals in water with the help of available tools:
Regular borehole maintenance is not a difficult task to be performed, which can be handled by any owner who has the slightest idea of the system’s operation.
It is not worth neglecting preventive measures, since the restoration of a “running” well will be several times more expensive than small regular repairs.
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