Contentsmost unusual plants. To determine the choice of original succulents for cultivation, we suggest first to see what are the types of cacti and their photos with the names.
Brief description and types of cacti
America is the birthplace of these exotic plants, although in nature they can be found in the desert zones of Africa, Asia and even Europe. Wild cacti are usually large. They grow in hot areas of the planet, widely distributed in Argentina, Mexico and Chile. Some species of cacti grow in the tropics, as well as in the coastal zone of the Mediterranean and Black Seas.
The natural conditions of their growth amaze, which are quite common for cacti:
- Many species grow in desert regions with low humidity. Although there are species that prefer wet areas, so they live exclusively in the tropics.
- Cacti are adapted to sudden temperature changes, which in deserts sometimes amount to 50 ° C.
- Most of the plants live on loose gravel and sandy soils, with a low content of humus, but with a large number of minerals.
Cacti have an unusual structure - a fleshy stem and dense skin. This feature contributes to the adaptation of plants to moisture deficiency. To prevent its loss, cacti have specific protective properties:
- spines instead of leaves;
- hair, which pritenyat plant from the scorching sun;
- wax coating protects against moisture evaporation;
- is a ribbed stem, along the grooves of which morning dew flows to the roots;
- long roots are protected from drying out.
To compensate for the lack of leaves, cacti have thickened fleshy stems. Most of them are spherical, therefore they absorb light in approximately the same amount as the leaves. Some cacti have fins that contribute to a slight shade from the sun.
A fleshy, water-saturated plant is an excellent prey for desert animals. To protect against them, the usual cactus has thorns. In some species, they are a natural cover from the sun's rays.
In appearance, cacti are divided into the following groups:
- are lianoid.
We invite you to get acquainted with the most common types of cacti among gardeners in the photo with the names.
Desert and forest cacti
Depending on the place of growth, 2 main groups of cacti are distinguished: desert and forest( tropical).
In nature, desert cacti grow in the hot desert or semi-desert zones of America and Africa. They are characterized by a high degree of adaptation to environmental conditions, have massive shoots and elongated, strong spines.
Desert cacti can be divided into three types:
- Echinopsis - have thick stems of spherical shape, on which spines are evenly distributed;
- Opuntia - characterized by flattened stems, which in appearance resemble pancakes;
- astrophituma - have ribbed stems with thick spines.
At home in the period October - March, desert cacti is better not to water at all. They need a constant hit of sunlight, otherwise they will not bloom. Therefore, it is better to place the plants on the southern windows.
Below are the most popular types of cacti in the photo and their names in Russian.
Most cacti are residents of arid areas of semi-deserts. But there are species that grow in tropical humid regions. The natural habitat of forest cacti is the tropical zones of South America, Africa and Australia.
Being placed on trees, they are supplied with organic decompositions. And on the rocks cling to the roots of stone protrusions and are satisfied with a small fraction of humus. Almost all tropical cacti are characterized by ampel form and long, leaf-shaped, hanging stems. Instead of the usual spines, they have fine hairs.
At home in a cold winter period, limited watering is recommended for forest cacti. And in the hot summer they need to be shaded. It is best to place them on the eastern or northern windows.
Home blooming cacti
About half of all varieties of blooming cacti can be expected to bloom when they reach 3-4 years. In the future, they are able to annually please others with their flowers. Most cacti blooms in the spring. But you can successfully pick up several species, the flowers of which will decorate the interior throughout the year.
Unusual flowers that bloom in some species of cacti are shown in the photo with the names.
In order for the cactus to blossom faster, it needs to create the most natural conditions. Most often, the flowers appear only on the new growth. And for its appearance, cactus requires appropriate care in summer and rest in winter.
- It is necessary to take care of the plants very carefully, because even one damaged thorn can significantly reduce the possibility of flowering.
- In the autumn, it is necessary to reduce the number of waterings, and by the winter, stop them completely. You can start watering only in March, first spraying cacti with water.
- In winter, it is worth keeping the plants in a cool room with subdued lighting.
- At the time of budding, cacti cannot be transplanted and fertilized, otherwise there is a chance to remain without flowering.
Growing a cactus in a tight pot speeds up its flowering. In this case, it is desirable not to turn it to the sun by different sides, otherwise it will lose the chance to bloom.
Species of flowering cacti with photos and names
Mammilyaria's cactus has a spherical stem shape, green with a bluish tint, up to 25 cm in height. Its characteristic feature is white thin threads that bind long spines. Pink or lilac flowers are placed on top of the cactus. Often it blooms like a wreath of flowers.
The Opuntia Cactus has flat shoots covered with sharp thorns. Therefore, when caring for a plant, you need to be very careful. Its spines easily break off and get stuck in a person’s skin. In the summer of Opuntia blooms orange large flowers. Fruits from which various dishes are prepared in America can be made. Opuntia grows in very diverse natural conditions: in tropical and coniferous forests, deserts and semi-deserts, savannas, on the coasts of the seas.
Peyote Cactus of the Lofofor genus of small size, gray-green color, without thorns. In nature, it grows in Mexico and some US states. Favorite habitat - small gravel. The top of the cactus resembles flattened molars, and the lower part of the stem is underground. Flowers appear on top, white or pink. The fruits are elongated berries of red color, are formed throughout the summer.
Peyote cultivation in Russia has been banned by law since 2004 because of the hallucinogenic substance mescaline, which is contained in the pulp of plant stems.
Cactus Cereus is the pride of many gardeners. The columnar stem with thick protruding ribs sometimes has a height of up to 1 m. There are long and sharp spines on the ribs. In summer, Tsereus begins to bloom. Some of its species have flowers up to 15 cm in length. Interestingly, the flowering of different varieties of Cereus is not the same. Some varieties bloom during the day, and others - at night.
Cactus Echinopsis in Greek means hedgehog. The plant is distinguished by a green spherical stem with powerful ribs and short prickles. In the future, the stem may become cylindrical. Large funnel-shaped flowers can have a diameter of up to 20 cm, they are white, red or pink. They begin to bloom in the evening, and by midnight their delicate aroma becomes very strong. Flowering begins in spring and ends in autumn. The flowers are kept on the stem for 2-3 days.
Cactus Gymnocalycium is translated from Greek as a naked calyx. Cactus spherical shape, which is characterized by apical flowers with a long tube without hairs and spines. There is no chlorophyll in its stems, so they are yellow, red, pink. On the ridge surface there are transverse tubercles. Cactus begins to bloom relatively early, at 3-4 years of age.
We should also say about the succulent Euphorbia from the family Euphorbia, which is also called the Euphorbia cactus. It is a shrub with small leaves and bright original inflorescences. If properly care for the plant, it can simultaneously bloom about 25-30 inflorescences. In nature, Spurge distributed on all continents. In Russia, it can be seen along the banks of rivers, near roads and in the fields.
Euphorbia contains poisonous milky sap. It can provoke burns of the skin and mucous membranes, as well as the violation of the functions of the digestive tract when it enters the stomach.
Euphorbia unpretentious to the conditions of detention, during the whole time has a decorative appearance. In winter, the plant should be put in a cool room and not watered to prevent rotting of the roots.