Potatoes not by chance became the most common horticultural crop in our country.
It is successfully grown in the hot southern and cold northern climates, and the crop produces a rich .However, even he becomes vulnerable if you have to share a bed with weeds. Herbicides are intended to combat them.
herbicide. Herbicides are the collective name of chemicals intended to kill plant pests. The scope of their application is very wide - from industrial construction to the purification of water bodies. However, they are most fully used in agriculture.
Treatment with herbicides will save the potatoes from weeds
External action( contact) - not absorbed by the root system of the weed plant, but it affects the aboveground part.
The effectiveness of various herbicides is also different. So, contact varieties, with rare exceptions, are used to control annual pests. But for more complex root systems of perennial weeds, internal-acting chemicals are indispensable - they are able to kill the whole plant and reduce soil overgrowth next season. Often, herbicides of different types are used together.
. Types of
Preparations are also distinguished by the spectrum of the vegetation of affected. This is very important to consider when choosing chemicals, as the improper means are able to bring along with weeds and planting potatoes.
The Russian Ministry of Health annually publishes a list of “Pesticides and agrochemicals” approved for use.
of continuous action
This type of herbicide is the most lethal,
is intended for the extermination of all plant species without exception on the treated area .Also in agriculture are called general destructive, their terrible name is fully consistent. Herbicide of continuous action will destroy the protective shell of seedlings, which leads to the death of the future plant.
In agriculture, chemicals of this type have a rather narrow use - preparing virgin soil for planting, when it is necessary to remove all the biological component.
It is not easy for them to find in the conditions of the garden and garden, sometimes they are used to treat the beds in the offseason. Selective Action
The vast majority of poison for weeds refers to substances with a selective or selective spectrum of damage. They are poison only for some plant species, while remaining harmless for horticultural crops.
In turn, they are also divided into two types of : Wide-selective - they fight certain types of flora, for example, all dicotyledonous plants, without touching the monocotyledonous plants. Narrowly selective - not whole plant species is affected, but individual varieties within species;for example, Grodil fights with a bed-bed, but does not touch the related barley and other cereals. The use of herbicides reduces the number of inter-row treatments of potatoes
In fact, almost exclusively selective preparations are used in home gardens, which is why we will pay them particular attention.
Also known as soil aids. From the name their principle of operation is well understood - it is necessary to process the soil itself. In addition to penetrating weed tissue, some types of pre-emergent chemicals leave a thin film on the surface of the earth. The defeat of pests occurs when their shoots in contact with it.
Popular products used before shoots: Roundup - contains glyphosates;tillage takes place half a month before planting potatoes;sprouts and roots of weeds are affected. Centurion - pre-emergent herbicide, used to control monocotyledonous weeds, for example, cereals;saturated with clethodim, absorbed by the root system of weeds, leads to the rapid withering of the shoots. The boxer is effective against all types of pest flora, and is often used to remove dicotyledons;its active ingredient is pro-sulfocarb. Post-emergence
Also referred to as leaf preparations, that is, affecting the upper, above-ground parts of plants. Most of them use phosphates as an active ingredient.
Popular products used after sprouting : Shogun - used against grass pests;it is saturated with propacfizafop, sprayed in the most active phase of the growing season of weeds - 4 sheets forming, 10 cm stem height. Alpha Mais - effective against dicotyledonous plants;destroys weeds in the period of 3-10 days after tillage. Tornado 500 - saturated with glyphosates, poisonous for all species of dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants;the beneficial effect of the drug lasts up to 30 days, regardless of the weather.
Handling post-emergence herbicides is less demanding on the tillage process. So, in the case of their use there are no strict requirements for compliance with the dosage.
Even with a lower saturation of preparations per square meter of area, comes into effect, but is not expressed in the complete destruction of weeds, but in reducing their germination and ability to form seeds.
In 2017, the Ministry of Health of Russia allowed 291 herbicides to be used on the territory of the countries.
The most popular herbicides for potatoes
The modern market is extremely saturated with preparations of various actions. But even among the existing
herbicides, there are several gardeners most loved by because of their ease of use and effectiveness. What kind of drug to choose for processing potatoes? Zenkor Zenkor
Treats the selective herbicides completely harmless for solanaceae, carrots, potatoes.
At the heart of the chemical is the substance metribuzin , fissile in the soil no faster than 3 months after treatment. The use of Zenkar is especially beneficial for the fight against broadleaf and cereal plants.
Zenkor is supplied both in liquid form and in the form of granules.
An important advantage of Zenkor is that the active substance is saturated with 600 g / l. In addition to the damage to the shoots,
leaves a protective film on the surface of the bed after application. Works great in blends, as it is compatible with a large number of insecticides and pesticides. Titus Titus
Has a selective effect, spraying should be done in the post-emergence period. The active ingredient is rimsulfuron, which blocks the process of acetolactosynthesis in the leaves.
Equally effective against single and biennial plants. The first signs of the death of weeds are noticeable after 3 days, and their complete death occurs no later than 15 days after treatment.
Titus is suitable for the preparation of tank mixes, but is incompatible with phosphate insecticides. Very demanding of moisture - with prolonged drought chemical consumption should be increased. May cause temporary yellowing of potato leaves. Not recommended for use on seed bushes.
Lapis lazuli Lapis lazuli
Lapis lazuli is a versatile tool used for both pre-emergence and post-emergence treatment of beds. According to the principle of action, it reminds Zenkor - metribusine( 700 g / l) is also the main substance.
One of the strongest drugs, used strictly once per season , only in exceptional cases, double processing is allowed - before germination and after, when the sprouts of potatoes have reached a height of 10 cm or more. Handle with Lapis lazuli should be very careful - contact with skin, mucous membranes, eyes or with food is fraught with deterioration of human well-being. How weed preparations are used
The effectiveness of soil chemicals is extremely dependent on the gardener's compliance with a number of requirements for their use. : uniform soil structure
humidity - it is desirable to moisten the soil before applying herbicides; depth of embedding into the ground - no deeper than 5 cm; soil type - the activity of preparations will be lower in fertile soils, the saturation with humus exceeds 5%;preparations are more suitable for sandstones and other types of light soils; heat level - when the air temperature is less than 5 ° C, performance decreases.
It is also important to keep in mind that with circular farming - the annual alternation of crops in the garden - chemicals can interfere with the normal development of certain types of vegetables. Before using herbicides, be sure to study the list of crops with incompatibility.
The effect of herbicidal processing of potatoes
The mechanism of action of herbicides of different types is unequal. It depends on their chemical composition and method of application.
By the way the chemical appears on plants, the following types of can be distinguished: Destroy the membranes of cells - lead to drying of weed germs;the effect begins to appear immediately after treatment. Hormonal Substitution - the mechanism of action of benzoic or acidic herbicides;destroys the leaf tissue compounds;the effect is weak in relation to the grain varieties of weeds. Suppression of photosynthesis - only against dicotyledonous weeds. Suppression of the ability of cells to divide - chemicals of this type refer to chloroacetamides;the action is gradual, first the plant weakens, then dies. Suppression of amino acid synthesis - leads to a stop in weed development. Suppression of the synthesis of fat - an instantaneous cessation of development, drying of the plant for 15 days The use of herbicides can completely eliminate the transfer of viruses, which is provoked by damage to the bushes
Unfortunately, the effect of the use of herbicides is partially manifested in potatoes, especially
, with improper dosing or treatment procedure .To minimize it, you can add or partially replace chemicals with less aggressive substances.
Some weed species may be addictive to the active ingredients of chemicals. Therefore, it is not necessary to use only one type of drugs - to replace the herbicide with another one at least once in 3-5 seasons.
Other means in addition to herbicides
are not able to provide complete protection against all ills.
Depending on the threat, the processing of potatoes and other crops can be carried out with the following type of drugs :
Fungicides - to combat fungal spores. Insecticides - chemicals that kill insect parasites. Acaricides - against plant infection by mites. Bactericides - prevent the proliferation of microorganisms. Nematocides - against nematode worms. Folk remedies - from kerosene to blue vitriol.
Finally, the conditional analogue of chemicals is manual weeding. But even with the most careful removal of weeds, the effect will be incomparable with that after treatment with special means. Because
herbicides remain in demand among the gardeners , which have a high yield priority.