In small communities, the general sewage system is not. At the same time the need to secure the collection of sewage in the suburban area plays an important role. Do you agree? Wisely invested in a drain hole in a private house perfectly cope with the responsibilities and receive the partial disposal of waste.
But whether it is able to provide comfort and epidemiological safety of the household? How to make a pit does not cause trouble? These questions should thoroughly understand before you decide on a device of such a system.
We also discuss the solution to the problem of waste water in the country site and tell you about how to build their own septic tank and that this would require. This article contains expert tips, photos and videos to help you better understand the arrangement of sewage item on the site.
The content of the article:
- Features local sewerage
- The volume of the sump
Building an independent sewage system
- Step 1. excavation
- Step # 2. Preparing the container base
- Step # 3. The casting of the concrete floor
- Step # 4. Walling drain hole
- Step # 5. Application of waterproofing
- Step # 6. Decorating the walls raking inside
- Step # 7. Overlapping drain hole
- A local sewer system with sewage treatment
- drainage sewer complex
- Neutralization of sludge from septic tanks
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Features local sewerage
Operation of suburban households is associated with the development of wastewater. Before each landlord task is not so much the accumulation of domestic waste water, how much cleaning. Moreover, widespread rural solution - instillation under a sewer cesspool old barrel or tank - is ineffective.
If the daily volume of sewage exceeds one cubic meter (1000 liters), then flaws "Tank" of septic tanks soon manifest themselves unpleasant odors. Or worse - intestinal infections among households. Finally, organized their own hands the drain hole of the barrel worn in a number of illegal situations.
Apparatus drain hole on a suburban section allows to organize the object independent drains for receiving effluents
All kinds of drain holes are built for sewage systems of export type. That is, the accumulation of the partial recycling of the effluent and the mass to be pumped and remove
Since the drain holes need constant maintenance and periodic pumping drains, dispose they should be so that there is access assenizatorskaya technique or missing sleeve length extractor system
Structurally, the simplest embodiment is a single chamber drain hole well with sealed walls and bottom. It is simple in construction, but requires regular pumping
A more complex structure includes two cameras and provides partial purification of waste water. It can be further post-treatment after discharge into the ground, so much less likely to cause a vacuum trucks
The more cameras in the waste water purification system, the better the purified effluent, the less need to produce pumping and removal
In the multi-drain pits extreme camera performs additional cleaning dirt. For this purpose it is provided with a bottom filter, composed of sand and gravel
If multichamber drain pit constructed in soils with poor filtering properties, throughput system is increased by setting the ring start or perforated brick assembly with clearances between the well elements
The drain hole in the suburban area
Pit for receiving and processing the partial waste water
Location points of reception in the area drains
Single-chamber septic drive
Two-chamber solid construction
Three-chamber treatment plant in the country
A camera with a dirt filter for post-treatment
Ring to increase capacity
Normative acts of the Russian Federation require private landlords comply with measures for the protection of groundwater against pollution domestic waste water.
The law "On sanitary and epidemiological welfare of population" (№52-FZ of 30.03.1999, the) And "Hygienic requirements for the protection of groundwater against pollution (JV 22.214.171.1249-01) Is charged with the responsibility of homeowners to solve the problem of wastewater.
Location drain hole in relation to the house and drinking water supply is necessary to comply. Otherwise there will be infections
In turn, the "Sanitary Rules for the residential places of detention" (SanPiN 42-128-4690-88), "Planning and development of the horticultural (suburban), citizens' associations, structures and buildings" (SNIP 30/02/97) And "Sewerage.
External networks and facilities (SP 32.13330.2012) Normalized conditions of the organization and operation of "patching" sewage:
- distance from home to the drain hole - 8 m;
- distance from the well (spring capping) - 50 m;
- distance from the adjacent home ownership (fences) - 2 m;
- penetration raking capacity is made to the groundwater level, but not more than 3 m;
- Cleaning is made upon filling, but at least once a year.
Please note - the condition of the distance from the sources of drinking water act, regardless where these sources.
Those. Whatever someone turned the nearest well - your, neighbor or community - pit raking allowed to hold strictly to 30 meters away. Otherwise there will be the cost of the fines, the reconstruction of the sump up to two-three-chamber septic tank and restore the ecological balance in soil layers.
The drain hole of the two chambers of sewage sludge suspensions and clarification of waste takes place is much better than in the single hopper (+)
The volume of the sump
Homeowners necessary in advance (before raking type selection) to determine how to volume sufficient for the drain hole. Its required capacity is calculated as follows:
V = Nday• Xpeople• Vday / person
- V - estimated amount of raking, m3;
- Nday - the number of days of the pits on the storage (pumping up);
- Xpeople - the number of permanent members of household;
- Vday / person - daily consumption of water with one household, l.
For example, for a private household-residential 5 people raking cleaning once a month and water demand 150 l / person, the volume of the sump will be: V = 5 • 30 • 150 = 22.5 m3.
Enhances the production amount of at least 10% (to fill the hole brim prohibited rules) and obtain raking volume: V = 22,5 + 22,5 • 0,1 = 24,75 m3. Roundness value up to 25 m3 - more is better than less.
The correct value of the daily water consumption depends on the requirements of the household laundry and bathing, i.e. from their daily habits. According to statistics, citizens consume more water than the villagers.
You can, of course, to prepare the septic tank volume, calculating clean it every two months. But waste removing tanker more than 11 cubes does not accept
Deeper than 3 m digging raked not worth it. Its bottom does not directly contact with the horizontal ground water, according to the standards it must be above the level of 1 m at a minimum. Assume that the spring and autumn rainy season is perched on a depth of 3.5 m. Hence, the depth of the drain holes may not be more than 2.5 m.
Since putting the wall of a rectangular cube is easier than that of a round tank - rectangular raked be considered. But all in terms of reliable operation in the septic tank because the ground pressure on the walls thereof is significantly lower.
The volume is calculated by multiplying the sides of a cube. Determine the long side (width) at the place of the future placement of sump given easy entrance sewage truck. Suppose that the width is 5 m length will then 25:. 2: 5 = 2.5 m.
Keen on a capacity of a drain hole is not necessary. Capacity-cesspool emptier tanks, usually does not exceed 10 m3. This means that empty hopper overflowing sewage greater volume (as in the example above) and to remove waste at a time of such special transport can not.
Rationally arrange raked up to 10 m3 and empty it every two weeks. After all, a large sewage tank will take away useful space in the suburban area, which can be used beneath something no less important.
The most common option for the drain hole unit - construction of a well or wells group of concrete rings
In the organization of the autonomous sewerage are often used ready-made concrete factory fill tank
In erecting wall applicable drain hole brick. For hermetic structures brick wall plastered or coated with clay, for waterproofing structures filter operates
Practical and affordable solution for the device will drain hole plastic containers. They are sealed, inert to chemical attack, but because of the lightness required anchoring
Drain pit of concrete rings with a waterproofing
Concrete drive factory production
Drain tank with brick walls
Plastic containers for the device drain pits
Building an independent sewage system
If the septic tank factory production set is easier to build the single-chamber brick raked cheaper. Such waste storage is quite suitable if the area a little place and the daily sewage discharge is less than one cubic meter. Let's understand how to dig and build drain hole with walls made of bricks.
Drain hole with a filter bottom (Fig. left) can only be used for gray or waste water for disposal, coming from the multi-chamber septic tank. To collect sewage mass brown constructing sealed drives (ris.sprava)
Or porous sand-lime brick is not suitable, you need a material made of baked clay. Only the walls of brick over the years are able to keep the mechanical load on the ground motions, not to break down under the constant influence of moisture and do not miss it in its own column.
The optimal variant of the brick-chamber storage - fully waterproofed design, which is periodically emptied scavengers.
If the drain hole is arranged for recycling gray effluents emanating from kitchen sinks, baths, shower, etc., the brick structure with a permeable bottom satisfied by type filter well.
The bottom of the filter or otherwise absorbing the well is filled with dirt filter, composed of layers filled with sand, fine, then coarse gravel or crushed stone.
Filling the cleaning power should be at least 1 m between its base and conditional highest groundwater level, marked on a rainy period must be at least one meter.
When installing sewer brick structures on sandy loam soil, filtration properties which is not sufficient for free passage of effluent, its bandwidth increase. This is done by forming holes in the bottom walls performed during laying.
We will analyze the structure of the simplest option - funded holes for draining waste, failing to fulfill the absorption function. The bottom wall and it will not pass into the environment of the waste mass, clarified and disinfected soil filter.
. The optimum depth of excavation under the drain hole 2-2.5m no need to dig deeper - does not make it a hose-cesspool emptier machines
Step 1. excavation
selecting the optimal the size of the drain hole, Proceed to the preparation of the pit. It is necessary to increase the distance between its walls so that the masonry of up to half a meter slope excavation maintained indentation. Otherwise, the application of waterproofing on the outside wall of the brick septic tank would be an impossible task.
Step # 2. Preparing the container base
At the bottom of the pit lined slept 200 mm layer of sand and gravel pad, carefully compacted. Over spreading overlapped roofing material, it blocks the leakage of the cement milk to soil during concreting.
Waterproofing of the bottom of the pit before pouring concrete will reduce the loss of cement slurry. Sewer bunker imperative liquid-tight bottom
On ruberoidnyj flooring exposed mesh reinforcing cage (8-10 mm armature, Box 100-150 mm). carcass perform strapping steel flexible wire. Welding is not necessary, because the worsen ferroconcrete strength.
Step # 3. The casting of the concrete floor
should apply concrete brand M300 is the solution to achieve better waterproofing and more. The thickness of the concrete base raking - 150 mm. Since the pouring of concrete floor should wait 7-10 days, just after starting the masonry walls.
Reinforcement concrete bottom drain hole is important. When fully loaded hopper load on its bottom wall and increase manyfold
Step # 4. Walling drain hole
Masonry allowed to do "in a half-brick", using a conventional solution. However in the final stages of filling the cavity between the need brick walls and slopes pit dry cement-sand mixture.
As the mixture proceeds sedimentary moisture cured to become a protective cover for the drainage hopper.
Step # 5. Application of waterproofing
As the rise of brick walls need to make their external waterproofing liquid bituminous materials. You can use a roll, but their waterproofing effectiveness weaker. Should not be delayed waterproofing works - the higher the wall, the harder it is applied waterproofing on them.
Step # 6. Decorating the walls raking inside
Enough of plaster, introducing into the water glass solution (potassium, sodium). Plaster layer with a content of water glass substantially reduce water absorption walls. Be sure the surface with cement plaster cement.
Concrete floor septic tank safe. However, display it on the ground level as the image should not be - chilled water drain
Step # 7. Overlapping drain hole
Drain tank is necessary to cover the concrete slab factory production. Optional sunroof - through it will be carried out pumping sewage.
Instead w / w plates can be used wooden boards, on both sides of tarred over and laid by the roofing material. Overlapping sewer facilities must be insulated styrofoam plates, cover with a layer of soil of 150-500 mm.
Single chamber raked designed for periodic cleaning feces disposal techniques, suitable for country houses with a number of people temporary residence not more than 4. And for large family household drain tank with necessary ground filtration of waste water. The following describes a complex, designed for a family of 9 people.
With the device through a drain hole in the pouring of concrete formwork ohnakomit following photo gallery:
For the organization of the sewer system to the transportation of waste into the drain hole, first dig a pit
The bottom of the excavation backfilled with sand 10-15 cm, align it and ramming to minimize shrinkage
For pouring concrete monolithic construction formwork build on frame system. Put into formwork reinforcement grid
Fill concrete mortar into the formwork. To wall during solidification is not deformed, set off from the spacer boards to the compartments
At least 24 days, but it is better after 48 days, remove the formwork. Fill into two first chambers concrete floor
To construct shuttering for slab casting. We do it from edging boards, the top cover with a thick polyethylene. Set hatches for maintenance of each camera
On the formwork for pouring floors put reinforcing grid and pour the solution. Top close polythene to protect it from rain and sun and waiting for solidification
Fall asleep to the spill area with sand pit or fertile soil. Around it is building the fence to prevent access to the hatches of children and animals
Step 1: Development of the pit under the drain hole
Step 2: Stacking bottom sand for leveling
Step 3: The construction of formwork for pouring hole walls
Step 4: Pouring the solution into the formwork
Step 5: Removing the shuttering after hardening of
Step 6: The construction of the pit slab formwork
Step 7: Laying of reinforcement and pouring of concrete
Step 8: Construction platforms with hatches drain hole
A local sewer system with sewage treatment
Cottage, equipped with modern sanitary facilities - bathroom, toilet and bidet - sewage storage bunker type will not be enough.
Minimize recourse to specialists with cleaning equipment, complete closure requirements sewage and avoid local problems with contamination of the soil will allow the sewage treatment complex drains.
Principle lightening (purification) of domestic wastewater through a system of drainage pipes is based on the natural order filtering fecal waste "running" in nature. Through the riser into the waste water is followed in building the pipeline, linking the house and septic. Sufficient manhole - 2.5 m3.
When planning a landscape suburban area, we must not forget about the need to clean the septic tank. The machine can not drive, and its hoses are not long enough
This clarified domestic waste storage with loss of suspensions contained in the precipitate. It requires the hiring-cesspool emptier car with the team to clean the deposited silt in the septic tank twice a year.
Permissible self-cleaning disposal of sediments in the composting bin special design (see. below). The clarified water is sent into the sewage drainage network, from which goes to the ground.
Well drain hole is performed at a distance of 5-20 m from the house. The main requirement for the location and positioning of the drainage network - a sufficient distance from the building to the ground entering the waste water is not washed away the foundation, not flooded cellar.
Clarified waste stream is moved first from sewage settling in storage distribution well, then THEREOF system of perforated drainage pipes made of polymer or asbestos.
Drainage pipes are laid at a depth of at least half a meter, in fact at the level of top soil. If the soil is developed on the sandy soil, the length of the drain is calculated taking into account the 10 m per person.
The sandy loam soil from the foundation of the perforated tube length should reach 14 - 17 m, with loamy base of about 20 m.
For filtering in vivo, in soil, sewage is not obligatory two-chamber or three-chamber tank. Amiss single chamber storage, if it is properly construct ()
Sewage pipes from the well to the point of accumulation or discharge should be placed with a slope of 0.02, i.e., per meter should fall 2 cm tilt. Desirably, the bulk of the pipe was laid in the region marked below the freezing depth.
Plots located above this mark, the heat insulating releasable cylindrical insulation of expanded polystyrene, polyurethane, polyethylene or slag backfilling.
Stacking channel 100-150 mm pipes performing draining sewage to the collecting pit, is performed by at least 50 mm above the distributor distributing the well with pipes, which clarified effluent directed to the hermetic drain pipes.
Input and output pipe runs through a hole in the tee 100 mm diameter. Their upper ends must be left open, placing them above the tubes for cleaning, having equal cross-section with troughs, inlet and outlet effluents.
Between the open end of each tube and Tee-procleaning kept gap of 50 mm. Applied sewer pipes made of polyvinylchloride or polyethylene, with a diameter of 100-150 mm.
One distribution well in the ground water treatment complex is indispensable. You need a minimum of two
The lower end of each pipe tee mounted. It is necessary to bring to 400 mm below the rated water level in the drain tank.
All components of the drain hole with the point of a dirt filtration systems need ventilation. This function is assigned to the sewer standpipe inside the house, the upper end of which is displayed above the level of the roof, the most raked and every sewer pipe.
The pipeline from the well to the distribution drains laid down in the sand bed, is performed with a gradient of 3 mm, 2 mm, sandy loam, loamy to 1 mm
The filter system under the dug trench pipes are laid down perforation. Joints drainage sewer pipes insulated roofing material, adhesive tape, a polyethylene or a similar material.
drainage sewer complex
Housing wells in which there are elements of the layout of the drainage system, designed for the collection and removal of groundwater, it is better to do a round. When performing their walls of brick convenient 400 mm inner diameter of a circle of concrete - 700 mm in diameter.
Distribution well is not elevated above 400 mm, otherwise work with the wiring inside it will be uncomfortable. Brick wall inside necessarily plastered and iron. Outside their allowable seal the clay or bituminous paint.
Neck all distribution of wells need to close the cover of reinforced concrete, plastic or tarred boards. Stacked on top of a heat insulator - styrofoam slab with surface soil dumping 200-400 mm thick.
section of the channel for the installation of the drains can not be chosen arbitrarily. filtration system operation is dependent on this
According directivity effluent wells equipped one-, two- and constituents of intake taps - pin open pipe-lockable latches vanes vertical stroke. Wooden dampers need to adjust the water supply and the repair of the well.
At the bottom of the water distribution wells are formed open pans of concrete, leading from the supply pipe to the receiving drainage pipes. The height of the trays must be equal to the diameter of the largest pipe entering the well. Their bottom is displayed on the lower level of the pipe walls.
The polymeric drainage pipes (their lower) saws through the slit width 15 mm, height of about half the diameter of the pipe. Cuts from 1000 mm centers provide a uniform flow of clarified water drain into the ground.
The bottom of the drainage ditches is given a trapezoidal shape. They slept 100-150 mm layer of gravel or schebenchataya cushion with grain size 15-25 mm. In general, the thicker the underlying layer of gravel (gravel) - the better filtering will go waste.
After imparting a predetermined bias dumping surface, drainage tubes are exposed to it. On top of them 50 mm layer of crushed stone or gravel is poured, and then ground flush with the ground level.
Drains must not be interconnected. Moving the discharge of water in them only through the distribution wells
The distance between the septic tank and distribution wells It depends on the type of soil at the site. The required number of wells from which stretched parallel drain - two or more.
Sewage-filtration characteristics of the complex, depending on the soil type:
- Sand. Two drains 18 m long each, with an intermediate distance of 1.5 m between them. The area of filtration fields - 70 m2;
- sandy loam. Five drains, each of length 19 m, pitch between 2.5 m filtration field size -. 231 m2;
- light loam. Seven drains 18.5 m long, 3 m distance kept therebetween. Area filtration field - 495 m2.
To a draining pipes no air pockets were formed and recovered typical process effluent recycling methane drainage system required air flow. At each end of the drains need to embed the riser pipe of 100 mm diameter, lifting it at 400-500 mm above the ground.
Neutralization of sludge from septic tanks
With self purged drain hole and attempts to accommodate sewage sludge on top of one lot result - the abundance of flies and infections among households. Scum can and should convert to compost completely disinfect them from germs.
Choose a location - from the house 15 m from the well of 25-30 m - you need to dig a hole half a meter depth and the required size. Its pit waterproofing crumpled clay layer 200-300 mm, or concreted terminal obkladyvaetsya brick with upstands above the ground.
Bumpers are required - collected in a compost pit of filth should not penetrate the soil and contaminate it. To fully exclude moisture exchange, at the pit wall is applied cement mortar followed zhelezneniem. It is also useful bitumen over fluff.
The bottom of the compost pit is sprinkled with a layer of 150 mm of peat or dry soil, placed on top scum. Having increased the sewage sludge layer up to 250-300 mm needed to fill his 100-150 mm layer of dry soil or peat.
Withdrawing layering compost pile at a height of 1000 mm above the ground, it is required to fill it completely with earth or peat 150-200 mm thick and leave for 8 months to mature.
If in the process of laying the compost pit pour a small amount of waste layers of ash and a little water to wash, the compost will mature faster and in better quality.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Video # 1. Independent creation of a brick drain hole in loamy soils:
Video # 2. Laying the drain holes of stone, with a headband made of bricks:
Drain hole on a suburban area - not only need to ensure that life, it is a responsibility. It should be possible to evaluate seriously the possibility of resettlement of the local sewage system, even choosing not cheap, but safe solution.
Please write comments in the block, which is located under the text of the article. We are interested in your stories is their own device, a drain hole in the suburban area. Ask questions, share useful information and thematic photos.