The desire to add a city in the comfort of country life leads many summer residents, and owners of suburban real estate, engaged in water supply arrangement on their own plot. But full-time job is not possible without running water drain, is not it?
It turns out that you can make an autonomous sewer own from scrap materials. One of the most popular home-made structures is a drain hole of the tire that is used to collect and filter wastewater. Device design and installation is very simple, but effective and safe operation of the system can only be achieved with strict adherence to technology standards.
In this article we will talk about how to choose a place in the cesspool, and that it should be borne in mind. Also, here you will find step by step instructions on the construction of the sump of a car tire. The material is accompanied by schemes for the Development and videos with expert advice on the construction of the drain holes.
The content of the article:
- Design and function of the settler
- Expediency drain collection of tires
- Choosing a place under the drain hole
construction technology cesspool of tires
- Step # 1. Calculation of the drain reservoir volume
- Step # 2. Preparation of materials and tools
- Step # 3. Conclusion sewer pipe
- Step # 4. earthworks
- Step # 5. Harvesting tires
- Step # 6. Formation of drainage wells
- Step # 7. Laying tire and sealing walls
- Step # 8. The final arrangement
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Design and function of the settler
Cesspool - the simplest option arrangement autonomous sewerage. With the advent of highly septic tanks and purification systems use local draining collections in private households and cottage settlements decreased. However, among the cottagers this method the output of wastewater remains in demand.
Most budget and easy by the local sewer system is based on the use of old tires. In this case, the wall of the drain collector reinforced rubber tires, the bottom of the tank is absent.
There are two possible organization drain hole: 1 - absorbs well without a bottom, intended for the processing and disposal of sewage and gray clarified water held in the processing of the septic tank, 2 - airtight storage container, arranged for collection of mixed waste or brown Mass. Both methods are simple and easy in implementation
The base absorbent or otherwise filtering options - a drainage layer of gravel and sand. Structural stability is achieved due to the weight of tires themselves, dusting landed and accumulated sewage.
In the upper part of the "tower" of the tire is provided administered sewer. The whole structure is covered by a lid that prevents the spread of odors and clogging holes
The principle of operation of the absorbing pit:
- The waste liquid flows through a pipe into the container.
- Heavy, suspended solids are deposited on the surface of the "cushion" of gravel.
- Semi-pure water seeping through the drainage layer extends deeper into the ground.
- Accumulated yl periodically pumped from the reservoir.
To improve the quality of filtering and accelerating the drainage of waste water within the tank is installed tire hollow perforated tube.
Some of the wastewater is subjected to a double cleaning - not settled to the bottom of the slurry otfiltrovuyutsya drainage pipe and tested in the advanced treatment of sand and gravel backfill
Expediency drain collection of tires
When planning the construction of a cesspool of tires, it is necessary to compare the features of arrangement, the efficiency of the drainage of the collection with the intended operation and "loads" on sewer system.
The main arguments in favor of the well of rubber products:
- Low cost. Used tires can get free - at the service station or transport enterprise is a lot of old tires for recycling. As a last resort, used automobile tires will buy almost for nothing at the flea market. The main item of expenditure - improvement of the supply pipeline.
- Easy installation. Preparation of material, installation and connection of the drain of the tank - a feasible task for one person. The work does not provide for the use of expensive tools and equipment.
Rubber is resistant to corrosion, so the tank will last longer than the construction of the steel drums. The average lifespan - 10-12 years.
For the construction of the absorbing well use any tires with a diameter greater than 1 meter. The whole process of construction of a drain hole of the tire will take 1-2 days
"Craft" for sewage treatment plant has a number of negative factors that limit its use:
- Low productivity. Even very large tires can not provide sufficient capacity for the accumulation and discharge of wastewater. Absorbing hole of the tire is suitable for a family of two or three people.
- Freezing system. Despite the use of heat-insulating materials at strong frosts okolevaet rubber, which is fraught with a freeze drains and sewer work stoppage.
- Unpleasant smell. From time to time from the sump can be heard "flavors" of sewage. To resolve this problem, mounted fans and vent pipe is covered with dense hatch cover.
- Limitations of use. The degree of purification of sewage pit absorbing up to 40% - this is insufficient for safe retraction into the ground. In order not to disturb the ecological balance in the drain hole of the tire can not be discounted heavily contaminated liquid and fecal matter.
- Lack of tightness. Provide complete tightness of joints between the tires is quite difficult. When shifting of the soil after cleaning and likely depressurization constructions - impurities begin to seep into the soil.
tightness loss - the most common cause of failure of the sewage system.
Possible solutions: the repair of the structure after cleaning or complete dismantling of rubber well, followed by construction of the trench of the new tires.
Accumulated silt prevents normal drainage of sewage, so the collection must be cleaned regularly. The cleaning process is very time consuming because of the unevenness of the walls of the tank
Absorbs well from the tires it is advisable to build under the following conditions:
- volume of waste liquid does not exceed 1 cubic meter / day;
- the groundwater level on the site is at a depth of 2 m;
- cesspool bottomless preferably settle in the lungs, well drained soils (sand, supesok), substrates on heavy (clay) water stagnate slope.
Construction pits suitable for suburban area, or seasonal sauna baths.
Choosing a place under the drain hole
During the construction of the drainage holes should be guided by the rules set out in SanPiN 42-128-4690-88. The document clearly defines the permissible limits placement of sewerage system in the area.
The basic rule when choosing a place reads: distance from the apartment house to the sewer pit should be at least 15 m deviation from the norm may in consultation with the local SES.
For more, but no less important, in the tank distancing restrictions sewage:
- Distance to the water pipes depends on the direction of movement of groundwater. Approximately determine the direction of the slope can be a relief. When aspiration of the water drain hole minimum distance between the marked objects - 40 m, otherwise - not less than 25 m.
- The nearest well or deep well with drinking water should be 50 m or more. In practice, to comply with this provision is very difficult. With the permission of SES, this distance is reduced to 30 m.
- Distance to open reservoir - at least 30 m.
- The distance between trees, shrubs and cesspool - 4 m. The same parameter determined for the roadway.
- The remoteness of the sewage treatment plant from an adjacent section - of about 3 meters.
The optimal arrangement of the pit - in the hollow portion in the direction of groundwater. To reduce the risk of penetration into the housing container of odor of sewage is being built on the leeward side, away from home.
When planning is necessary to ensure unhindered access to equipment cleansing septic tank.
Standard hose length assenizatorskaya machine - 6 m, with 1.5-2 m will go into the trench depth. Modern buses equipped with a hose length of 10 m, but its call and operation cost much more expensive
construction technology cesspool of tires
Below is a step by step instructions to create a drain hole to drain the well. Material absorbing everything well - the old tires.
The process of construction of the drainage device of old rubber automobile includes a number of traditional steps:
Before the construction of the drain hole tires counting the required volume, whereby the required amount of rubber harvests
Roy pit, given that for the free installation and alignment elements need at least 50 cm along the circumference. Depth take into account a 10 cm layer of sand applied to align bottom
On covered with sand and equalized bottom laid starting ring. Then we collect the entire shaft, sequentially setting each of the tires to a pre-laid and aligned the tire. Using silicone adhesive and sealant
From equip object (home, summer kitchen, bath) paving sewer pipe with a gradient of 2 cm by 1 m in the direction of the drain hole
At the point of entry into the sewer pipe wall rubber pit recesses opening. Diameter should insure a tight fit of the pipe
Sidewall tires cut in order to increase the volume of the well and reduce the area of land, contributing to the accumulation of sediment. The edges of the tire "sew" polymer ties
At the bottom drain hole fall asleep pit sand layer about 35 - 40 cm. Condense it and do not need to tamp
On sand fall asleep chippings layer 40 - 45 cm, then a large gravel layer 35 - 40 cm. In this method creates a compactor filter produces advanced treatment wastewater
Step 1: Procurement of tires for a drain hole
Step 2: Excavation under the drain hole of the tire
Step 3: Assembling of automobile shaft rubber
Step 4: Laying a pipeline to drain the pit
Step 5: Connecting sewer pipes
Step 6: Trim the tires and fixing ties
Step 7: Filling sand component precoat filter
Step 8: Filter filling Krupnofraktsionnaya
Step # 1. Calculation of the drain reservoir volume
The primary task structures autonomous cleaning system of tires - calculation of the drain reservoir volume to determine the number and dimensions of the tires. The volume of the chamber depends on the number of people living in the house.
According to the normative data one adult consumes daily about 170-200 liters of water (for bathing, washing, cooking, etc.). If we take the condition that the family consists of three people, the daily volume of waste will be about 600 liters (0.6 cubic meters).
For technological rules, sewerage of this type should hold a three-time daily volume of wastewater. Norm due to the fact that the period of initial decomposition of organic matter, the sewage splitting at different slurry fractions of three days
Hence, the obtained value (0.6 cubic meters) multiplied by three. Total capacity of the container should be 1.8 m³ However, the type of soil must be taken into account for the calculation accuracy. At arrangement sump on a porous substrate, the amount of "rubber" tank permissible reduced by 20%. In the case of dense ground - increased by 10%.
To count the number of tires need to determine the volume of one tire. This is easy to do, knowing the diameter and height of the tire.
The volume of the tire is calculated as its footprint to the height. When this base area - the product of the square of the radius and the constant π (3,14)
Step # 2. Preparation of materials and tools
For self-construction of the absorbent inlet holes and it should be reserved communication tools and materials. The ground work is done with the help of different types of spades.
shovel. Due to the design of a curved scoop is convenient to rake up and remove the earth from the ditch. If the metal blade is curved shovel, it can be strengthened by additional edges.
bayonet spade. Used at the beginning of digging, so suitable tool with a handle of standard length (1.5 m).
"Digger". Shovel-shank ripper with a long holder, designed to resemble the twin forks. The tool is used for loosening hard soil layers.
For ease of use at a depth of a shovel equipped with a long handle (2,5-3 m). Preferably on the edge of the handle to make a cross-shaped grip - it will facilitate the bayonet coup
Indicative list of materials:
- Casings. Fit tires of the tractor, truck or car. At high groundwater is better to use large-diameter products - will be able to get the desired amount without going to the groundwater.
- Crushed stone, gravel and sand. Materials needed for the arrangement of the filtering bottom of the tower of tires.
- sewer pipes. To assemble the pipe suitable bilayer polyethylene or propylene pipe diameter of 110 mm. In addition, it is necessary to purchase a bellows, tees, caps and fittings.
- Cap. Suitable plastic insulated model manhole. The diameter is chosen according to the dimensions of the drain hole.
- Membrane waterproofing concrete and mortar. Materials necessary to ensure the tightness of the tank - solution daubed "pyramid" outer slit, and the film is lined with an inner wall surface.
- Plastic or concrete pipe. It delves into the drainage layer and acts as a filter element.
For the installation work will be necessary: a cutter or jigsaw, roulette, building level, a garden drill, ladder, bucket and rope.
Step # 3. Conclusion sewer pipe
Organization of the local sewage system begins with the release arrangement. Subsequently, the build of the riser in the house, connecting tees and outlet pipes. In old construction output sewer through underground or cellar.
If the new home is not provided in advance exhaust port, you have to disassemble the floor and make a hole in the foundation.
Next prepared trench leading from the house to the sump. There must be sufficient slope to drain - at least 1,5-2 cm per meter
The depth of the pipeline at the exit of the house must not be less than 60 cm, optimally - 1 m. If some sections of the trench depth is less than 90 cm, it is necessary to insulate the pipeline. More on the depth of sewer pipes read Further.
Step # 4. earthworks
In one of the tires is used as the patterns for formatting the pit boundaries. The tire should be put on the selected location and the perimeter of the circle to put the pegs. To further tire freely fit in the pit, it is necessary to expand the ring diameter of 20-40 cm.
Initially, the land is convenient bayonet digging shovel. Fertile soil layer (the first 50 cm) can be uniformly distributed across the garden, deeper excavation layers can be used for backfilling.
Continue digging deep excavation easier to shovel with a long handle - compacted soil loosened "digger", then going to shovel and loaded into the bucket. To descend into the gutter and lifting of filled containers at the surface in the production descends stairs.
Working together, digging process can be accelerated and to build a primitive lifting gear - tie the rope to the bucket.
Pit further deepened by the thickness of the drainage pads (20-30 cm). The walls of the pits are released from tree roots, to the extent they do not damage the growth or shifted tires
Safety ground works at the depth should be carried out with a partner. One person is engaged in pressing of the button, and the second surface and helps to insure against collapse of the excavation walls. This requirement is especially important in the regeneration of wells in unstable soils.
Step # 5. Harvesting tires
Regarding the technology of preparation of tires under the unit sump opinion performers divided. The first group believes that no manipulations have to do with the tires, because the total or partial removing the tread adversely affect the stability of sealing segments and constructions in general.
However, maintaining tire bead degrade the performance of the absorbing pit - the useful volume of the tank is greatly reduced, and educated "pockets" are very quickly accumulate waste. At the same time qualitatively clean sludge from the walls of the relief is almost impossible - the tank quickly becomes full of sewage and drainage fails.
The optimal solution - a partial section of the rim. RV should be left to the side ends of 5-7 cm for fixing to the adjacent segments
In one a tire it is necessary to cut a hole for supplying the soil pipe.
Step # 6. Formation of drainage wells
At the depth of the soil is very often heavy, clayey, poorly absorbed and leaky. To increase the area of absorption liquid waste and improving the efficiency of absorbing the trench is set, one or more drainage channels.
Progress of the work:
- Garden drill to drill deep well possible - channel must pass through dense rock delaying outflow of filtered water. The depth of the trench from the bottom of the pit - up to 3-5 meters.
- Prepare the pipe corresponding to the length and diameter of the drainage channel. To the filter pipe is silted, its upper edge must be above the bottom drain hole 1 m.
- The side walls of the pipe from the top and 50 cm before reaching the bottom, be drilled. The top of the channel is closed fine-mesh polypropylene net.
After casing drainhole, i.e. Fitting a drill stem pipe perforated on the bottom of the pit poured layer of rubble and gravel - the thickness of the filter pads is about 20-30 cm.
Outputting as the channel can be used a plastic sewer pipe of 110 mm diameter. More affordable alternative - asbestos cement pipes
Step # 7. Laying tire and sealing walls
At the bottom of a kind of shaft placed first tire, passing through it drain pipe. Similarly lowered into a pit second bus, and connected to bead adjacent wheels convenient way.
Comparing and aligning the two tires, it is necessary to make through holes in the tread. To pass through them, a metal wire or plastic clip, and tightly twist.
In the course of the erection of the tower is performed external sealing joints - places tire compounds processed concrete mortar or mastic asphalt. After setting, the mixture can proceed to backfilling the excavation.
Fixation and strengthening the tank wall of the tire in the ground is performed in different ways: filling sand-ground mixture, pouring concrete or filling the remaining space of the tire. The vertically stacked bus structure obezdvizhat
the latter end of the tire should rise a little above the ground. At the end of the tire laying vessel wall slush inside. The most affordable option Gidrobarer - suitable sealant composition.
Land sewer pipe outer part, laid above the level of soil freezing, it is desirable to insulate. Despite the fact that it is transported to the main flow with a high temperature, the formation of ice plugs can not be ruled
Throughout the sewer route all connections must be securely sealed. There are no prerequisites for the emergence of leaks should not be
To prevent the spread of odors upper drain holes must be closed with the hatch neck. For the construction of the neck fit cut marginalia tires
All sections of the sewer route laid by open method, you must carefully insulate
Sealing connection points
The construction of the neck drain hole
Thermal insulation exposed areas
Step # 8. The final arrangement
Along the perimeter of the tire bead finish is a small embankment and compacted - turns out a kind of blind area, which prevents the penetration of rain water inside the trench. Capacity rose insulated top hatch.
After the plastic cover can derive the vent pipe. The length of the outer portion ventkanala should be less than 60 cm to ensure proper traction.
The ventilation system cesspool solves several problems: access of oxygen to activate aerobic bacteria and removal of gaseous impurities of processed products
In order not to impair the thermal and waterproofing properties manhole, sewer hood can be made in another way. In closing the lid it is necessary to cut a hole and install the "D" -shaped sleeve ventilation with exit to the outside. These works are carried out before backfilling the excavation.
In order to prevent clogging of the ventilation duct, flooding or falling into the pit of small animals to the pipe installed protective umbrella
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Manufacturing process latrine trench from the main busbar and the side walls of the drainage on:
The device is a homemade drain hole to give:
"Makeshift" option sump simple and accessible in the construction. However, when it is used there is a risk that part of the sewage will go into the ground without filtering, because of the design of the tire does not guarantee complete integrity. Absorbing device trenches of the tires is justified only in rare cases.
Attempt to arrange the drain hole of the tires, but in the course of any questions? And you can find flaws in the material or have valuable information that you can share with our visitors? Leave, please comment below the article.