Saving energy - a large-scale task for which the latest technologies are used. Increasing electricity consumption forces users to use energy saving lamp - innovative lighting fixtures has increased efficiency at reduced power consumption.
The market offers a wide range of "housekeeper," but in such a variety of easy to get confused, right? We will help you make the right choice.
The article provides a detailed overview of the three types of lamps with a description of their characteristics and features application, indicated by the parameters that you should definitely consider when choosing energy-efficient lamps.
The content of the article:
Classification of energy-efficient lamps
- Fluorescent discharge lamps
- Especially halogen lights
- Lamps based on LEDs
- Rules for the choice of energy-saving lamps
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Classification of energy-efficient lamps
Determining the economic impact is possible by comparing the two samples. As the object of analogy were selected incandescent lamps - the most inefficient of the modern light sources. This is what was the basis for the promotion of the advertising slogan of "energy-saving light bulbs."
Electric lamps having a large light output and low power consumption, are divided into three main types: LED, fluorescent and halogen.
Wherein each category is not only structural features, but the quality and economy:
- luminescent able to save up to 80% of the electricity;
- LED – 80-90%;
- halogen – 30-50%.
Economical indicators are achieved due to high efficiency. Most of their power is directed to the light stream playback, and other heat-consuming processes are reduced to a minimum.
By using energy-efficient light sources is achieved electricity savings not only in the framework of a family budget, but also in the more global - global scale (+)
The most popular still managed to win the fluorescent lighting fixtures, which have been used not only at home but also in various fields vital functions: offices, warehouses, etc. However, the article on their disposal costs, forcing entrepreneurs to introduce a new type - LED counterparts.
Fluorescent discharge lamps
Fluorescent tubes used in everyday life, are called compact (CFLs). They usually take the form of a spiral arc and traditionally equipped with a screw cap. They can be screwed into a standard cartridge, rather uneconomical analog.
The main structural elements compact fluorescent lamps:
- discharge bulb;
- diode bridge;
- filter capacitor.
The glass bulb filled with an inert gas (argon or neon), doped with mercury vapor. Mercury pressure is subject CFL wall temperature indicators, and the standard working temperature of 40 ° C is in the range 0,13-1,3 N / m2.
Inside the lamp is covered with the phosphor layer, which includes calcium galofosfat or antimony and manganese. By varying the ratio of so-called activators light, manufacturers were able to achieve different color luminescence parameters.
Here are the tungsten coil electrodes puskoregulyatora connected by the power supply. To increase the emission contacts handled oxide composition.
Discharge tubes has many advantages over incandescent lamps: the service life of more than 5-20 times and is 6000-15000 hours; up to 75% less consumption of electricity; similar to the intensity of light stream ()
The technology used to reproduce the light in them is significantly different from other peers. Under the influence of an electric field applied to the contacts generates a gas discharge lamp.
He breaks the inert medium bulb, thereby producing ultra-violet radiation. However, this range is invisible to humans, so it absorbs further phosphor converted to a standard visible light.
The widespread deployment of CFLs virtually displace conventional incandescent lamps. In comparison with linear samples, their more compact design, thus, an area covered by the light flux analogous (+)
HID devices are shown in cleartext, and complete with a diffuser.
They are available with caps of different modifications:
- E27 - standard socket;
- E14 - type mignon;
- E40 - for a large footprint;
- G23, 2G7, G53, 2D - Decorative devices view: spotlights, lighting and so on.
Depending on the quality of the constituent elements, the term uninterrupted operation guaranteed by the manufacturer, varies from 3,000 to 15,000 hours.
Installation is simplified by placing all the elements in one indivisible body, including ballast.
CFL has a diverse range of toning from warm white to green. Replacing a lamp is produced in a similar manner as the conventional example due to standardized incandescent cap
If we compare with the fluorescent light bulb, it may be noted that the positive characteristics of the first predominate:
- durability - through the use of EPRADiffering resistance to voltage drop network, the device lifetime increases substantially up to 20,000 hours;
- reduced coefficient of heat transfer, So they are allowed to be installed in any type of lighting fixtures without the risk of overheating;
- color temperature variation rangeThat have been successfully used in the design of the room.
Since the instrument used standardized elements, while maintaining tightness is possible to produce a gas cylinder replacement of defective parts.
If we compare the characteristics of energy-saving fluorescent lamps and incandescent devices mark a significant difference in degree of incandescence: the first copy is strongly heated during operation and has a very fragile glass casing, the second of these indicators medium (+)
Due to the ongoing development of EBL disadvantages are trying to minimize, but they are still present at the moment:
- The service life of the LL is limited.
- The use of mercury vapors that are harmful not only to humans but also for the environment, if there is depressurization flask.
- Due to the preceding paragraph, it is required to take measures for waste products. For large enterprises - it is an additional item of expenditure.
- The fragility of the glass enclosure.
Uncontrolled delivery of defective products on the market and the mass distribution of such products entails the loss of consumer confidence. More than half of low-grade Chinese-made light bulbs do not meet state standards.
Especially halogen lights
It is an improved version of conventional incandescent lamps comprising in their structure the halogen vapors. incandescent body in these products is made of tungsten filaments arranged as close to the cartridge device. To impart a spiral shape and they are twisted and fixed by the electrode holders.
For energy saving category halogen species is arbitrary, since their life of only 2-3 times longer than conventional vacuum. On average, it is 4000 hours. burnout heating mechanism of the body is identical in both of Representatives. Color temperature in halogen incandescent bulbs corresponds to the actual body temperature - 3000-3200K
device operation algorithm is as follows: a red-hot tungsten wire leaving atoms in the flask and facing pairs halogens are connected with them. But the high temperature gives a different way of development of a chemical process, in addition to the collapse of the compound - tungsten atoms returning to the wire spiral.
To date, as a halogen composition are used methyl bromide or methyl. However, work is continuing on the selection of effective compounds volatile halogens. Since all elements are enclosed in a quartz flask ultraviolet rays can pass through such a material, so accepted to their blocking action.
In network products lamp additionally placed in a sheath of glass. Partially harmful radiation and filtering is achieved by applying a special composition in the flask. These lamps are marked UV-Stop or UV-Block.
The cheaper models, where such measures are insufficient. On the packaging of these products indicates that the device to be setup exclusively in lighting with protective glass
The service life of these bulbs defined point of exhaustion of tungsten filaments. Through the use of halogen cycle manufacturers seek to increase light output while maintaining an identical service life as in light bulbs - 1000 hours.
Alternatively, prolong the operation period to 4000-5000 hours under the same beam parameters.
Operation of these lamps is designed for a low supply voltage - 6, 12 or 24, so they are used only in a pair with transformer for halogen lamps.
Low-voltage reflector lamps provide ample opportunities, expanding the scope of their application. Due to equipment interference reflective element filter infrared rays, more than 60% of the heat is removed through back reflector
The most powerful pattern - metal halide lamp directional light. This lighting option is suitable for rooms where the objects sensitive to heat, because they deteriorate or are destroyed.
In most cases, they are used for the illumination of showcases. Intense white color of light with color temperature of 3200 K successfully emphasizes shiny elements and variety of colors illuminated products.
Tungsten-halogen capsule model HALO STAR STANDARD have standard specifications. Series HALOSTAR STARLITE has increased service life - up to 3000 hours. Glass model HALOSTAR UV-STOP 24V equipped with an ultraviolet absorber. HALOSTAR IRC - gives 30% more light
The most compact design in the capsule models. The process of their manufacture is based on the low-pressure technique, so they can engage in open luminaires. Available only two versions - with a longitudinal or transverse placement of the tungsten filament.
The main advantage over all the glass counterparts - the use of a quartz bulb. The construction has high strength to mechanical impact and high thermal strength.
Due to this it is possible to fill the high-pressure xenon lamp, through which ensures high brightness and light output.
Due to their positive properties of halogen light has an effective color reproduction. The shadow of the surrounding objects does not have sharp corners, but on the contrary, the shape with smooth lines
Additionally, we note and such advantages:
- Stable light stream over time;
- compact size;
- function without transformer, except for low-voltage networks with high voltage 220-240 V;
- wide light dispersion angle without drastic restrictions on the narrow beam;
- throughout the life of the brightness is not lost;
- there is a possibility of light intensity adjustment;
- high level of safety - low voltage models can be used in rooms with high humidity and in lamps without protective glass.
In addition to the positive side, and galogenki have negative characteristics, which include excessive heating of the flask. In some models the temperature reaches 500 ° C. For this reason, the installation of lighting should be delayed a certain distance from the object - other light sources and ceiling.
Also halogen products inherent susceptibility to voltage drop, which is a significant drawback.
Most complaints deserve linear type model: they can not be used for a long time in a vertical or inclined position. As a result halogen substance and gas are separated and the device ceases to function.
Quartz halogen models are operated solely on the horizontal plane, with a deviation of no more than four units on the horizon. If you do not fulfill this condition, the device pretty quickly fail. They are available only in a compact format
Separately, it is worth noting that the lamp can not touch his hands, because her spots remain. She screwed previously crocked in a piece of cloth or wear gloves.
For more information about choosing galogenvyh lamps presented in this article.
Lamps based on LEDs
Due to the low power consumption LEDs crystals were originally used exclusively for display of various processes in electronic devices. But over time they began to improve, using super-bright LED elements, making them suitable for lighting circuits in almost all spheres of activity.
The apparatus consists of light sources of several elements - driver and LED strips from Micarta. Details are enclosed in a housing having the shape of "corn" elongated bulb or spot type.
All of them are made of polycarbonate. This design eliminated the main problem - the possibility of mechanical damage.
Due to the fact that the device already has the ballast, the lamp is connected directly to the mains without ballasts.
Power Indicators LED lamps are proportional to the number of crystals - more of them, the higher the light stream parameters
The narrow focus of diodes allows combining them in small or large groups.
Depending on the intended installation site lamps are divided into:
- fitolampy plant (represented in a linear type);
- outdoor spotlights;
- domestic and office.
devices linear type They are used in a variety of conditions. For illumination in landscape design expedient to select the device with a high degree of protection - IP65, IP67.
They may be tubular in shape, and more powerful, represented by spotlights. For rooms with standard climate suits - IP20.
The LED devices have achieved proportional scattering of light. This property is maintained for the entire period of operation. Lamps almost no heat, and therefore do not heat up (+)
Panoramic form factor has the largest number of positive characteristics in comparison with all the above sources:
- power supply 220 V without gear;
- the lowest energy consumption of all types represented;
- It does not require special disposal methods;
- It does not radiate heat;
- scattering angle reaches 230 degrees;
- the absence of a pulsating effect;
- high degree of light broadcast to 120 lm / W;
- life of 50 000-100 000 hours;
- unbreakable material housing;
- resistance to temperature changes and other negative factors.
The only drawback of this modification - the high price category. However, the more likely future developments and help to neutralize the negative.
On our site there is a series of articles devoted to the choice of LED-lamps, we recommend you read:
- LED lamps for the home: what diode bulbs better overview of manufacturers led lamps
- Characteristics of LED lamps: color temperature, power, light and other
- Dimmable LED Bulb: tips on choosing, review of the best producers
Rules for the choice of energy-saving lamps
Incandescent bulbs were so long in use that choosing economical replacement, we focus exclusively on the power rating. For greater understanding, many manufacturers directly on the packaging to indicate the equivalent capacity in comparison with conventional vacuum luminous flux of the lamp.
For clarity, it is necessary to designate that power and light stream - are different indicators. The first value is measured in watts, the second - in lumens. For example, the heater lamp 40 emits light in watts lm 470-500 60 W - 700-850 lumens 75 W - 900-1200 lumens.
By choosing the desired brightness EL can build on the power factor. The fluorescent it equals 5. If the light output of 12 V - which means that its fluorescent analogue equivalent to 60 watts. To LED - 7-8 (+)
It is the ratio of these two factors - power and light stream - an indicator of the efficient performance of the device. The total value is measured in lumens / watt.
Here's another example: the standard lighting fixtures to 1 watt of electricity consumed gives 10-15 lm light. In halogen - 15-20 lm / W, fluorescent - 40-80 lm / W LED and leaders - 60-90 lm / W.
However, this is not the only aspect that requires attention.
It is important to pay attention to the following characteristics:
- Colour temperature. If you take an identical lamp power, but different modifications, the color of their radiation can be different. This value is measured in Kelvin. selection color temperature It can be made in the range of 2700-6500 K. The smaller the value, the warmer (yellow) light.
- color Rendering index. An indicator of the correct color is the sunlight - CRI = 100. Artificial lighting has not yet reached such parameters. Here you need to push off from the optimal CRI = 80 or more.
- Useful life. Manufacturers specify this value in hours. However, this marking is not convenient for all. Represent it in Years: Halogen - 2 years, fluorescent - 5 years, LED - 12 years.
- cartridge. The form lamp socket is chosen for a specific model of lamp. The standard version like a bulb - E27.
When choosing the form of the flask, here plays a role only the aesthetic aspect. However, it is worth considering that too much light can not be placed in a glass lamp bezels.
Implement energy saving lamp dimming quite expensive pleasure, and a clear difference with and without dimmer there will be little noticeable
To justify all the expectations, it is necessary to pay attention and manufacturers whose products had already positively proved itself: Philips, OSRAM, GE, Ecola. These companies offer warranty period for its products 2-3 years.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Footage what the most economical sources of light:
Review and testing of LED lamps Feron:
Despite the fact that the market is still possible to meet the incandescent lamp, energy-efficient counterparts soon be fully displace them from the shelves. If you replace them all devices in luminaires already spent funds will be repaid in full within two years. Further, it should be full of savings.
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