Light devices are constantly being improved. This process can be easily traced, starting from the moment of the appearance of the “Ilyich bulb”. As a result of modernization, in addition to direct-glow lamps, luminescent variants appeared, and in modern conditions the replacement of fluorescent lamps with LED devices is a rather urgent task.
Society strives for the best, and this is obvious. The main criteria for aspirations are convenience, comfort and, of course, savings. But how to perform a replacement and what should be remembered? We will examine these questions in detail in our article, we will deal with the features of LED and fluorescent bulbs, their pros and cons.
We also give recommendations on the choice of a suitable light bulb and step-by-step instructions on how to replace the device.
The content of the article:
Features of the device fluorescent lamp
- Advantages of fluorescent lights
- The disadvantages of light devices with phosphor spraying
- Technical comparison
- The disadvantages of LED designs
- Instructions for replacing LED bulbs
- Which lamps are better to choose for replacement?
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Features of the device fluorescent lamp
To clearly understand the desire of society to replace fluorescent lamps with LED devices, it is logical to become more familiar with the gas structure.
Indeed, the device of light with a luminescent coating is a glass sealed tube, filled, as a rule, with mercury vapor.
Fluorescent lamps with lamps filled with a gaseous medium, "powered" by electricity through a throttle element. More advanced designs are equipped with an electronic circuit without chokes and are considered somewhat improved in terms of operation.
Two modifications of such devices are produced:
- For outdoor installation (with high-pressure flasks).
- For household installation (with low-pressure flasks).
In fact, inside the cylinder of a fluorescent lamp there is a mixture of gases consisting of mercury and argon vapor. From the inside, the walls of the glass flask are covered with a special compound - a phosphor. When an electrical discharge is formed in a gaseous medium, a gas glow is formed, and due to the phosphor this glow is transformed into light of the visible range.
More information about the device luminescents we wrote in this article.
Advantages of fluorescent lights
The development and production of lamps of this type primarily resulted from the constant request for energy savings. Pay tribute - fluorescent lamps can significantly save.
The energy saving device of light and a traditional source with a thread of a direct heat. If we compare energy parameters, the difference is significant in favor of the first device, where the current consumption is reduced several times.
At the same time, it is possible to save due to a higher luminous efficiency of devices, placing a smaller number of devices per unit area compared to direct-glow lamps.
The expediency of the use of gas-discharge lamps is noted not so much for the household sphere, as for industrial structures, that is, where it is necessary to illuminate large areas with minimal costs in power plan.
Among the advantages of fluorescent lamps stands out decent operating time. The average operating time for gas structures is 10,000 hours.
Comparative cartography, where there are electrical advantages of light devices of different periods of use. As can be seen from the comparative parameters, the traditional direct-glow lamp is the most "wasteful" device of light.
If fluorescent lamps equate to direct-heat analogues, where the maximum operating time is 1000 hours, the predominant difference becomes more than obvious.
The disadvantages of light devices with phosphor spraying
However, the advantages of fluorescent lamps, unfortunately, do not hide the pronounced disadvantages of these devices. And the main negative here is increased chemical danger.
The structure of the fluorescent light source: 1 - glass sealed tube; 2 - phosphor layer; 3 - filament; 4 - luminous flux visible to humans; 5 - mercury atom
The cylinder of each lamp contains at least 2 mg of mercury, and this chemical element belongs to the category of extremely dangerous for a living organism. Of course, as long as the flask is in a hermetic state, the chemical hazard is reduced to zero.
Nevertheless, the cases of the battle of glass cylinders of fluorescent lamps - this practice is quite common. Therefore, it is important to immediately think about the correct recycling fluorescent lamps.
Also of the shortcomings should be noted "cold" light and the effect of "strobe". Both effects have an adverse effect on vision. That is why fluorescent lamps are not widely used in the domestic sphere. In short, there was every reason to put an edge on the question of replacing fluorescent lamps. A suitable alternative was found quickly.
An alternative to fluorescent lamps - LEDs - appeared relatively recently and was marked by a clear success from a technical and environmental point of view.
LED design of the artificial lighting device: 1 - installation disc for LEDs; 2 - metal tubing; 3 - power supply conductors; 4 - AC to AC converter constant
The variety of LED light devices is large. There are very tiny designs that fit in the palm of your hand, and there are lamps for lamps, similar in shape to fluorescent lamps.
Structure LED based lamps does not imply the presence of any aggressive chemistry, especially harmful to human health. As such, the unified design of LED lamps does not exist.
On the contrary, this option is “sharpened” for a unique design of the design. True, model series is produced, which includes lamps somewhat similar to one another, with the exception of small details.
If we compare devices with LEDs with fluorescent lamps in terms of the efficiency of the light flux, the first devices, of course, are inferior. The scattering power of fluorescent lamps is still marked at a higher level.
Therefore, LED lamps are more often used instead of fluorescent ones as point light devices. Meanwhile, for living conditions, the effective light diffusion factor is usually not dominant.
A characteristic feature of LED lamps is a small degree of light scattering compared to fluorescent structures. Usually only multi-row linear lamps have a high level of dispersion.
But if you compare the device according to the degree of power consumption (power), LED lamps look the most economical of all existing modifications. The same significant advantage of the LED design is stated in terms of durability. Even luminescent devices with their maximum parameter of 20,000 hours are inferior to LED lamps with their standard limit of 50,000 hours.
The indisputable advantage is the overall dimensions of the LED lamps. Perhaps these are the smallest devices of light of all that exist.
It looks like one of the smallest light sources, part of the range of LED designs. It is usually used as a point lighting device.
Traditional direct lamps can still argue in this direction, but the temperature parameters of traditional lamps reduce this dispute to a loss. The LEDs heat up slightly (at a normal ambient temperature of 25-27 ºС).
The disadvantages of LED designs
The list of deficiencies usually consists of three main points:
- poor build quality;
- the use of sub-standard parts.
Based on this list, you can understand the significant difference in price, which is often fixed on the market. As a rule, high-quality branded devices have high price tags. But the assortment in the low price category is most likely an off-market item.
Non-conforming devices with LEDs. Some of them did not work even for one hour - they failed. In addition, in almost all of these lamps there is a discrepancy in the quality of performance and the use of harmful chemicals.
What is fraught with the purchase of substandard products? Such lamps, in most cases, “suffer” with a gating defect — a flicker that is invisible to human eyes and affects the brain system. In this case, the LEDs are no different from the halogen. As a result, it is often the case for users that ends with nervous irritability, weakness, and poor well-being.
Low-cost devices are assembled from the same low-cost parts that do not meet the technical standards. During the assembly process, toxic materials are used: lead, phenol, formaldehyde resins.
In appearance, these four LED lamps look quite nice. However, these products of an unknown Chinese company in practice were noted for a frankly short service life. Often, such products are made of substandard material.
The conclusion is obvious: if you already buy an LED lamp, the savings in this matter are simply irrelevant. In turn, buying an expensive product with eyes closed is also not recommended.
We recommend to familiarize with a rating. top led bulbs leading manufacturers of lighting products on the market.
Instructions for replacing LED bulbs
So, if the user feels like the technical and operational characteristics of LED linear lamps and the option of replacing fluorescent devices has matured, how can this be done?
It is conditionally possible to divide the replacement into two options:
- Full dismantle of the old lamp and installation of the new.
- Use halogen chassis for LED installation.
With the first option is clear - you have to remove the old light bulbs (lamps), and instead install new ones that work on LEDs.
For what it is necessary to perform the following work sequentially:
- turn off the power of the lamp;
- carefully remove fluorescent lamps and dispose of them according to the rules;
- disconnect the power supply line;
- dismantle the chassis;
- install chassis under LED lamps;
- connect the power line.
For the second option, a characteristic feature is the selection of LED light devices corresponding to the dimensions of fluorescent lamps that are to be replaced. It is extremely important that base LED lamps also matched (usually the type of base G13).
Linear LED lamps are no different in configuration from traditional fluorescent lamps. As a rule, the basement part is best suited for installation on the chassis, where gas appliances previously stood
Next on the old chassis, you must delete the entire auxiliary circuit set: throttle (EMPRA), electronic ballasts (in modified designs), starter pad, smoothing capacitor.
The power lines of these elements are simply closed. That is, the power supply to the base of the LED lamp is fed straight from the network, bypassing any additional elements.
The scheme of inclusion of LED linear lamps. As can be seen from the figure, the connection here looks even simpler than that of luminescent devices. There are no peripheral fittings in the form of EMPRA, electronic ballasts, starter elements
If the chassis is installed on two or more LED elements, in this case, the base pads for each device are connected to the others according to the parallel connection scheme.
Which lamps are better to choose for replacement?
It is recommended to use the standard principle that has been repeatedly verified by the personal experience of many users. The first recommendation is to choose devices from a range of well-known manufacturers that guarantee high product quality. Such devices are usually high cost, but quickly pay for themselves at the expense of energy efficiency.
The second selection principle is the number of LED elements per unit area of the working surface of the lamp. The more LED elements placed on the surface, the higher the scattering power of the lamp. Therefore, if it is necessary to illuminate a large area of the room, you should choose products with the maximum possible number of LEDs.
Here is a LED lamp, where the placement of work items is marked in a three-row design, in terms of light diffusion approaching fluorescent devices
Out of habit, a potential buyer chooses light devices with an eye on the power parameter. In this case, the power is determined somewhat differently - taking into account the ratio of 1 to 10, when compared with an ordinary direct-glow lamp. For example, if the power of a conventional device is 100 W, then the LED counterpart will correspond to 10 watts.
It is also important to focus on the color temperature of the fixture. We wrote more about this parameter. in the next article.
Based on the operating conditions, select the lamps for the class of protection. For domestic use, the IP40 grade is usually a satisfactory option. For rooms with higher requirements - protection class from 50 and above. More information about the class of protection and decoding values we talked here.
High protection parameters are required for luminaires installed in special rooms with an explosive environment.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
The video demonstrates the practice of replacing one type of lamp with another. Consecutive steps for dismantling and installation of work items.
An example that is surely useful for practical application:
If we evaluate the technical characteristics, operating conditions and the operation of devices in everyday life, the LED light sources win. They also have their drawbacks, but even if they are available, they save energy and serve for a long time.
On an industrial scale, the savings are quite significant if you choose reliable light bulbs from proven manufacturers with a good warranty period..
Are you experienced in replacing fluorescent lights with LED lights? Please share your opinion in the block comments. Or maybe you still have questions after reading our material? Ask our experts and other site visitors for advice - competent users will gladly share their experiences with you.