When cattle are kept, both in the household and on livestock farms, cow dung and chicken manure are produced, which is the product of animal activity, which needs disposal. It is a good organic fertilizer, but it is undesirable to use it in its pure form for a number of reasons.
- The need for processing manure
- Processing methods at
- farmsBut fresh, this is a very poisonous, bad-smelling substance .The decomposition produces a large amount of carbon dioxide, which causes burns of the plant root system and its death. Weed seeds are present in the fresh substrate when they enter the soil, they germinate and clog the plot.
There can also be bacteria and eggs of harmful organisms, fungal spores. For this reason, before using this organic fertilizer, you should bring it to a certain state.
The most common and useful recognized manure from cattle. It is received by quite a large number of specialized farms. But even in a farmstead, with one or several cows, you can provide your plot with the necessary amount of useful fertilizer.
First of all, you need to give time for the to ripen the .Under the influence of the high temperature of the process, harmful microorganisms die, the constituent substances decompose, humus is obtained, which is already an organic fertilizer. For this, must pass from 2 to 12 months .
Ways of processing in farms
There are a number of possibilities for its processing, storage and disposal. First of all, should be cleared of from animal manure habitat. These we will provide them a comfortable life, we will warn of the disease.
The following methods are used:
Mechanical method of manure removal Washings
- Mechanical , animal habitats are equipped with chain conveyors having special scrapers. When the system is turned on, the scrapers begin to move and collect the manure, moving it into a container. This method makes cleaning on farms and in large specialized farms.
- . hydraulic wash, manure is washed off with water, which is supplied through pipes and liquid substance flows into the tank. After settling and adding certain components, an excellent, easily used fertilizer is obtained. Such a system requires a powerful pump, a large amount of water, is an energy-intensive procedure that does not always justify the costs. The method is used on large specialized farms.
- The most simple and not very pleasant - gravity method. It is applicable for small private farms. The mass flows down the slurry, then it is collected by shovels by hand and transported out of the barn on carts.
Methods for storing manure
There are several storage methods that differ in the processes occurring in manure heaps:
After a few months, a useful organic fertilizer is obtained, which is suitable for plant nutrition, fertilizing the soil, improving its structure.
- Cold method. Waste is collected in piles of 2x2 m and up to 5 m high. At the same time, excess oxygen disappears, bacteria die.
- The anaerobic method uses a heap temperature increase of up to +700 degrees. To do this, the mass is stored without tamping, waiting until it reaches the desired temperature. The laid layer is crushed and a new one is laid on top. And so to a height of 2 m. Here there is a process of destruction of microorganisms, the maturation of the mass.
- Biothermal .For the storage of mass, a pit is prepared, the walls and bottom are strengthened so that the manure is not absorbed into the ground. At the bottom lay a layer of garden waste, straw, dry grass. A fresh compound is placed in the middle; it is covered with earth or straw. In the process of decomposition of the manure mass, the temperature rises, bacteria are killed.
Disposal of manure
Previous methods of processing can produce humus. This is a useful mass, but it is not subject to long-term storage. To obtain a universal fertilizer of long-term preservation, various methods are used.
Composting consists of making a layered cake of various components. As the basis of the stack substrate, which contains bacteria-enzymes. The next layer is organic waste from the garden. Next is a layer of fresh manure. The layers are repeated to a height of 1 m .
The top layer should protect the mass from drying out. A compost pile is poured with water and teddled with forks. Compost overheats for at least a year .The result is compost, which is one of the best natural fertilizers.
This is manure processing using worms. Passing it through the organism, worms allocate the substrate similar to the soil enriched with a humus. The worms brought together with such a mixture begin to actively process the garden soil, improving its structure and enriching it with useful elements.
Currently, Californian red worms are used for this purpose. This population was created in the Kuban and has worked well. Bone meal or lime is added to the dung mass in order to create an environment with acidity up to pH 8.
Method of introducing bacteria
Cattle waste can be recycled with the help of bacteria. The warm and humid environment obtained in the dung heap, rich in organic elements, is very favorable for their reproduction. The result is an humus-rich blend.
Special technology allows to obtain granules of the same size. They contain the full range of trace elements in high concentrations of .Fertilizer is convenient to use, easily soluble in water. Enough to make a small amount for full power.Disposal of waste products of cattle is a very important stage in agriculture.
Modern methods make it possible to process animal waste into animal litter, produce biogas, make fuel briquettes. But the most important method of application is organic natural fertilizers, which contain all the elements necessary for plants and do not contaminate the earth with chemicals.