Modern technologies for processing of various types of raw materials hold the promise of a successful solution to the problem of biofuel production from manure directly into the home. Moreover, making biofuel with their hands at home thanks to the new principles of waste management, in parallel can produce fertilizer for agricultural crops.
What you need to do and how to produce a bioreactor - these questions will be discussed in detail in this article. Here the choice of raw better recommendations for biogas analyze particular application for the resulting fuel household needs.
Of course, the easiest way - the acquisition of finished industrial plants. However, their high cost makes to consider options for the manufacture of production systems with their own hands.
The content of the article:
- Briefly on the definition of biogas
How to make a processing farm unit?
- The principle of operation bioustanovki
- Making bioreactor with their hands
- The process of producing biogas and fertilizer
- What should be the composition of the manure mass?
- Features of the application of biogas for household purposes
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Briefly on the definition of biogas
According to the scientific definitions biogas - is a product obtained by fermentation of biological waste mass. In this fermentation product is methane or hydrogen.
The formation of methane (or hydrogen) occurs as a result of ability to live bacteria of three types:
- acid generators;
- forming methane.
Fermentation product quality is considered part of the gas mixture, the contents of which is distributed in the ratio: 50-85% methane, 15-50% carbon dioxide, and less than 5% of hydrogen sulfide.
It would look like the block diagram of production of alternative energy. It uses a traditional sources of raw materials for daily life, which is suitable for obtaining alternative energy - biofuels
This gas mixture was passed through a filter to purify the presence of CO2 and H2S, then remains pure biological methane. Such a gas does not differ from the natural gas used in consumer and industrial applications.
The raw material to obtain a qualitative biological gas mixture typically are:
- manure and bird droppings;
- residues of alcohol production (Bard);
- excess breweries (spent grains);
- fecal mass and waste fish production;
- beet pulp, waste, grass and so on.
This is only part of the total allowable to use raw materials. But even this list shows: how diverse list of raw materials to be able to organize production of biogas on an ongoing basis.
Installation of biofuels made to the needs of one of the many existing farms. A small volume of the station, but it is satisfying the needs of the private farm
Volumetric indicators exit gas mixture is directly dependent on the type of raw material and the content of solids in it. So, if you apply in cattle manure, actually one ton of manure to get 50-60 m3biofuelsContaining up to 60% methane.
It is believed that the best raw materials are waste with a high content of fat. Recycling one ton of waste fat through classical plant biofuel may produce up to 1300 m3 gas mixture, wherein the methane content up to 90%.
How to make a processing farm unit?
In order to make the recycling system into biofuels, at least required to be aware of the principle of operation of such devices, as well as have an understanding of circuit design.
Scheme bioreactor installation 1 - bioreactor; 2 - agitator; 3 - heater; 4 - pump; 5 - filter element; 6 - a gas compressor; 7 - gasholder; 8 - a collection of manure; 9 - yield fertilizer (sludge); 10 - Remote heating control
Consider both, but it should be noted: the construction of a complete installation - this thing quite troublesome and costly. At home, as a rule, only manages to make something similar to processing stations. Nevertheless, some attempts are successful.
The principle of operation bioustanovki
biofuel production technology, as a rule, supports the following systematic approach:
- Bioreactor (tank) is loaded with manure.
- Within a certain time within the reactor goes fermentation process.
- Produced gas environment.
- Running output gases from the reactor.
- The gas mixture is cleaned and sent for use as fuel.
The composition obtained at the outlet of the gas mixture is characterized by a sufficiently high saturation different substances. Most interest component is present in methane (60%), carbon dioxide (35%) and other substances including hydrogen sulphide (5%).
So looks diagram gas mixture distribution: 1 - methane content of about 63-65%; 2 - carbon dioxide content of about 30-33%; 3 - hydrogen sulphide content of about 2%; 4 - ammonia content of about 1%; 5 - the hydrogen content of about 1%
Meanwhile, for the efficient operation of the gassing station home production requires considerable reserves of fauna representatives of waste.
Therefore, the first thing you should pay attention to the task of producing biofuels in the home (summer) conditions - is the availability of sources of raw materials for the processing plant.
Making bioreactor with their hands
Having defined the sources of raw materials, then you need to decide on the site Pets (or suburban) bioreactor. The reactor itself - a sealed vessel, sufficiently durable, having a volume of calculation of daily Incoming raw manure for processing (reference: to 100 m3 gas mixture must be about 1 ton of manure).
Table relation of the form and amount of manure produced biogas
A table showing the effectiveness of a particular type of biological waste, in terms of the product gas volume. As seen from the table, the most effective is swine manure capable of delivering the greatest quantity of biofuel
Such capacity will have to be installed on a solid foundation, fitted with valves and other technical paraphernalia according to the classical scheme. The upper part of the vessel, it is desirable to do a removable, bolt and gasket.
To ensure the continuity of storage tank must be equipped with the module of artificial heating cycle. If in summer the effectiveness of manure fermentation and the formation rate of the gas is provided entirely external temperature conditions, the situation changes in the winter.
necessarily need artificial for winter operation bioreactor heated, considering the termination of activity of fermentation bacteria already at 4-10 ° C above zero. Accordingly, the tank must be performed qualitatively insulation. To do this successfully fit the classic way of insulating mineral wool.
An illustrative example of isolating the bioreactor for its winter operation. The insulating material is mineral wool used here. Closed top layer of wool material foiled
Options for heating there are a few. For example, use of electric heaters or heating on a water coolant (water jacket).
Calculate power heating circuit should be, based on the optimal temperature inside the reactor rules 25-40 ° C required to achieve efficient fermentation of biomass.
In addition to heaters, biomass fermentation activity is influenced by the degree of its stagnation. In fact, inside the tank manure feedstock must always be in motion. Movement of the biomass increases the fermentation process and shortens the time of receipt of the gas component.
Option summer plants for the treatment of manure and produce biofuels. In this case, display is made in the form of a concrete water bath where the reactor tank is immersed. However, this setting can not be used in the winter time
It solves the problem of traffic management in the implementation of the special design of the bioreactor mechanical stirrer. The shaft of this unit is connected to the low-speed shaft of the motor, which is performed the rotational operation. Enable or disable the mixing process can be done manually or automatically.
Our site is another article, which is shown instructions for installing the device biogas for the needs of a private house.
The process of producing biogas and fertilizer
biofuel producing system design in the home technology provides a load of manure vessel about 1/3 capacity. To download manure is charging port with hermetically sealed door. The remaining free upper region of the bioreactor used for the accumulation of gases given off.
Homemade miniature bioreactor made on the basis of the usual 200-liter barrels. In principle, to meet the modest needs in biofuels is well suited for use in the private sector. This is the same design that really can be done at home for biofuel
On the upper and lower levels of the vessel to do the outlets. Upstairs - gas outlet, bottom outlet for processed manure drain (fertilizer). Also in the upper region of the vessel area is desirable to mount a viewing window for monitoring the process.
Nozzle for withdrawal of a gaseous mixture connected to the sealed tube with a device, performing simultaneously the function of the separator and the water trap. Used for communication tube (metal or plastic) of small diameter (25-32 mm).
Separator itself - with respect to a vessel, filled with water with small capacity. Gas passing through the water, cleared in the output gasholder and then is supplied to consumers.
An example of a two-stage separator device - hydraulic valve liner gaseous mixture coming from the bioreactor. This embodiment enables filtering to obtain qualitatively purified product
Lower pipe to the reactor (under withdrawal of spent manure - slurry) is desirable to make the largest possible diameter. To it connects valves (gate valve) and is made to discharge tank for collection of sludge. Proven weight in the economy can be successfully used as fertilizer.
Details on the determination of the required volume of the container, as well as calculations of the efficiency of the bioreactor and the feasibility of using biogas, we have considered in next article.
What should be the composition of the manure mass?
Downloadable lot of manure inside the bioreactor should not be seen simply as raw material, suitable in any capacity. Substance component is of fundamental importance for the fermentation process. In practice it observed that the decrease of the substrate particles is accompanied by a better process efficiency.
Severe fibrous substrate and an increase in the surface area of the bacteria - these are the main criteria to facilitate the rapid decomposition of the manure mass. In this state, the raw material slurry with heating and stirring, does not form a precipitate or film at the surface, which greatly simplifies the filtering of the gas mixture.
Preparation for loading manure mass in the reactor. This procedure does not pay less attention than the rest, if you want to get a significant amount of biofuel in a short period of time
The degree of grinding is determined by the duration of the fermentation feedstock, which in turn affects the volume of produced gas. Thus, to reduce the fermentation time necessary to grind the raw materials well: the better the quality of grinding, the smaller the period of fermentation.
Features of the application of biogas for household purposes
Field of application of this type of energy source sufficiently extensive. Through the use of the biogas as a fuel produces electrical energy produced hot water or steam. There are numerous examples from practice, where biofuel is charged with road transport.
But to the farm did not have problems with the use of such fuels is extremely important to build a repository for biogas production, highlighting the right place for gasholder Location on.
Biogas plants of this type are devices by which opens the possibility of creating waste-free production. In this respect, a good example demonstrating some countries of Western Europe.
For example, in Denmark the production of this type of fuel has reached trims nearly 20% of the total weight of the country's energy resources. In large parts of the world - India and China - account of biogas plants goes to the hundreds of thousands.
Powerful industrial installations of biofuels production. Such designs can provide completely biofuel large agricultural structures. Around the world, used a huge number of such systems. And quantitative growth continues to actively
Not just because there is a significant growth of interest in the world to the process of biogas production.
This is one of those energy options that relate to alternative sources and for which see the future, so farmers and utilities managers, owners of private households and small businesses are closely monitoring the development of technologies.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Overview of the unit for the production of biogas, which is used in the manufacture of a plastic tank of 127 liters. Features of the device and advice on use.
Of particular interest is the use of plants is manifested among the owners of the restaurant and catering areas where the actual remains subject recycling food waste. On this basis, there is a good opportunity to create a cheap disposal of organic waste for the benefit of farmers. Finally, bio-fuel production technology - this is the real preservation of the environment, which is not the production of other power engineering.
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Or maybe you are not by hearsay familiar with the manufacturing process of the bioreactor and biogas? Share practical knowledge and their opinions on the matter under our article - Many managers will be interested in your experience and recommendations.