Crown formation is a significant process in growing a fruit tree. The purpose of agrotechnical reception with the help of the developed algorithm is to achieve optimal regulation of the growth and fruiting of the apple tree. Pruning - a strong effect on a living organism and it should be carried out only taking into account the structure and patterns of the life cycle of a tree.
- Benefits shaped crown
- season Preparing for the formation of apple crown
- basic form of the crown of the tree
- longline-rarefied form
- Fusiform form
- cup shape
- vertical palmette
- Rejuvenation pruning apple
- errors during the formation of the crown
Benefits shaped crown
Applewhich did not undergo formation, bears fruit well and develops only in the first years. After a few years, crown thickening occurs. Without receiving sunlight, the central leaves take carbohydrates from the peripheral .This leads to a general weakening of the tree and the death of weaker branches. On dead wood and condensed crown creates a favorable environment for the formation of fungi.
The lateral branches of the tree begin to grow at an acute angle, and strongly compete with the central shoot. As a result, an apple tree can reach up to 8 meters high. This is the cause of frequent breakage of the branches under the weight of fruits and precipitation, greatly complicates the harvest.
During the formation of fruits, the distribution of minerals and water is uneven .Apples do not get the necessary products of photosynthesis, are deformed and shallow. Ensuring a steady supply of nutrients to all organs of the apple is the basis for the regulation of growth and fruiting.
The main goals of crown formation are:
- providing with sunlight for each section of the tree;
- uniform intake of mineral in and water to all branches;
- the resistance of the tree to high crop loads and adverse weather conditions;
- prevention of the onset of pests and diseases;
- improvement of fruit quality ;
- prolongation of the age of fruiting;
- increase productivity when harvesting.
The most productive and successful period for pruning apple trees is the spring months - March and April. The process needs to be organized before the kidney swelling phase, so the tree will spend all its efforts only on regeneration and will quickly recover. To do this, choose a day with a dry weather with air temperatures above 0 ° C.
Lack of leaves makes it possible to quickly assess the condition of the crown and determine the correct degree of pruning. The formation of the crown before the growing season contributes to the active development of the tree in the summer.
The main goals of the autumn pruning are preparing the tree for winter and finally forming the crown. To do this, select September or October. Removed, formed over the summer unwanted shoots, old and rotten branches. Cut massive branches, which under the weight of snow can break.
Autumn pruning of apple trees is recommended to be done only in regions with a temperate climate. In northern areas, characterized by a sudden decrease in temperature, the tree may not have time to recover and freeze .This leads to the drying of the tissues of the apple and its subsequent death.
In some cases, you may need auxiliary pruning, which is done in the summer of .At this time, pinch overgrown shoots and get rid of the branches that interfere with the penetration of light to the central leaves.
Preparation for the formation of apple crown
Before starting work, you need to prepare the tools. This is a pruner for trimming thin branches and a garden file for thick boughs. It is important that the tools are well sharpened. This is necessary primarily for the health of the tree. The rate of wound overgrowth depends on the accuracy and accuracy of cuts.
For cuts with a diameter of more than 1.5 cm, additional protection is required. For their processing used garden var. The cut surface is covered with a thin layer of the prepared means. Too dense layer will lead to subsequent runoff of the vara and blockage of the stomata of the bark, which will disrupt the air exchange in the tissues of the tree.
All work on the formation of apple crown should be carried out only with minimal disruption of the physiology of the tree. The pruning shears are made from bottom to top, the lower blade should be located on the surface of the annular flow.
Proper development of the fruit tree depends on the initial actions after the purchase of the seedling. It is important to pay attention to the ratio of the root system and the height of the young tree.
When digging a seedling in the nursery or in the adjacent garden, only a portion of the roots is removed, approximately 30-35 cm of .Such a volume cannot provide power for the above-ground part, designed for meter roots. Therefore, the seedling needs to be shortened by 30 cm, otherwise the tree will be very sore. This procedure contributes to the formation of strong lateral shoots in the first year.
All shoots up to 50 cm from the ground level are removed from branched saplings. This is how the shtamb is formed - the section of the trunk from the root collar to the first branches. Above it departs from the central escape( conductor) and the branches growing from it at an acute angle, are completely removed. The remaining shoots are shortened to the third or fifth bud. Of them in the future will form the main branches of the tree, called skeletal.
Basic forms of the crown of the tree
In gardening, there are several schemes for the formation of the crown of apple trees .When choosing a particular form, they are guided by the features of the structure of the tree and the density of plantings in the garden.
A fairly simple and most frequently used method for the formation of apple crown. Pruning scheme allows you to save the natural appearance of the fruit tree.
The number of basic branches depends on the density of plantings and the strength of apple growth. If between fruit trees the distance is within 4 m, 4-5 branches are left, with more spacious plantings from 5 to 7. An increased number of skeletal branches is also necessary for vigorous trees with spreading crowns.
- At the trunk level, one main branch of the is left. All growths that appeared last year at a height of 50 cm are removed.
- Choose two more branches, each of which is located 15 cm above .It is important that they are directed in opposite directions with a divergence angle of 120 °.
- Branches that are located near the point of growth of the central conductor at an acute angle, cut off .Lateral branches are cut at the same level.
- Next summer, lays down two more main branches of , located 50-60 cm higher with an interval of 10-15 cm. They also equalize
- . You must cut out the competing shoots of .The conductor must always be higher than the end of the side branches by 15-20 cm and no more. This indicator must be adhered to throughout the life of an apple tree.
- Entirely cut branches that are not included in the core of .They can also be temporarily bent to a horizontal position. This method helps to accelerate fruiting.
- The next year, you need to lay another branch, located 40 cm above .So ends the formation of the crown skeleton.
After a year or two, when the branch from the last tier acquires stability, the center conductor is cut off above it. Further growth of the tree is undesirable, it is necessary to keep the height at the level of 2.5-3 m.
Spindle-shaped form of
This form of crown is recommended for low-growth and semi-dwarf varieties of fruit trees. The apple tree with a spindle-shaped crown is a tree with the cone shape , the horizontal position of the branches of which is achieved by tying during the forming to the supporting stake. The length of the support should be 2.5–3 m.
Stages of crown formation:
- In the first year of , 3-4 strong branches are selected at a height of 60 cm. They are cut half in half, facing the outside of the bud. The remaining branches are deleted. The center conductor should be longer than the upper lateral branch by 3 buds, the rest of the section is cut off. At the end of August, the side branches should be pulled back to an angle of 60 ° and tied with a soft thread.
- In the second year of the , 1/3 of last year’s growth is cut off from the center conductor. Skeletal branches are cut 1/4 of the kidney facing down. Last year's rope bundles are removed, and at the end of the summer new lateral branches are being delayed. Lateral growths are removed.
- The following summer, the process is repeated .The conductor is cut to 1/4.The branches of the upper tiers should always be shorter than the lower ones by 10-15 cm. The bending of the branches is stopped when they take the necessary angle or the tree begins to bear fruit.
When the apple tree grows to 2-2.5 m, they cut the conductor to the side branch, which is tied to a pole. In the future, it forms the central conductor.
bowl-shaped form This type of crown is formed according to the long-sparse principle and is used for low-growing apple trees. The fundamental difference is the absence of a central conductor.
A 50 cm high stem and 30 cm more are left on the seedling to form skeletal branches. The rest is clipped. In the following year, 3 skeletal branches form above the stem according to the recommended scheme. The conductor is cut at the level of the upper side branch. As the branches of the second and third order are formed, all branches directed to the center of the crown are cut.
Apple trees, shaped like vertical palmettes, are grown near fences. This type of crown makes it possible to cultivate an apple tree in limited areas or to use as a decoration in hedges.
- Planting of an annual seedling without branches .Along the seedling need to drive a pole and tighten the horizontal wire. The three upper buds are selected, the lower of which are directed in different directions. The barrel is shortened to 40-60 cm from the ground level.
- In the summer, the main shoot is formed from the upper bud and directed along the pole. From the other remaining buds, horizontal shoots are formed. In order not to harm the growth of the tree, horizontality is achieved gradually. Therefore, in the first year, shoots are tied at an angle of 45 ° with respect to the conductor.
- In the fall, the lateral branches are placed horizontally, tying them to the wire. The extra shoots formed on the trunk are cut to the third bud.
- In the spring, the central conductor of the should be cut off, leaving a section with three buds, 45 cm high. The extra side branches are shortened, leaving only three buds.
- In the summer, the second tier is formed according to the recommended scheme. Until autumn, all competing shoots are shortened, leaving only three buds on them. In the fall, the growth of horizontal shoots is tied to a wire.
After the final formation of the crown, the center conductor is cut off. The number of tiers depends on the type of soil, location and strength of the apple tree. Experienced gardeners recommend no more than 4-5 tiers. After the final formation of the crown need to constantly cut off the shoots formed between the tiers.
Rejuvenating Apple Pruning
With age, the fruiting tree moves to the top of the crown. The length of annual increments is reduced to 35 cm, which affects the quantity of the crop .In this case, the apple tree needs anti-aging pruning.
The first step is to remove dry and damaged branches. Cut off the branches that grow inside the crown, it will stimulate the growth of young shoots. The overgrown skeletal branches are pruned to the side branches .Removed all the branches above the young ramifications.
The procedure for rejuvenating apple trees is best done in two springs of .Too many wounds greatly weaken the tree. After pruning apple requires increased care: watering, fertilizing and protection from pests.