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Mushrooms - this is a separate kingdom of the plant world, combining not only the signs of plants, but also animals. There are many representatives, many of whom are consumed in food. Shiitake mushrooms are an edible specimen that has the same popularity as mushrooms.
Read the article: a delicious soup of dried mushrooms!
Shiitake is a woody lamellar fungus belonging to the family of the Non-Friars. Also it is called Siitake, Xiang Gu, and in the people in a simple way - black fungus. His homeland is China. But shiitake is widely cultivated in Southeast Asia. As instilled, it is grown on beech trees.
Determine the fungus can be in appearance: the brown hat is 5-25 cm in diameter, and its tone varies from light to dark. On the edge the shade is lighter and there is a fringe. The entire surface of the cap is covered with white scales.
The flesh and plates of the fungus are white. The latter become brown when pressed. The inside of the leg is stiff, also colored white, which darkens when pressed.
To taste, Chinese mushrooms shiitake resemble champignons.
The composition of black fungus is truly unique, because it contains essential amino acids, polysaccharides, fungal phytoncides, fatty acids, mineral components, such as iron, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, copper, nickel, magnesium, calcium, zinc, selenium, sodium, polysaccharide lentinan (increases immunity), various vitamins A, B (1, 5-6, 9, 12), E, D, D, PP.
Shiitake mushroom has a low calorie content, which means that it can be included in the diet for those who want to reduce their weight.
As for useful properties, the fungus has a lot of them. And all thanks to the vitamin-nutrient composition. So, the mushroom:
- Helps strengthen immunity, the body better confronts infections;
- struggles with diabetes mellitus and complications after it;
- promotes intensive splitting of fats;
- prevents the occurrence of blood clots;
- has a beneficial effect on the functioning of the digestive system;
- takes part in the production of interferon;
- in a number of studies, scientists have found that fungi can prevent the development of cancer, and are struggling with existing cells;
- reduces the risk of strokes, heart attacks, cardiovascular diseases;
- removes toxins from the body;
- reduces the concentration of cholesterol by at least 10%;
- strengthens the nervous system and favorably affects its work;
- effectively suppresses diseases of a viral nature even at the phase of their development.
Despite the undisputed benefits, shiitake mushrooms can be harmful, especially with uncontrolled volume. Not to mention the possible manifestation of an allergic reaction.
The mushrooms contain chitin - in large quantities it is very dangerous.
Mushrooms are prohibited:
- children up to 12-14 years of age, as mushrooms are very heavy for their stomach and are difficult to digest;
- people with bronchial asthma;
- individuals with individual intolerance;
- women during pregnancy and during lactation.
Also, use caution when using medicines, tinctures and extracts based on shiitake. Regardless of the purpose for which you apply them, in medical or prophylactic, it is necessary to consult a doctor.
In nature, the fungus grows mainly on beech. But how to grow shiitake mushrooms at home? There are two ways.
Mycelium shiitake "planted" on logs (1 m * 0-15 cm), as well as on stumps (35-40 cm * 20-25 cm length and diameter).
Only the wood is used, after cutting it took at least 2-3 months.
Before planting the mycelium, the wood, if necessary, should be soaked in water. It is necessary that its humidity is 40%. Then drill the holes at a distance of 20-30 cm from each other in size 10-15 mm / 4-6 cm (width * depth). Between the rows the distance is 7-12 cm.
In the holes obtained, the mycelium is covered with grains and covered with garden varnish or covered with stoppers. After logs are transferred to a protected room, wrapped with different materials that retain moisture and, creating favorable conditions (15-20 ° C), wait for "shoots". When there is a whitish coating and the log creates a deaf sound when tapping, the log and mycelium are carried to an open place where there is a moist earth, there are no drafts and no sunlight.
Plantation can bear fruit for 5-8 years. This method of growing can be used in heated rooms, but provided that the humidity in them is more than 85%. A large crop is obtained by "planting" beech or oak.
This method of growing shiitake involves the use of a "substrate" consisting of 60-90% of wood chips, sawdust, small chips. Other auxiliary components: husk, straw, organo-mineral additives.
The grains are sown in the calculation of 2-5 kg / 100 kg of substrate. When growing Shiitake, just before fruit bearing, the package from the block should be removed completely, as it is impossible to determine where the fungus grows.
To stimulate the growth of black fungus, blocks with mycelium should be regularly "bathed" or irrigated.
The time required for mushroom conception is 5-7 days. You can harvest every month. Such blocks "work" only 3-5 months.
How to cook shiitake mushrooms
Shiitake mushroom is a popular component of oriental cuisine. In food, the hat is most often used, because it is much softer than the legs. Soups, confectionery, drinks, sauces, and even desserts are cooked with it. What is noteworthy, in Japan, black mushroom is made from yoghurt, rich in potassium.
Mushrooms are popular for being able to "take" the taste of other constituent ingredients of the dish, while not interrupting it. Shiitake can be eaten raw, but, as practice shows, many people dislike it.
There are a lot of options for cooking Shiitake mushrooms. The duration of heat treatment is a maximum of 10 minutes. When cooking, they are ready in 3-4 minutes (proportions, l of water for every 1 kg of mushrooms). As for the quenching, it is somewhat longer - half an hour.
Use the best specimens, with a cap not more than 5 cm, open by 70%, having a uniform dark brown color and a velvety surface.
The easiest way to cook is to fry the washed mushrooms in vegetable oil with constant stirring. When all the excess water is evaporated, the mushrooms are ready and acquire meat taste. To them add almonds, onions, walnuts and various spices. Shiitake is well combined with udon, vegetables, rice and Asian noodles, any meat, seafood, rice, fish, pasta, various sauces.
When using dried shiitake mushrooms, they must be pre-soaked to restore the shape, and then wring out, cut into pieces and cook as usual.
The world of mushrooms is limited not only by mushrooms and oyster mushrooms. Shiitake may not be familiar to many, but they are very delicious dishes. Try it, you'll definitely like it!