When growing tomatoes on an industrial scale, it is important that the variety is suitable for mechanized harvesting. One of these is the Rio Grande. A variety of tomatoes has a number of advantages, which are also appreciated among summer residents and owners of country houses.
Table of contents
- Description and characteristics of tomato Rio Grande
- Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- Features of soil preparation for planting
- seeds How to choose the right seed for planting?
- Seeding Regulations
- The plant of determinant type with a growing season of 110-120 days is stress tolerant and universal use of fruits. The height of the bush rarely exceeds 70 cm, so the agrotechnology does not provide for garters. A compact tomato with a moderate amount of foliage does not need to be staved.
The fruiting period continues throughout the summer season. Fruit in the form of cream to the term of technical ripeness gains weight from 70 to 150 grams .The flesh of beautiful red color has a dense structure, which makes the vegetable suitable for drying and drying. Harvest is often used to make sauces and ketchups. The sweet taste with a slight sourness is appreciated by the chefs of many countries of the world.The variety is the work of Dutch breeders. The culture is intended for cultivation in the open field and under the shelter( in greenhouses and greenhouses).The yield from the bush is 4.5-5.8 kg.
Advantages and disadvantages of the grade
In order to form an opinion about the variety Rio Grande, it is worth considering its primary characteristics. Among the main ones:
- unpretentiousness in care( no need for garter and pasynkovanie);
- good adaptation to the complex climatic features of the region, adverse weather;
- strong immunity to resist fungal infections and viruses;
- interesting taste;
- the versatility of the use of fruits;
- fruiting period throughout the summer;
- long shelf life of the crop, good transportability.
There are no obvious flaws in the tomato, although some gardeners note low juiciness. This fact is explained by the dense structure of the pulp, which is valued in the production of ketchup and sauces.
Features of soil preparation for planting seeds
Soil select light structure, fertile( suitable universal substrate or a mixture of sod land with humus).Before sowing, the soil is heated in the oven or watered with a weak solution of potassium permanganate for disinfection.
When planting seeds in an open ground, a bed is prepared in the fall, digging and introducing humus. In the spring, mineral fertilizers are used to enrich the soil with the necessary microelements. Under the seeds make holes at a distance of 40 cm. At the edges of the beds set the sides of the boards, with which the film is fixed as a shelter. After the formation of 2 pairs of leaves, seedlings are transplanted into separate holes.
How to choose the right seeds for planting?
Seeds are recommended to be purchased in specialized stores. This ensures complete processing of the material, resistance to diseases and pests.Disinfecting and soaking in order to stimulate growth is not necessary at home.
When choosing grains, you should first familiarize yourself with the information on the label, which indicates the basic rules of agricultural engineering, shelf life and other recommendations. After removing the grains from the packaging should be selected healthy and large. If any lesions are found, make a rejection.
When using the seedling method, seeding is planned for the beginning or the middle of March( 60 days before planting seedlings on the bed).
Containers or wooden boxes with a depth of at least 10 cm are used for the soil. Plastic cups and pots can also be used. The bottom of the container should have drainage holes to release excess moisture during watering.
On the surface of the ground, small indentations are made with a finger( not more than 2 cm) with an interval of 4-6 cm. 2 seeds are put into each notch. On top of them close up with a small layer of peat.
To create optimal conditions for seed germination, spray the crop with warm water( moderately) and cover the container with glass or film. Temperature before germination should be 23-25 °.As soon as the seedlings appear, the container is placed on a well-lit place, shelter is removed, and the temperature is reduced to 18-20 °. In order not to sprout sprouts excessively, it is better to lower the night indicator to 16 °.In case of insufficient light, shoots will not develop normally, therefore additional lighting( fluorescent lamp) should be installed above the improvised bed.
After forming 2 leaves on sprouts, dive the seedlings, that is, transplant each root into a separate container.7-10 days before transferring seedlings to a bed, a hardening procedure is carried out for better adaptation in a new environment.
Transplantation in open ground
Transfer of seedlings to the greenhouse is performed from mid-April to the 10th of May. In the open ground young shoots are planted from the 20th of May to mid-June. In the southern regions of the country, it is practiced sowing directly in open ground.The best predecessors for the Rio Grande variety are plants: spicy herbs, legumes, cabbage, lettuce.
Tomatoes are planted in rows with an interval of 35-45 cm or in a square-nested manner according to the scheme of 40x50 cm. The depth of the holes is 10-15 cm. No more than 6 shoots are placed per m2.A mixture of peat, wood ash and humus is first poured into the recess, then the shoot is immersed.
Care after transplantation
Tomato Rio Grande is very easy to maintain, even an inexperienced gardener can grow and produce a good harvest. The basic rules of agricultural engineering are in the following sections.
Do not re-moisten the soil when growing tomatoes, it can cause the development of fungal diseases. After planting, it is enough to water once a week. Regularity increases only with drought. The liquid rate per bush is at least 5 liters. It is advisable not to flood the foliage during irrigation so that it does not turn yellow.
Weeding and loosening
Tomato Rio Grande loves loose soil, so aeration should be carried out regularly( 1 time in 10-15 days).Simultaneously with loosening, weeding is done, ridding the beds of weeds. The immersion depth of the tool is at least 5-7 cm.Experienced gardeners advise spuding bushes to increase crop yields after the first or second weeding.
After transplanting shoots to an open bed, regular dressings are conducted:
- for the first time feed the soil with a solution of mullein( 1: 5) or bird droppings( 1:15);
- second feed is injected 2 weeks later( 25 grams of ammonium nitrate, 15 grams of potassium salt, 60 grams of superphosphate and 1 gram of boric acid) are placed on a bucket of water;
- the third portion of nutrition is added in a couple of weeks( 30 grams of saltpeter, 70 grams of potassium salt, 40 grams of superphosphate are dissolved in 10 liters of water).
Subsequent feed consists of a solution of wood ash( 200 grams of ash per 10 liters of water).
Mulching of the bed
Immediately after transplanting seedlings, the bed is mulched. This will help retain moisture in the soil without frequent irrigation and reduce the amount of weed.
Errors in the care of
Many gardeners make awkward mistakes in agricultural practices that can adversely affect yield. Among the main ones:
- overfeeding with fertilizers( in particular, nitrogen fertilizers), which entails an intensive growth of foliage;
- thickening beds, provoking the development of the fungus;
- pruning shoots to form a bush( the variety does not need a procedure, the yield is reduced due to the cut branches);
- planting tomatoes close to peas or potatoes( cultures are incompatible).
Diseases and their prevention
Strong immunity allows the variety to withstand many diseases and pests, but this does not mean that the need for prevention no longer exists. If we are talking about cultivation in the greenhouse, it is rational to replace the soil every year at the end of the season( a layer of at least 25-30 cm is removed).You also need to provide good ventilation when growing tomatoes.
Open beds with boiling water or a solution of potassium permanganate with a small concentration of before planting. After planting, seedlings are regularly treated with biologics( for example, Fitosporin) or folk remedies in order to prevent fungal diseases or pests.
The following diseases pose the greatest threat to tomatoes:
Fungi and the virus often infect weak plants, so ignore the schedule for the introduction of dressings, as well as overdo it with the amount of fertilizer.
- late blight;
- gray and white rot;
- mosaic virus.
Among the dangerous pests stand out:
- Colorado potato beetle;
For the purposes of prophylaxis, it is necessary to carefully remove plant litter from the beds in the fall. In it, the winter larvae and adult insects perfectly tolerate cold colds. Before the first frosts, the ground should be digged to reveal the pests of .So be able to get rid of most of the parasites. In spring, between the rows it is worth planting the plants that frighten most insects: marigolds, marigolds, oregano, etc. If necessary, a treatment with insecticides should be carried out before the flowering period.
Rio Grande is very easy to care for, has the ability to adapt to certain conditions, which is a good help in agricultural technology. If you make a little effort, the plant will certainly thank the zealous owner with a generous harvest.