Growing tomatoes in a greenhouse allows plants to be protected from frost, drying out of the soil and adverse weather conditions. However, diseases can overtake tomatoes in a greenhouse environment, and in case of a temperature violation or watering, on the contrary, it provokes the reproduction of harmful microorganisms and pests.
Table of contents
- The main diseases of tomatoes in the greenhouse and methods of dealing with them
- Why are the leaves or late blight tomato curled?
- Brown leaf spot
- Cracking fruits
- White plaque or what to do against rot?
- Leaf mold
- Preventing tomato diseases in the greenhouse
The main diseases of tomatoes in the greenhouse and how to deal with them
Why diseases can occur in the greenhouse and how to treat the seedlings so that the leaves do not curl? Spores can easily tolerate winter in plant debris or directly in the soil. A disease can also develop as a result of using untested seeds that are already infected for planting.
Danger lays in young tomato shoots at each stage of growth, and in the case of tomatoes, the situation is complicated by the rapid onset of the flowering period, when using chemicals is no longer recommended. It is impossible to sit with folded arms, after planting seedlings in a polycarbonate greenhouse, it is necessary to plan preventive measures using traditional methods. Among the most famous and simple tools are:
- wood ash;
- dolomite flour;
- shredded quicklime
Why are the leaves curling or blight tomato?
The most common disease of tomatoes caused by the development of fungus. Fungal spores awaken at high humidity. If good air circulation is available in the open ground, it is very difficult to avoid dampness in the greenhouse and a disease environment is created. In addition, a concomitant factor of the disease is the temperature difference, which is typical for the spring period, when the difference between the night and day indicator is over 10-15 degrees.
Symptoms of the disease:
- dark brown and brown spots on the leaves;
- stained fruit;
- drying and twisting foliage.
As a preventive measure, it is appropriate to equip the greenhouse with a drip irrigation system. You can do the simplest invention of plastic bottles. Cutting off their bottom, you need to set the capacity of the neck into the ground near the root zone( in the direction of the roots).Conducting irrigation in this way, the evaporation of moisture is practically eliminated, and hence the humidity level is easier to maintain at the desired level.
In addition to traditional methods, special preparations are used:
Brown leaf spot
A disease characteristic of greenhouse plants. You can recognize it by the yellow round growing spots, which are formed initially on the lower sheets of tomatoes. On the back of the affected foliage there is a brown velvety plaque( mushroom spores).
A little later, the greens dry up and curl, and after some time the plant dries out. Often the disease manifests itself during flowering and fruiting. At high humidity up to 95% and inadequate illumination, brown spotting is very intense. If primary symptoms are detected, it is recommended to immediately treat the plants with Bordeaux mixture or Barrier, Barrier preparations.
Viral disease, the danger of which is the lack of treatment. Therefore, it is important to pay particular attention to prevention. The infected plant can be recognized simply by mosaic colors, the leaves are covered with light and dark green spots, which are rapidly increasing, merging into large islands. When identifying the first signs, it is recommended to remove the bush and dispose of it. It is desirable to decontaminate the landing site with a special solution.
Cracks in the fruits of tomatoes are often formed as a result of violations of the irrigation regime. But this is not the only reason. Excessive introduction of nitrogen-containing fertilizers into the soil and improper use of pollination stimulants can provoke cracking. Before using any formulations for the garden, it is necessary to carefully study the instructions and not to violate the recommended dosage of the product.
White plaque or how to process against rot?
Tomatoes grown in a greenhouse are prone to rot. The disease is of several types, which differ, first of all, in the plant's affected area.
- Root rot develops mainly due to improper preparation of the soil in the greenhouse. This may be an excess of slightly rotted manure, too wet soil, poor drainage or lack of it.
- Vertex rot is recognized by characteristic spots on the fruit( the disease does not affect the tops).It provokes the formation of deformation and spotting of tomatoes, mainly a violation of agricultural engineering( improper watering, overdose of nitrogen fertilizers, etc.).
- Gray rot is recognized by brown wet spots on the stem and foliage. Ash-gray scurf indicates sporulation. The disease develops as a result of poor ventilation in the greenhouse with an increased level of humidity.
- Brown rot affects areas near the stem and fruits. On the surface of the tomato can be seen a small stain, but almost the entire core is rotten. Fresh manure is considered the main provoker of the disease, therefore it is not recommended as a fertilizer for the greenhouse.
As a preventive measure, regular spraying of the infusion of garlic should be carried out, as well as powdered with wood ash.
Most often, it is possible to detect the first signs of the disease during the flowering period. Light green spots appear on the upper side of the leaf, becoming yellowish-white in color. The affected leaves initially turn yellow, dry up, curl, and then die off.
- greenhouse disinfection;
- soil replacement( remove the layer at least 30 cm);
- adjustment of air humidity in the greenhouse by regular ventilation;
- seed dressing;
- spraying the bed when the first signs of zineb suspension or other preparations are detected.
Dry spotting can be easily identified by elongated brown spots on the leaves, stem, cuttings, peduncle. Fruits are covered with depressed brown spots. The main provocateur of the disease is high humidity and poor ventilation. At low temperatures, the intensity of the development of macrosporosis increases.
If the majority of the shrub is stained, it makes no sense to save it. The faster the fungal spores are removed, the less likely the spread of fungal infection to healthy plants.
Of drugs, it is efficient to use Bordeaux mixture.
Prevention of tomato diseases in the greenhouse
Many inexperienced gardeners are concerned about the question of what measures should be taken to prevent diseases from affecting tomatoes? An effective protective base is built up on prevention, which includes:
- compliance with the rules of crop rotation( it is impossible to plant one crop each year, predecessors are also carefully selected);
- digging the site( preferably before the frost, so that the larvae and spores are frozen out);
- thorough cleaning of the garden at the end of the season( plant residues become a winter haven for harmful microorganisms);
- soil disinfection before planting;
- greenhouse surface disinfection at the end of the season and spring;
- replacement of the soil layer( performed periodically to update the land or after diseases);
- treatment of plants with preparations of biological origin( Bayleton, Aktellik, Farmaid-3, etc.).
Thanks to the greenhouse cultivation, harvesting can begin several weeks earlier than when growing tomatoes in open field. There are no difficulties in technology, you just need to adhere to generally accepted rules. Then you can eat plenty of tomatoes in the summer and make preparations for the winter.