- Interior design project
- Stages of repair and decoration works
- Dismantling work
- Arrangement of partitions
- Plastering works
- Installation of water supply and sewerage systems
- Installation of heating systems
- Installation of air conditioners
- Electric installation work
- Screed floor
- Drywall work
- Tile works
- Painting works
- Plumbing installation
- Laying of floor coverings
- Finishing finishing works
- Electrical connection
The qualitative repair of any premises assumes adherence to concrete stages of performance of repair work, exact performance of all instructions and requirements. All repair work must be carried out in a certain sequence: thus, it begins with the development of the project, and ends with finishing finishing and cleaning the premises.
Interior design project
Any repair must begin with the manufacture of a design project for the future interior. Such a project contains data on wall, floor, ceiling decoration materials, lighting scheme, furniture arrangement scheme, etc. Such a project can be created within three months, but this time and costs are necessary, because otherwise all the expensive repairs carried out can give a completely different result, which I would like to. The development of a design project can be extended for a couple of months, if a re-planning is planned in an apartment, location of plumbing or gas equipment, etc. Such changes require agreement in the relevant bodies.
Composition of the design project
The process of creating a design project consists of several mandatory steps, which are as follows.
- The first stage isstudy of the client's wishesto the future interior, its style, discussion of the main details and the main concept.
- Then thepreliminary design: all customer wishes are taken into account when creating a three-dimensional sketch that shows the design decision and the location of the main elements in the room or apartment.
- Once the preliminary draft is compiled, go tochoice of building materials and furniture, and there is already indicated a specific model of this or that piece of interior.
- Then go to3D visualization of space and creation of working drawings. The working drawing is created on the basis of a draft design, but it contains in itself specific details for the builders who will perform all the stages of the work. The author of the compiled design project retains control over how his ideas and developments are embodied.
Programs for creating an apartment design project
For drawing up of the design project, at a stage of visualization, designers often use special software, with which you can virtually present the future design of the room or apartments. In such programs it is easy to change the color of walls, the width of passes, the size of the window, move furniture, change the layout of rooms, etc. Some such programs can eventually issue a detailed drawing with all the necessary quantities and values for the future implementation specialists.
Let's look at some examples of such software. It should be noted that both free and paid programs have been released and are available. What are their main advantages we will understand further.
Aston Design (Astron Design)- A program that allows you to easily model the next room. It is enough only to set the parameters of the room, as well as the size and location of windows and doors. The program has a huge range of possible furniture for use in it, which can be used in the design of bedrooms, living rooms, children's, hallways, etc. When all parameters are entered, and the furniture is chosen, it remains only to move it around the room and change the colors of the walls and the floor, and then clearly see everything that we are trying to see, moving furniture from corner to corner and from the room in room.
You can send an application for Aston Design (Astron Design) here.
Google Sketchup- a program that has two versions at once: paid and free. It's interesting that the free version has a fairly wide range of tools that you can use when creating a project. This program is easy to learn and will be useful for beginning designers, but, nevertheless, it gives an opportunity to get excellent results. Some elements can be additionally downloaded on the Internet, where you can find and already created interior projects that can be used by some as a basis.
Download Google Sketchup from the official site.
Sweet Home 3D- a fairly simple program to learn and use, which contains a lot of possible textures for the use in the project of floor, walls, doors, windows, furniture and accessories. Such a program can quickly master any minimally trained person. The result of your design can easily be printed and mailed.
Download the program Sweet Home 3D (available in several languages, including Russian), as well as familiarize yourself with its possibilities, on the official website of the developer.
PRO100- A program that has a wide range of functionality for moving items of furniture in a virtual room. Each item in this program has its own called menu, which makes it possible to select some characteristics of the element: color, material, texture, etc. The designer working with this program has the opportunity to view the created virtual interior in seven projections. When one of the project elements changes, this change is also taken into account by other elements.
More information about the program can be obtained on the official website.
Arcon Eleco- a program that is designed primarily for professional architects, but it, unlike other paid programs, is not very difficult to master, since it does not have an overloaded, intricate menu. The process of creating a project in the program is quite typical for programs of this kind: the size of the room is chosen, all furniture and accessories are selected, the finishing is selected, and further the designer receives three-dimensional models of a premise of very high quality, that's why this program is very popular in Europe, where it is used by more than 20 000 specialists.
ArchiCAD- a program that is widely distributed in the circles of architects and designers. With its help the most complex objects are designed, although it can be used to create projects of any complexity. The program has very high capabilities, which makes it almost the most expensive among such programs. It should be noted that in addition to the project premises, the program provides the opportunity to conduct all sorts of construction documentation. The video presents the project of a residential house developed in the program ArchiCAD.
Stages of repair and decoration works
All repair work is carried out in several stages, the main characteristics of which will be given below. It is worth considering a brief sequence of all the works, so that the whole order of their execution is more understandable. So, the main stages of the work are as follows.
1. Preparatory work:
- dismantling and garbage disposal;
- installation of interior partitions if necessary, as well as all necessary gypsum plasterboard structures.
- plaster ceilings and walls;
- laying of all cables and wires: electricity, Internet, etc .;
- the device of waterproofing, and also, if necessary, noise insulation;
- performance of floor screed;
- installation of sewage pipes and water pipes;
- if necessary, the installation of new radiators, moving risers and water supply;
- installation of the entrance door;
- preparation of pipes and the external block of the conditioner;
- laying of the warm floor, if it is provided;
- installation of a dryer for towels;
- installation of frames for plumbing items that will not stand on the floor;
- installation of windows and window-sills.
- laying of tile floor covering;
- installation of gypsum plasterboard or stretch ceiling;
- execution of the primer of the ceiling and walls;
- installation on the walls of reinforcing mesh;
- Execution of puttying of ceilings and walls;
- installation of sub-nets;
- laying of ceiling skirting;
- execution of finishing works on the walls;
- preparatory work for laying flooring.
4. Final stage:
- the final painting of the ceiling and the decoration of the walls;
- laying of floor covering and skirting boards;
- installation of sockets, switches, lamps and electric boards;
- door installation;
- installation of batteries and towel dryers;
- installation of all plumbing;
- installation of air conditioning and regulators of the warm floor, if necessary;
- installation of accessories and decorative elements.
5. Delivery of the apartment to the owner:
- removal of all construction debris and tools;
It is with the dismantling work that the whole process of repairing the room begins. So, all the old finish, but it's wallpaper, parquet or laminate, tiles, various partitions, remove, preparing the surface for a new coating. At this stage it is necessary to achieve the maximum amount of dismantling of the old finish, otherwise all further work may not bring the desired result.
Dismantling of partitions
Partitions in the apartment can be removed safely, since they, unlike the load-bearing walls, do not take on any burden, but serve only to separate the space. Between the partition and the ceiling, there is usually a small gap that ensures its integrity when the entire building shrinks. This gap is filled with a pack that needs to be removed. After that, the partition itself is dismantled: it needs to be done from the top down. So, for a brick wall, dismantling consists in gradual dismantling of it by bricks. It is worth paying attention to the protection of the floor from the falling particles of the destroyed partition.
Dismantling of floors
For this rather messy procedure, you need to take care of the presence of gloves, headgear and special clothes to avoid injuries and negative effects on health. Building debris is better to be stacked on a trolley or something similar, as trash bags often break under the weight of an old floor covering. To dismantle the tile floor you will need a puncher, a sledge hammer and a chisel, and for a wooden floor so much force will not be needed. If the flooring is not to be replaced, it must be carefully closed to prevent damage to it.
Dismantling of window and door blocks
To dismantle the door unit, you must first start from the door, which is not difficult to remove. It will be more difficult to remove the door jamb from the wall, especially since it can be installed in a supporting wall. After the door unit is removed, the doorway can be changed in size depending on what parameters the new doorway will have. If the replacement of windows and doors is not anticipated, then you need to carefully remove the cracked paint, preparing the surface to apply a new coating.
Dismantling of wall and ceiling coverings
The plaster from the walls is removed layer by layer, starting from the top of the wall. The wallpaper comes off pieces, and those that are firmly attached to the wall, are soaked and removed with a spatula. Paints and enamels, which are used in the ceiling coating, can be removed with a spatula, starting from the places where cracks were formed, and whitewash can simply be washed off before the appearance of a layer of putty.
Arrangement of partitions
When all the dismantling work is completed, you can proceed to the installation of new partitions according to the prepared project. Partitions can be made of various materials: brick, foam blocks, plasterboard, etc. All these materials have their pros and cons, but in most cases each baffle requires leaving a small gap between it and the ceiling, which is necessary in case of shrinkage building.
Types of interior partitions
Naturally, a partition can be a screen or a sliding door, but many still prefer stationary partitions, which can be of different types. It is about them that we will go further.
Review of stationary interior partitions from various materials
Interior partitions made of bricks
Such partitions are very often built in modern apartments, including in bathrooms. The reason for this popularity was the merits of the brick, which consist in its waterproofness and high ability to sound insulation. However, the brick is not without its drawbacks: for example, the erection of brick partitions requires large temporary costs compared to interior partitions of gypsum board and foam blocks, and also have a significant the weight.
Partition walls of gravel slabs
Such partitions are suitable for use in any premises and in all conditions. Their strengths include fire resistance, water resistance, air permeability, environmental friendliness. Partitions of this type are relatively easy to install, and inside such partitions you can hide, for example, electric cable, if the partition is single, and even a sewage pipe or a water pipe, if it double.
Partitions from the foam block
Such partitions are a kind of concrete partitions, and therefore possess such properties as fire resistance, high ability to heat insulation and noise insulation, excellent carrier Ability. To the negative side of this type of partition is its low air permeability, but it does not make a foam block less popular in use, as it is now considered the best solution for organizing interior partitions. Such partitions are strong enough and strong even to hang a kitchen, TV, loaded shelves, etc. on them.
Partition of glass blocks
This type of partitions is useful for unusual design ideas. The glass for such partitions is strong enough and has a width of up to 10 mm, and can also be decorated with some drawing, which makes this material invaluable for creating an interesting design. In addition to design, the merits of such material can be written down their heat and sound insulation, refractoriness, strength and reliability, as well as the ability to pass light, which is beyond the power of others types of partitions. To such a partition, of course, you can not nail shelves and lay electrical wiring in it.
Such partitions are often used to create frame structures. Due to the fact that the drywall itself does not have sufficient strength, it is attached to a finished metal frame. With a small mass of such a partition, it has good sound insulation properties, it is vapor-proof and fire-resistant. Drywall, however, has some disadvantages: thus, it is not very strong, easily breaks, is able to be absorbed by moisture and deformed. If you need to attach something to such a partition, you need to remember that it does not withstand a lot of weight, and it is better to fasten some constructions to a metal frame.
Such partitions can differ in design, but they are all natural and have such properties as strength, good sound insulation and thermal insulation. But, aside from these positive characteristics, the wooden partitions have several drawbacks: they are capable of absorbing moisture and badly resisting fire.
After installing all the necessary partitions, go to the plaster. Most often, gypsum plasters are used for this. Carrying out such work, you should carefully approach the process of applying and drying the plaster layer. So, a layer 6 cm thick can dry for 15 to 20 days depending on the temperature. Do not apply the plaster in several layers, and especially, even if necessary, make long intervals between applying plaster layers. Although it dries for a long time, but it hardens quickly, which can cause that after the completion of repair with a light vibration impact on the walls, plaster can simply be broken off pieces because of the fact that its adhesion to the previous layer is very weak. Therefore, it is better to apply the plaster only with one layer or, if it is absolutely necessary, apply the first layer evenly, and immediately after that go to the second layer.
Plastering can be done manually or using special apparatus.
The plaster is machine-made using a special plastering machine, in which the mortar is prepared and with which it is applied to the walls. The main advantages of this method are the high quality of the prepared solution, its simultaneous application to wall, which allows you to get a result of high quality, speed of work, as well as a price that is one-third lower than manual works. Machine plaster will be useful, mainly for those rooms that have a large area, standard non-relief shapes, and where a distinctive aesthetic effect is required.
Manual plastering requires the use of such hand tools as a spatula and trowel. Such plaster is performed much longer than mechanical, but it is most often needed in small rooms, apartments, other premises, especially if they have a rather complex surface: they have arches or columns, etc.
Installation of water supply and sewerage systems
All works on the installation of the water supply system are carried out simultaneously with the work on electrical installation. These works require a clear understanding and presentation of where each of the items of sanitary ware should be. Naturally, this stage of repair works also presupposes the availability of all sanitary ware that must be installed. Pipes for water supply and sewerage are also laid at this stage.
Installation of heating systems
After all the plastering works are completed, the water supply and sewerage equipment has been equipped, it is possible to proceed to the installation of the heating system. In most cases, this stage consists in replacing old radiators with newer and more advanced models. Also, shut-off valves near the battery can sometimes be installed, which will allow to regulate the supply of the body, saving money, resources, and creating a comfortable microclimate.
It is worth noting that when the wallpaper will be glued and other finishing works are performed, it may be necessary to temporarily remove the batteries.
As for, for example, the equipment of the warm floor in the bathroom, it is advisable to carry it out during the stage of work on the floor screed.
Installation of air conditioners
When the basic elements of the air conditioner start to be mounted, it is necessary to clearly know where it will be located and what type of air conditioner will be installed. This stage involves the installation of equipment such as outdoor unit, drainage system, air conditioning, etc. Nevertheless, the indoor units are already installed during the finishing process.
Electric installation work
Immediately after the plastering works, almost at the same time with the installation of sanitary ware, electrical work is carried out. Here it is necessary to clearly know where and how much to arrange outlets and switches, you need to know also the number and location of the main electricity consumers. After all this is done about the load on the mains and the wiring is mounted according to a certain scheme.
The order of the electrical work
It is very important to perform work on the installation of electrical wiring just after the work on the plaster walls. After all, in this case, the accuracy of the arrangement of the switches and sockets is increased, the future finish is not damaged, and the chance of damaging the wiring is reduced. In addition, it is thanks to the performance of electrical work after plastering that there is a chance to correct some miscalculations without resorting to destructions of the plaster already done.
It is worth emphasizing the importance of accurately representing the future interior of a room or apartment, so that you can know exactly, where you need sockets, because when they are installed ill-conceived, this often leads to not quite pleasant results. Therefore, it is necessary to plan in advance the layout of all outlets and switches, and then discuss it with a specialist to agree on some details or to eliminate possible miscalculations. After the layout project has been agreed upon, it is necessary to make a working electric project, according to which the rough electrical work is performed. They consist in laying wiring, installation of podrozetnikov and electric flap. But all other elements, sockets, switches, lighting devices, are installed after all the finishing works.
The floor screed is carried out after all the plastering works have been carried out, and also communications have been carried out. Screed is needed to create smooth surfaces, which are needed at the finish of the room. There are a lot of requirements to performing such works, which consist in the nuances of the work, the materials used, the time for drying, etc.
There are several types and methods for laying floor screed. We will consider them further.
Types and methods of screed application
Wet method of concrete tie
This is by far the most common method. This screed is carried out with the help of a very liquid sand-cement mixture, which can be reinforced for additional strength also with a metal mesh. The thickness of the layer of screed, made in this way, is usually about 3 cm. It is a cheap and reliable way, which, unfortunately, is not devoid ofsome shortcomings:
- duration of drying (for individual finishing materials - up to 30 days),
- the possibility of deformation and cracking,
- obtaining an uneven surface,
- the possibility of water transmission.
This method can be used to reduce the cost of work, but now it is gradually abandoned.
Dry floor screed
This method is increasingly used by modern specialists, and most often - it is in private homes. Such a screed excludes the use of any wet processes, which is its main advantage. With its arrangement, claydite, sheets of GVL and glue are used. However, this method has drawbacks, among which the main one is the cost of works, and also the need to wait for the so-called maturation of sex.
Semi-dry floor screed
This method is the most acceptable for the price and quality of work performed. The main advantage is the possibility to start laying the finishing materials on the floor after 10-14 hours after the screeding work was carried out. This screed is made by using a semi-dry solution with polypropylene fiber. As a result, a flat surface is obtained, which is resistant to cracks, deformation and other damages.
The device of a floor screed mechanized way
The peculiarity of such a screed is that the solution for it is prepared in a special apparatus, which, after its preparation, passes through the hose to the place on which it is necessary to fill the screed. This screed quickly becomes strong: for example, on the fourth day you can finish the finishing work. Screed allows you to get a flat surface, and the mechanical screed is well suited for large rooms of simple geometry - they can be made very quickly in the screed.
The work on the creation of plasterboard structures is usually performed after the screed has dried well and sits down. An excellent option for use in many rooms, especially in bathrooms, is a moisture-resistant plasterboard. Next, we will focus on specific types of drywall and their characteristics.
Types of drywall and its properties
There are such basic types of drywall:
- wall: its thickness is 1, mm, it is used very often for wall cladding, as it makes it possible to create a smooth surface without plaster. It is also used for the arrangement of partitions, and sometimes for the lining of the ceiling;
- ceiling: it is used in the ceiling lining, especially when the use of suspended ceilings is planned. Its thickness is, mm, to facilitate the ceiling structure;
- arched: the thickness of this drywall is even smaller mm. It is used to create arched constructions of different sizes.
Also the drywall is divided according to the place of use for a number of characteristics. So, a moisture-resistant gypsum cardboard is isolated, which is practically not capable of absorbing moisture, and often Used in bathrooms and kitchens, fireproof, which is recommended to use, for example, in the zone near the fireplace.
All types of gypsum cardboard have such positive properties as thermal insulation, good soundproofing, ecological compatibility, the possibility of carrying out clean, "dry" construction works with its using. Partitions made of gypsum board can be exposed to any finishing work, plasterboard perfectly binds to almost any material.
Disadvantages of drywall
Despite all the advantages listed above, it is important to note that drywall has some drawbacks. Thus, the main drawback of gypsum plasterboard structures is their low resistance and inability to withstand heavy loads and impacts, which is manifested in the impossibility of fixing on the wall a medium-heavy locker, etc. This makes drywall impossible to use in some premises. On the Hypocartone, cracks can develop over time due to vibration and sheet displacement relative to joints.
Drywall also causes some difficulties in installation and the need for a special approach, especially for ceiling structures.
The use of plasterboard is also associated with a decrease in the usable area: metal frames take away space and reduce the height of the rooms. By the way, in the space between two sheets of gypsum cardboard rodents can be planted, and mold can also develop. It is worth noting a low air permeability of drywall, which affects the microclimate of the room and calls into question its use by people with respiratory diseases. Drywall is hygroscopic, and therefore, under the influence of humidity, it can deform with time.
All these qualities of drywall make it not the material that is used in repairing the elite class, since very often its behavior under certain conditions can not be foreseen. Although, the popularity of such designs remains at the same high level.
Work on laying the tiles should be carried out as carefully and carefully as possible, since the quality of its laying in many respects causes the general impression of repair. Naturally, the finished tile coating directly depends on the quality of the tile itself, which is almost impossible to predict - its quality becomes known only when it comes time to pack it, and it still arrives at the venue works.
It is worth noting that the most difficult to lay tiles, which has a complex pattern and various decorative elements: the more such elements, the better the laying quality, and the complexity is higher. It is also difficult to lay a tile that is stretched out in length.
Painting works include a whole complex of works on interior decoration. So, painting works provide installation of paint corners, priming of walls, their shpatlevanie and grinding, sealing of seams between sheets of plasterboard, as well as painting walls, wallpapering (for details on choosing wallpaper, what kind of wallpaper are).
As for the ceilings, then the painting starts with priming the surface, installing the paint corner and sealing the seams between the sheets of gypsum board. Then they go on to gluing the fiberglass and its primer, shpatlevaniyu and grinding the ceiling, which can be performed in two stages. All painting work on the ceiling is completed with its painting.
Usually, the installation of sanitary ware starts after all the facing works have been done: the walls are painted, the floor and the ceiling are made. At this stage, they install all the necessary sanitary products: bathroom, shower, washbasin, toilet, bidet, towel-dryer. Sometimes, when required by the planned design, some of the facing work is carried out after the installation of sanitary ware. So, sometimes it is necessary to lay the tile exactly on the edge of the shower or bath.
When installing mixers, which is also included in the list of works on the installation of sanitary ware, it is important not to scratch the chrome parts, so you need to use special tools. Also it is necessary not to forget about the necessity of sealing the joints of sanitary ceramics with lining.
Laying of floor coverings
It is best to begin laying flooring when all other finishing work is done, i.e. it is better to finish all the finishing stages with a floor covering. The same applies to doors, as well as stairs, which are provided by the project for installation.
For each type of flooring, a number of requirements for their implementation are put forward. So, for example, the laminate is laid on foamed polyethylene, and the parquet requires laying on a concrete screed covered with plywood, after which they carry out all the necessary painting works, at the end of which they lay the cover itself, fixing it to the plywood nails. In order not to get dirty, it is usually covered with paper or cardboard on top.
Finishing finishing works
Such works include all finishing works, which provide decoration of the premises. In addition to the actual painting works, the finishing works are also applied for applying a complex type decoration to walls and ceilings. So, it is this stage that involves the execution of Venetian plaster, the application of textured paint and other textured coatings. It is this repair phase that often takes a sufficient amount of time, since it requires a serious approach.
To finish works also carry and installation of plinths and cornices, furnish of ceilings various panels, etc.
After all the painting and finishing works have been completed, they begin the completion of the electrical installation that was started earlier. Thus, this stage provides for the final arrangement of outlets and switches, as well as the installation of lighting devices different types: lamps, chandeliers, sconces, etc. At this stage, various electrical devices.