Any owner of the garden who decides to grow tomatoes, sooner or later faces the problem of their disease. The leaves may become black spots, twist, turn yellow, or even begin to shrink. There is a sufficient variety of diseases and pests that can quickly destroy the seedlings or all the bushes of tomatoes to one. It is worth learning more about it, for the safety of the future harvest.
- Diseases of tomato and seedling
- Hloraticheskaya curl leaf tomato
- Gray mold
- Septoria Leaf Spot
- Root rot
- Necrosis stem tomato
- Bacterial wilt
- Gangrene Gangrène
- Alternaria or macrosporiosis( brown or dry spotting)
- Brown olive spot( Cladosporium)
- Black leg
- Vertex rot
- Cracking fruits
- Yellow or green spot on the stem
- Silver spots on the leaves
- Phytotoxicity of soil
- Powdery mildew
- Black dots
- Why suffer tomatoes
- Signs of a lack of basic elements
- power Which is why leaves turn yellow
- Pests and description fight them
- Ogorodnaya scoop
- Colorado potato beetle
Diseases of tomatoes and seedlings
Chloratism curl of tomato leaves
Manifested as yellow or light green leaves hloratichnogo species. The plant becomes short with a curly tip. The manifestation of the disease contributes to tobacco mosaic virus or tobacco necrosis. Spread with contaminated soil.
Gray mold is a dangerous disease, destroying all tomato bushes immediately .This is a fungal disease that occurs with the presence of brown weeping spots. Have color from brown to gray, dry at first, then slippery.
Starting from the stem, the fungus can cover the entire plant overnight. The first susceptible sites for the disease are the places of the injured plant( scraps of leaves or tying up with supports).
The disease begins with in cool weather and the presence of persistent rains. If the seedlings in the greenhouse, then there is a poorly ventilated air, also high humidity.
Treatment should start immediately, but the weather should be sunny. The method of struggle: remove the diseased leaves so that the fungus does not go into the stem of the plant. It is advisable to avoid watering at this time.
Preventive method will be spraying infusion of minced garlic infused in water, in a ratio of 30 g per 10 l. There may be chemical protection methods: Multi, Euparin, Bayleton.
Fungal disease in which leaves and stalks of tomatoes suffer is called septoriosis or white spot.
At first, the leaves below the plant, near the ground itself, wither and dry. Then they form light-colored spots, which eventually turn brown with a black dot in the middle. After that the sheet disappears.
For this, assists with the presence of high humidity .Not transmitted by seed.
For treatment, you will need to remove the infected leaves of , even if you need to cut them all off. Also, in preventive methods, treat with copper oxychloride, Tsinab, and Horus.
The main symptom of the disease is the presence of a "black leg" in seedlings or plants. occurs due to the poorly treated soil ( non-sterile, high humidity).Losses may not be big.
Root rot can be removed by replacing the soil in the greenhouse, for open ground - treatment of seedlings and soil with disinfectants.
Necrosis of the stem of a tomato
The first signs of necrosis of the stem of a tomato are , the presence of cracks in the stem I, followed by the formation of air roots in them. Appears on the already formed bush with the first clusters of fruits.
A plant with this disease dies completely .The root cause is infected seeds, as well as ground.
To protect other bushes, infected ones must be removed and burned. For tillage requires the use of Fitolavin-300.
The disease spreads dramatically and overnight, can destroy many bushes at once. Manifested in the form of emptiness in the stem and the presence of fluid in it. The cut color is brown.
It is not possible to cure .It should be immediately removed and burned.
The remaining, non-infected bushes should be treated, as well as other plants located nearby, with Fitolovin 300 solution( 0.6-1%).For each plant not less than 200 ml of solution. It is impossible to cure infected bushes, but it will protect healthy plants.
It is characterized by the presence of a brown spot near the stem. In the context of the whole pulp is rotten. Infected fruits break themselves off the stem. disease occurs due to the large amount of fresh manure in the land of .
Can be treated by plant treatment with Fundazole or Shield. Soil - copper sulfate.
Mosaic infestation occurs mainly in tomatoes of old varieties, 2-3 years old suffer less. Characterized by the presence of spots of yellow or green in the form of a mosaic. Then they curl and frown. The bush dries out completely. You can rub up to 15% of the crop.
Since the main reason for the appearance of a mosaic is infection of seeds, it means that they should be processed before planting.
Fallen bushes are burned. Young are treated with milk( non-fat) in the ratio of 1:10 liters with the addition of 1 tsp.urea. is required to process 3 times a month. .
Alternaria or macrosporosis( brown or dry spot)
This fungal disease is characterized by the presence of large round spots located on the bottom sheets. Then rise above and move to the fruit, in the form of a brown spot at the base. At high humidity and high temperatures, fungi begin to appear.
In prophylactic methods it is required to spray tomatoes with antifungal preparations. With the manifestation of the disease, when the fruits are already ripe, treatment with biologics is required.
The most common and well-known disease called phytophthora. She suffers bushes as open ground and in the greenhouses. The favorable environment for it will be a sharp change in temperature and high humidity.
is characterized by blackening of leaves with a slight white bloom .The fruits have brown spots that grow quickly. Sick bushes need to immediately destroy.
This will require spraying the bushes once a week with whey. Created acidic environment kills the fungus. Also suitable chemical drugs such as: Barrier, Fitosporin, Barrier.
Brown Olive Spot( Cladosporosis)
Kladospariosis also has the appearance of a fungal disease. mostly hothouse types of tomatoes .The leaf of the bush initially suffers: covered with chlorotic yellow spots, merging into a large spot.
Spore of the fungus appears under the leaf, manifesting itself with a velvety patina of brown color .The disease develops at the stage of tomato flowering and the appearance of fruits. The earlier it appears, the worse for the bushes of tomatoes. At high temperatures, infection occurs quickly.
Rarely does the fungus spread to the fruit. If this happens, the fruit acquires a soft brown consistency. Watering with cold water and temperature drops will trigger the disease.
The copper-containing preparations will help fight: Barrier, Barrier, Bordeaux mixture.
Black Leg is expressed in the form of spores of fungi that penetrate the roots of the plant and the root area. At the root base, the stem turns black, weakens and dies less than a week after infection.
Affects mainly greenhouse bushes, which have not met the conditions for growing .If the ground is not changed, the airing of the greenhouse is bad, and it is also abundantly watered, then tomato seedlings will become infected with this type of fungus.
Fighting the black leg is possible by loosening the soil, drying, and treatment with potassium permanganate( 5 g / 10 l of water)
This disease is characterized in the form of watery spots of dark green color DH13Then it becomes darker and captures the entire surface of the tomato. The infected part dries out and becomes flat, with wrinkling.
Sometimes a disease can only be detected by cutting a tomato. Formed due to lack of watering and heat.
The main treatment is watering, especially during the period of fruit ripening. It is also necessary to spray 1% solution of calcium chloride.
Cracking fruits results in improper plant care .Occurs as a result of improper watering( dry soil first, then moisture excess).
An oversupply of nitrogen or improper use of pollination also leads to cracking of tomato fruits.
Yellow or green spot on the stem
If the variety of tomato does not include the green color of the stem, then this feature was acquired by due to the high temperatures of .
Due to the heat, the red color of the tomato( pigment) burned out in the sun, which led to the formation of carotene. This is not a disease of .Avoid only the creation of shading plants.
Silvery spots on the leaves
Some gardeners are frightened by the appearance of silver spots on the leaves. This is not a disease, it is a feature of the plant ( anomaly).
The origin is caused by temperature fluctuations at night or daytime. Also when creating hybrids, in the process of their poor processing.
Odema is also not a disease of tomato. is characterized by leaf edema due to improper watering of the .It is expressed in the form of convex spots according to its similarity with white mold. It happens that this anomaly is due to the inconsistency of the temperature of the soil and the air.
For prevention, it is recommended that the plants are well ventilated, there is enough sun.
Soil phytotoxicity occurs due to the incorrect use of fertilizers, fertilizers, which should bear the benefits of tomatoes, and are to the detriment of the plant.
Manifestations are different: from changing the color of the leaves to their drying out.
The origin of the torsion or curliness of the leaves depends on the conditions created by the plant. Improper watering, herbicide ingress on them, improper use of Tamaton growth stimulant.
If these violations occurred, then if you get herbicides and growth stimulants , should be removed. For the overmoistened soil, its loosening is required.
If powdery mildew appeared on tomatoes, then you can lose the entire crop in a short time. It manifests itself white bloom - the trunk and leaves begin to turn white. In most cases, the disease harms greenhouses. Suitable conditions: lack of moisture, low temperature .
The following measures are used for prophylaxis - tomatoes are treated with Strobi, Topaz, and sodium humate fungicides as described.
Strick has the appearance of wide dying strips on the bushes of the plant. On fruits, it appears as spots of various shapes and sizes. If the disease progresses, the bush dies.
It is impossible to cure a charged bush with , but you can minimize the appearance of a streak. To do this, use healthy seeds and prevent fluctuations in air temperature.
The presence of such a disease can also destroy most of the crop. Manifested by the underdevelopment of the plant, the formation of black spots on the fruit. There is because of the infected seeds, so you need to process them well before sowing. Before planting, you also need to sanitize the soil, due to the fact that this type of bacteria lives in it for several years.
All of the above types are the most common diseases of tomatoes and its seedlings.
Some types of disease can simply scare the gardener, and can lead to the complete loss of all the bushes of tomatoes at once.
Dangerous for tomato seedlings in the home:
- White leaf spot
- Brown leaf spot
- Black Bacterial Spot
- Necrosis stem
- Alternariaor macrosporioz
- Chloratic curl of tomato leaves
- Gray rot
- Root rot
- Bacterial wilt
- Brownlivkovaya spot( Cladosporium)
- Gangrene Gangrène
- Black Root Rot
- Blossom rot
- cracked fruit
- yellow or green spot at the stem
- Silvery spots on tomato leaves
Why suffer tomatoes
- inappropriate dressing .Most of all, a surplus of nutrients in the soil is reflected in tomatoes. It is better not to feed them than to overfeed. They begin to spin leaves. The trunk of the plant thickens, many shoots appear. All this hinders the normal development of the fruit.
- Bad conditions of .For normal growth tomatoes require abundant watering, good ventilation.
- Viral infections.
- Wind. Wind can cause improperly stored herbicides.
Signs of lack of basic batteries
|Lack of what element of||Signs of lack of|
|Nitrogen||The leaves turn completely yellow, without streaks of a different color|
|Potassium||On the leaves - blackened edges. In fruits, it appears low in sugar( becomes sour).|
|Iron||The upper leaves turn yellow with green veins.|
|Boron||Bad fruit ovary|
|Calcium||Presence of gray or brown top|
|Magnesium||in fruits The yellow leaves with red streaks turn yellow.|
|Manganese||Symptoms are similar to mosaic disease, but manifest from the upper leaves near the roots.|
Because of what leaves
Lovers of tomato cultivation often wonder about the presence of yellow leaves in plants.
There are reasons for this trouble:
- Root system violation .Occurs due to lack of space for the roots to grow. The roots of closely spaced bushes are intertwined and can not breathe.
- Supercooling .A sharp drop in temperature leads to yellowing or blueness of the entire bush.
- Damage to the roots .Manifested by the presence of yellow lower leaves. It happens because of soil loosening or transplanting. The plant quickly returns to normal.
- Insufficient watering.
- Excessive humidity.
- Lack of nutrients.
- Fusarium wilt .A fungal disease in which the root first falls ill, then the stem. When running cases, the moisture is not absorbed by the plant begins to wilt. The appearance of the fruits of a small underdeveloped size.
Pests and descriptions of how to combat them.
When a whitefly is detected, you can simply touch the leaves and a swarm of white insects will rise from them. The main harm bring the larvae.
Fighting a pest is possible with special adhesive tapes. Also washing the leaves with soapy water to remove sticky plaque. An effective way to fight is water infusion from the roots and leaves of dandelion, as well as an infusion on water from garlic.
Thrips capped the tops of the plants and feed mainly on inflorescences, spoiling the fruit ovaries. Detected fairly easily due to the characteristic spots of the light color .Do irreparable harm.
Get rid of the pest is quite difficult, they are poorly amenable to treatment with insecticides. You can destroy if you spray "Fitoverm", "Karate", read the description in advance at home.
Garden moth has the look of a pest butterfly. Harm is caused by the deposited larvae, the presence of which can be found on the back of the leaves. If there are a large number of them, then seedlings can eat entirely .
For preventive maintenance, it is necessary to destroy weeds and pluck the leaves on which the larvae of the garden shovel are found.
Aphid is a small pest located on the leaves of a plant and sucking juice out of it. With a large accumulation of aphids, the bush may die.
Insecticide treatment will be required to remove aphids.
Wireworm lives in the ground and spoils the roots of plants .If damaged, the tomato bush dries.
To get rid of this pest before planting tomatoes, potato tubers are buried in the ground. After a couple of days, they are dug up and burned.
Characterized by voracity. is dangerous for both adult individuals and the larvae of .Lives in wet soils rich in humus.
For the prevention of onions buried in the ground, spoiled food. Since it does not tolerate unpleasant odors. Also afraid of loud sounds, so put special noise turntables. Also used chemical protection: splash on the plant "Medvetoks", "Thunder", "Grizzly."
Colorado potato beetle
The Colorado potato beetle, as well as its larvae , feed on the leaves and stems of tomatoes .To combat it, use a manual collection( if the amount is small).For a large lesion, spraying is carried out with the drugs: “Commander”, “Iskra”.
Tomato is inherently unpretentious plant. But his diseases and pests can discourage the cultivation of this wonderful vegetable. Nowadays, there are a sufficient number of all kinds of drugs to combat them to help grow a good crop.