Cucumber - one of the most popular crops, which is in demand among the population all year round. For planting, development and abundant fruiting of cucumbers, they need a certain microclimate, which is easiest to create and maintain in the greenhouse. Many gardeners prefer polycarbonate for building a greenhouse.
Strong, durable, easy to assemble - such designs will protect the beds from wind, cold and heavy rain, save plants from the scorching sun, and you can grow vegetables in them 9 months a year.
Table of contents
- When is it best to plant cucumbers in a greenhouse?
- The greenhouse for planting cucumbers should be properly prepared
- Soil preparation for sowing
- Pattern and correct planting
- You can plant in the greenhouse with seeds, or you can seedling
- How to solve problems during cultivation, how to careLack of power
- Wrong watering, insufficient or frequent
- Plants wither in the daytime
- Crooked fruits
When is it best to plant cucumbers in a greenhouse?
If there is a heating system in the greenhouse and additional lighting, it is necessary to sow the seeds in time for the end of March - beginning of April. After the emergence of seedlings, before the formation of the first leaf, light day inside the greenhouse must be extended to 14-16 hours per day , until the growth finally gets stronger.
In an unheated greenhouse, seedlings are planted in early May( hereafter we will consider a specific area - the suburbs).To grow viable seedlings, we must first observe the temperature regime. The air temperature during the day should reach + 22 + 25 ° С, and at night + 16 + 20 ° С.The land should be well heated - up to + 15 ° + 18 ° С at a depth of 10 cm. It is necessary to start growing seedlings a month before planting it in a greenhouse at a permanent place. You can not give seedlings to outgrow - it depresses the root system.
Seedlings are ready for transplanting into a greenhouse, if there are from 3 to 4 well-formed leaves on the stem, 1-2 tendrils, the stem is strong, the root system is sufficiently developed.
You can sow seeds directly into the ground .In this case, the plant will not expend energy on adaptation after transplantation and is guaranteed to avoid possible damage to the roots. But this method is better to apply in regions with a warm climate or use seeds of cold-resistant varieties.
The greenhouse for planting cucumbers should be properly prepared.
These works begin in late autumn. First of all, the tops, leaves and roots left over from last year’s plants are carefully selected from the ground. Then they carry out an inspection and necessary repair of the greenhouse itself. Disinfect it to eliminate pests. For this purpose, a chlorine solution is prepared from 350-400 g of powder, which is dissolved in 8-10 liters of water and infused for 3 hours. The resulting solution is treated with the entire inner surface of the greenhouse - the frame and other available structural elements.
Above the beds at a height of about 2 m, the ropes in the horizontal direction are tightened or supports are attached with cords dangling from them. In the future, the young cucumber branch, which already has 5-6 leaflets, which will have reached a length of about 30 cm, will need a garter. In greenhouses, a plant is usually formed into a single stem. Hanging a cucumber vine will significantly increase yields, greatly facilitate the care of the crop, ensure timely and fast picking of vegetables, save space.
Soil preparation for sowing
In the fall, the ground needs to be completely changed or its upper layer is about 5 cm thick. A lot of pathogens accumulate in it over the season. The soil is treated with a solution of copper sulfate( 1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water).This amount is enough for processing 20-25 square meters.m square. You can apply a solution of lime( 20g to 6 liters of water) or potassium permanganate( 6g to 15 liters of water).
Organic and mineral fertilizers are spread on the soil surface per 1 square meter.m:
- 20-25 kg of manure;
- 30-40 g of potash fertilizer;
- 30-40 g of phosphate fertilizers.
If the acidity level of the soil is higher than 6.5 PH, bring 200-400 g of lime per 1 square.m of soil. After that, you need to dig up the ground to a depth of 30 cm.
In the spring, beds are filled with a new layer of soil consisting of a mixture:
- 5 parts of peat;
- 3 pieces of humus;
- 2 parts turf soil.
Cucumber prefers loose soils enriched with organic matter. On 1 square.m of soil will require 10-15 kg of manure or compost, which are made 14 days before planting. At the same time on 1 square.m beds are distributed:
- 2 tbsp.lwood ash;
- 2 tbsp.lsuperphosphate;
- 2 kg of ready-mix “Exo”.
These components are spread in an even layer on top of the ridge, then buried into the ground with a rake to a depth of 12 cm.
Scheme and proper landing
Planting seedlings only at first glance is simple. In fact, there are features, given that we will get the opportunity to grow cucumbers and care for them. Usually in a greenhouse with dimensions of 3x6 m beds are arranged so as to provide convenient access to them: 90-100 cm wide, the width of the tracks between them is 50 cm, and the distance between plants is from 20 to 40 cm. The following scheme is often used. In the center there is a bed of 90-100 cm wide. On both sides of it there are 40-50 cm walkways. The beds stretch along the walls 50 cm wide. Thus, we have 4 rows of plants: 2 of them on the central ridge, one row along the walls. However, such a scheme is not a dogma, it can be edited depending on the specific conditions - the size of the greenhouse, its shape, ceiling height, etc.
The holes for planting seedlings are staggered in .Their depth should be sufficient for handling the plant along with an earthy clod. At the bottom of each hole poured a little mixture, including:
- humus( compost or peat) - 300-500 g;
- superphosphate - 5-10 g;
- Potassium salt - 5-10 g.
A bed is spilled with warm water at the rate of 1 l per cucumber vine. In the prepared well seedlings are planted, sprinkled with soil, and then mulched on top of peat.
It is recommended to plant seeds in a greenhouse, or seedlings.
Most often, gardeners first grow seedlings, and then plant them in the ground, using small containers. Using ready-made peat pots will simplify transplanting.
Seeds are prepared for sowing. They are disinfected in a solution of potassium permanganate and dried on a napkin.
Wood chips are scalded with boiling water and left to cool. The bottom of the wooden box is covered with a layer of sawdust 3-4 cm thick. Above distribute the prepared seeds and sprinkle them with the remaining chopped wood. The box is installed in a warm place, periodically moistening sawdust. When sprouts hatch, they can be planted.
Each pot is filled with soil mixture( peat and sawdust in a ratio of 3: 1), leaving 2 cm incomplete. Then they spread sprouted seed and cover it with a layer of 1-1.5 cm above the ground. The soil should not be swampy but well moistened.
Air temperature for seed germination is + 26 + 28 ° C.In a week, the first shoots will appear. For about 20–23 days, 3-4 leaflets form at the plant.
Seed in soil seed reaches a depth of 2-4 cm .In one well put 2-3 seed. It is possible to make furrows on the bed with a depth of 1-1.5 cm and distribute the seeds in them, sprinkling with soil mixture from above.
How to solve problems when growing, especially the care of
To avoid mistakes when growing cucumbers, you need to know them "by sight".Consider the most common.
Greenhouse planting rules
Too high a planting density will deprive plants of the amount of light and air they need. On 1 square.m place 2-4 plants.
Air vents need to be opened only alternately on one side of the greenhouse. Cucumbers do not tolerate drafts. Airing is required if the temperature inside the greenhouse exceeds + 30 ° C.
Quality of planting material
Be sure to check the change, lowering them in 5% salt solution. Empty, unsuitable seeds will float to the surface. The correct copies will sink to the bottom.
Lack of nutrition
Drying, yellowing leaves, ovary falling away, cessation of development. .. We add mineral fertilizers that stimulate the growth of culture.
Improper watering, inadequate or frequent
Lack or excess of moisture will affect the decline in yield .Before flowering, cucumbers are watered abundantly at room temperature. During flowering, watering is halved. When the ovary appeared, watering is resumed in the same amount. When cucumbers are fruitful, the ground should be constantly moist.
Plants wither in the afternoon
The reason is low air humidity. It is necessary to irrigate the soil abundantly and install water tanks without closing them with lids.
This is due to too high air temperature, insufficient or irregular watering, lack of food. If the cucumbers are pear-shaped, then potassium sulfate( 1 tbsp per 10 liters of water) must be added as a top dressing. Cucumbers are like carrots - the plant lacks nitrogen. It should be poured with diluted mullein( 1:10), bird droppings( 1:20) with urea( 1 teaspoon per 10 liters of water).
Agricultural work is physical, cyclical, and seems to be endless. Growing cucumbers in a greenhouse made of polycarbonate minimizes plant care, and makes work a pleasure: you can always build fresh cucumbers and family business on the table.