Content of the article:
Everyone's favorite vegetable culture peas refers to legumes. Peas are grown because of its beneficial properties. The composition of the culture contains vegetable protein, which is easily digested. It contains 23 types of various minerals and trace elements and has antiseptic and anthelmintic properties in the green bean stage. Growing peas in the open field is available in all areas of agriculture.
Requirements for Growing Peas
Peas are an annual crop. It is grown in short stump forms and as a culture with a long stem, requiring support. Fruit bean, with seeds developing inside. The origin of the plant is Asia and the Mediterranean. Cultivated peas on all continents.
Pea varieties are classified by production target. So, there are varieties intended for the production of dry grain by industrial means. Other varieties of legumes are used for preservation or fresh consumption. Therefore, there are shelling, sugar and semi-sugar species of this plant. But besides that, the varieties differ in additional features:
- in the form and weight of the grain;
- maturation rate;
- stem length.
Sugar peas in a green bean does not have a hard layer and can be completely recycled. Shelling varieties of peas are used to collect ripe grain, they have a parchment layer necessarily. For country growing the best varieties will be such as Sugar, Senator, Gloriosa.
According to the speed of ripening, the early varieties are considered when peas ripen in 60-70 days. Mid-season varieties need to fill up to three months, the latter have a longer period of cultivation. You can sow peas on a plot with different ripening terms and constantly feast on a tasty and healthy product.
If the peas are tall, how to tie up the peas is decided on the situation. It can be planted along the fence of the grid and support is not required. The old and proven method is the stamens of twigs to each plant. It is rational to pull the mesh along the row.
The plant is very cold-resistant, the seeds germinate at low positive temperatures. Young shoots withstand frosts up to 7 degrees, but only for a short period. For seedlings, seeds need a lot of moisture, so it is optimal to sow peas early in moist soil. Seeds need to be sealed to a depth of not less than three centimeters so that they are not pecked by birds.
Planting and caring for peas in the open field is not difficult. The crop itself is undemanding to the soil, but on fertile land with the addition of superphosphate and potassium salt, the yield of peas will be higher.
The plant itself is a source of fertilizer. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria on its roots create a supply of nitrogen in nodules. When plowing this culture, in compost, it enriches the composition with nitrogen in digestible form.
During the period of emergence for the plant it is important that the earth be without a crust and the roots can breathe. During growth, peas are demanding of moisture. Pouring beans and simultaneous flowering on tall varieties require constant moisture and will not give up mineral supplements. Standard bushes give crop at the same time. Green beans are harvested when the peas are poured into them, and the pod itself is still bright green. Repeat collection every 3-4 days.
In order to have a useful product throughout the summer peas can be sown with a period of two weeks before the beginning of June. Since peas do not develop well at high summer temperatures, they are not sown at the height of summer. Is it possible to plant peas in July, summer residents ask. Yes, it is sown in the second half of July, and then the lowered temperature of the approaching autumn meets its needs. Harvest green pods harvested in September.
Harvesting peas for seed is easy. Usually there is a separate section where the blades are not removed. But over the summer, this area is treated against pests and diseases in order to remove healthy seeds. The collected blades are well dried in the sun and stored in a linen bag in a cool place without peeling.
Feeding and pest control
Peas are attractive to many pests and may suffer from various fungal diseases. In order to grow peas as a productive, healthy crop, you need to be careful not to allow the development of the problem. If the soil is well filled with fertilizer since spring, then during flowering it is enough to add 30 grams of nitrophoska per 10 liters of water to the irrigation water. The rate of watering is 5 liters per square meter. The soil before dressing should be wet.
Chemical insecticides should not be used to control pests after flowering. Ordinary folk remedies infusion of onion peel, celandine, garlic infusion should help in the early stages of insect colonization. In extreme cases, you can apply fitoverm or biological products. Fitotsid-R + is a drug approved for use in personal farms.
The main pests of peas are:
- pea moth that damages the pods of medium and late ripening periods;
- pea weevil hibernating in the seeds, and therefore need to process the seeds in saline;
- acacia fireworm, which is moved to the peas from closely spaced landings.
To combat these pests can be preventive and crop rotation. The ubiquitous melon aphid damages peas, which can only be dealt with at the very beginning of settlement, until it has organized huge colonies. Fungal lesions of peas can lead to the death of the plant. Leaf plates and fruits are affected by Anthracosis and Ascochitis. Root decay at thick planting and overmoistening of the ground without loosening will destroy the plant quickly. False and powdery mildew will also lead to death if not dealt with at the onset of the disease.
Prevention and crop rotation are measures to combat disease. Peas in one place can not be grown for more than two years. If during the growing season the plant has turned yellow, lost foliage, such stems cannot be sent to the compost heap. They should be destroyed by burning, because a hundred often plant diseases are common, transmitted only by spores.
It is important to carry out preplant preparation of the earth and seeds. Before pouring the beans, plants can be treated with fungicides based on copper preparations as a preventive measure.