Power regulator for soldering iron by hand - schemes and mounting options

Power regulator for soldering iron by hand - schemes and mounting options

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Soldering iron models in shops are numerous - from cheap Chinese to expensive ones, with a built-in temperature regulator, even soldering stations are sold.

It's another matter whether the same station is needed, if such work needs to be done once a year, or even less often? Easier to buy inexpensive soldering iron. And someone at home has kept simple, but reliable Soviet tools. A soldering iron, not equipped with additional functionality, heats up to full, while the plug in the network. A disconnected, quickly cools. The overheated soldering iron can ruin the work: it becomes impossible for them to firmly solder anything, the flux quickly evaporates, the sting is oxidized and the solder slips from it. Insufficiently heated tool and can at all spoil details - because of the fact that the solder does not melt badly, the soldering iron can be restrained back to the details.

To make the work more comfortable, you can assemble by yourself a power regulator that will limit the voltage and thereby prevent the soldering iron from getting too hot.

Content

  • 1Regulators for the soldering iron with their own hands. Overview of installation methods
    • 1.1Possible types of installation in the case: plug, socket, station
  • 2Variants of circuits depending on the power limiter
    • 2.1Diagram with circuit breaker and diode
      • 2.1.1Assembling the two-stage regulator by weight
      • 2.1.2Regulator with a switch and a diode - step by step and visually
    • 2.2Regulator on thyristor
      • 2.2.1Assembling a thyristor (triac) regulator on a printed circuit board
      • 2.2.2Scheme with a low-power thyristor
      • 2.2.3Scheme with a powerful thyristor
      • 2.2.4Assembling the thyristor regulator according to the above diagram into the case - visually
      • 2.2.5Assembling and checking the thyristor regulator (overview of parts, mounting features)
      • 2.2.6The circuit with a thyristor and a diode bridge
    • 2.3Triac Controller
      • 2.3.1Assembling the triac controller according to the diagram in the following steps
    • 2.4Triac Triac Controller
    • 2.5Power controller with triac on microcontroller
  • 3Recommendations for verification and commissioning
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Regulators for the soldering iron with their own hands. Overview of installation methods

Depending on the type and set of radio components, the power regulators for the soldering iron can be of different sizes, with different functions. It can be assembled as a small simple device in which heating stops and resumes by pressing a button, and dimensional, with a digital indicator and program control.

Possible types of installation in the case: plug, socket, station

Depending on the power and tasks, the controller can be placed in several types of housing. The simplest and most comfortable is the plug. To do this, you can use a charger for the cell phone or the case of any adapter. It only remains to find the handle and place it in the wall of the case. If the soldering iron housing allows (there is enough space), you can place the board with the parts in it.

This power regulator is always with the soldering iron - it can not be forgotten or lost

Another type of housing for simple controllers is a socket. It can be either single, or be a tee-extension. In the latter it is very convenient to put a pen with a scale.

The case is convenient for placing a board with parts
On the site of one and the sockets is a switch handle with a scale

Variants of mounting the regulator with a voltage indicator can also be several. Everything depends on the cleverness of the radio amateur and fantasy. This can be as an obvious option - an extension cord with an indicator mounted there, as well as original solutions.

The counter on the case gives exact figures for works where a strictly defined temperature is important
The board is fixed inside with screws

You can even pick up a kind of soldering station, install a stand for the soldering iron on it (you can buy it separately). When installing, do not forget about the safety rules.Details need to be isolated - for example, by heat shrink tubing.

Variants of circuits depending on the power limiter

The power regulator can be assembled according to different schemes. In general, the differences are in the semiconductor part, the device that will regulate the supply of current. It can be a thyristor or a triac. To more precisely control the operation of the thyristor or triac, a microcontroller can be added to the circuit.

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You can make a simple regulator with a diode and a switch - in order to leave the soldering iron in working condition for some (possibly long) time, not letting it cool down or overheat. The rest of the controls give the opportunity to set the temperature of the soldering tip more smoothly - for different needs. Assembling the device by any of the schemes is done in a similar way. In the photographs and videos, examples are given of how you can assemble a power regulator for a soldering iron with your own hands. On their basis it is possible to make the device with the variations you need personally and according to your own scheme.

Thyristor- a kind of electronic key. Passes current in only one direction. In contrast to the diode, the thyristor has 3 outputs - a control electrode, an anode and a cathode. The thyristor is opened by applying a pulse to the electrode. Closes when changing direction or stopping the supply of current flowing through it.

Thyristor, its main components and display on circuits

Triac, or triac - a kind of thyristor, only in contrast to this device, two-sided, conducts a current in both directions. It is, in fact, two thyristors connected together.

A triac, or triac. The main parts, the principle of operation and the way to display the diagrams. A1 and A2 - power electrodes, G - control gate

In the power regulator circuit for a soldering iron - depending on its capabilities - include the following radiodetals.

Resistor- serves to convert voltage to current and vice versa.Capacitor- the main role of this device is that it ceases to conduct current as it discharges. And begins to spend again - as the charge reaches the desired value. In regulator circuits, the capacitor serves to turn off the thyristor.Diode- semiconductor, an element that passes the current in the forward direction and does not pass in the opposite direction. Subspecies of the diode -zener diode- used in devices for voltage stabilization.Microcontroller- a microcircuit, through which electronic control of the device is ensured. There are different degrees of complexity.

Diodes do not conduct current in the opposite direction
This designates the diode in the circuits
Zener diodes are used to stabilize the voltage
The capacitor is mainly used to turn off the thyristor
The appearance of the resistor and the way it is displayed on the diagram
The microcontroller enables the program control of the device

Diagram with circuit breaker and diode

This type of controller is the easiest to assemble, with the least amount of detail. It can be collected without a fee, in weight. The switch (button) closes the circuit - all the voltage is applied to the soldering iron, it opens - the voltage drops, the temperature of the sting too. The soldering iron remains heated - this is a good way for the standby mode. Suitable rectifier diode, designed for a current of 1 ampere.

The easiest to install the controller

Assembling the two-stage regulator by weight

  1. Prepare parts and tools: a diode (1N4007), a switch with a button, a cable with a plug (this can be cable soldering iron or extension cable - if there is a fear to spoil the soldering iron), wires, flux, solder, soldering iron, knife.
  2. Clean, and then zaludit wires.
  3. To fill the diode. Solder the wires to the diode. Remove the excess ends of the diode. Wear heat-shrinkable tubing, heat treatment. You can also use an electrical insulating tube - cambric. Prepare the cable with the plug in the place where it is more convenient to mount the switch. Cut the insulation, cut one of the wires inside. Part of the insulation and the second wire left intact. Strip the ends of the cut wire.
  4. Position the diode inside the switch: minus the diode - to the plug, plus - to the switch.
  5. Twist the ends of the cut wire and wires connected to the diode. The diode must be inside the gap. The wires can be soldered. Connect to terminals, tighten screws. Assemble the switch.

Regulator with a switch and a diode - step by step and visually

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Regulator on thyristor

Regulator with power limiter - thyristor -allows you to smoothly set the temperature of the soldering iron from 50 to 100%.In order to expand this scale (from zero to 100%), a diode bridge should be added to the circuit. The assembly of the regulators on both the thyristor and the triac performs in a similar way. The method can be applied to any device of this type.

Example of mounting a thyristor controller on the board

Assembling a thyristor (triac) regulator on a printed circuit board

  1. Make the wiring diagram - to outline the convenient location of all the parts on the board. If the board is purchased - the wiring diagram is included.
  2. Prepare parts and tools: a printed circuit board (it must be done in advance according to the scheme or purchased), radio components - specification for the circuit, nippers, knife, wires, flux, solder, soldering iron.
  3. Place parts on the board according to the wiring diagram.
  4. Bite off the excess ends of the cutters.
  5. Lubricate the flux and solder every detail - first resistors with capacitors, then - diodes, transistors, thyristor (triac), dinistor.
  6. Prepare the body for assembly.
  7. Strip, zaludit wires, solder to the board according to the wiring diagram, install the board into the chassis. Isolate the connection points of the wires.
  8. Check the regulator - connect to an incandescent lamp.
  9. Assemble the device.

Scheme with a low-power thyristor

Thyristor of low power is inexpensive, takes up little space. Its peculiarity is in increased sensitivity. To control it, a variable resistor and capacitor are used.Suitable for devices with a power not exceeding 40 W.

Such a controller does not require additional cooling

Specification

Name Notation View / Denomination
Thyristor VS2 KU101E
Resistor R6 SP-04 / 47K
Resistor R4 SP-04 / 47K
Capacitor C2 22 mph
Diode VD4 KD209
Diode VD5 KD209
Indicator VD6

Scheme with a powerful thyristor

The thyristor is controlled by two transistors. The power level is regulated by resistor R2. The regulator, assembled according to this scheme, is designed for a load of up to 100 W.

The regulator is optimal for loads up to 100 W

Specification

Name Notation View / Denomination
Capacitor C1 , μF
Transistor VT1 KT315B
Transistor VT2 KT361B
Resistor R1 , kOhm
Resistor variable R2 100 kΩ
Resistor R3 , kOhm
Resistor R4 , kOhm
Resistor R5 30 kOhm
Resistor R6 100 kΩ
Thyristor VS1 KU202N
Zener VD1 D814B
Rectifying diode VD2 1N4004 or KD105B

Assembling the thyristor regulator according to the above diagram into the case - visually

Assembling and checking the thyristor regulator (overview of parts, mounting features)

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The circuit with a thyristor and a diode bridge

Such a devicegives the ability to adjust the power from zero to 100%.The scheme uses a minimum of details.

On the right is a voltage conversion diagram

Specification

Name Notation View / Denomination
Resistor R1 42 kOhm
Resistor R2 , kOhm
Capacitor C1 10 mx 50 V
Diodes VD1-VD4 KD209
Thyristor VS1 KU202N

Triac Controller

The regulator circuit on a triac with a small number of radio components.Allows you to adjust the power from zero to 100%.The capacitor and the resistor will ensure the accurate operation of the triac - it will open even at low power.

As an indicator in such a power controller, the LED
Name Notation View / Denomination
Capacitor C1 , μF
Resistor R1 , kOhm
Resistor VR1 500 kOhm
Dinistor DIAC DB3
Triac TRIAC BT136-600E
Diode D1 1N4148 / 16B
Light-emitting diode LED

Assembling the triac controller according to the diagram in the following steps

Triac Triac Controller

The circuit of such a controller is not very complicated. At the same time, the load power can be varied in a fairly large range. At a power of more than 60 watts, it's better to put a triac on the radiator. With less power, cooling is not necessary. The method of assembly is the same as in the case of a conventional triac controller.

With a smaller load power, the triac can be taken weaker
A sample of mounting a regulator on a triac with a diode bridge on a printed circuit board
Triac Controller - Mounting Case

Power controller with triac on microcontroller

The microcontroller allows you to accurately set and display the power level, to ensure automatic shutdown of the regulator, if it does not work with it for a long time. The way of mounting such a controller is not significantly different from the installation of any triac controller. It is soldered on the printed circuit board, which is pre-made. It is very important to put the correct firmware.

Such a controller can replace the soldering station

Specification

Name Notation View / Denomination
Capacitor C1 0.47 uF
Capacitor C2 1000 pF
Capacitor C3 220V x 6.3 uF
Resistor R1 22 kΩ
Resistor R2 22 kΩ
Resistor R3 1 kΩ
Resistor R4 1 kΩ
Resistor R5 100 Ohm
Resistor R6 47 Ohm
Resistor R7 1 MΩ
Resistor R8 430 kOhm
Resistor R9 75 Ohm
Triac VS1 BT136-600E
Zener VD2 1N4733A (5.1v)
Diode VD1 1N4007
Microcontroller DD1 PIC 16F628
Indicator HG1 ALS333B

Recommendations for verification and commissioning

Before assembling, the assembled regulator can be checked with a multimeter.You only need to check with a connected soldering iron, that is under load. Rotate the resistor knob - the voltage changes smoothly.

In the regulators, collected by some of the schemes presented here, there will already be light indicators. They can be used to determine if the device is working. For the rest, the simplest test is to connect an incandescent bulb to the power regulator. The change in brightness will clearly reflect the level of the applied voltage.

Regulators, where the LED is in series with the resistor (as in the scheme with a low-power thyristor), can be adjusted. If the indicator is not lit, you need to choose the resistor rating - take it with less resistance, until the brightness is acceptable. Too much brightness can not be achieved - the indicator will burn.

As a rule, the adjustment with a properly assembled circuit is not required. With the power of an ordinary soldering iron (up to 100 W, average power - 40 W), none of the regulators, assembled according to the above schemes, does not require additional cooling. If the soldering iron is very powerful (from 100 W), then the thyristor or triac must be installed on the radiator in order to avoid overheating.

Radiator will prevent overheating of the device

The power regulator for the soldering iron can be assembled by hand, focusing on its own capabilities and needs. There are many variants of regulator circuits with different power limiters and different controls. Here are some of the simplest of them. A small overview of the enclosures in which you can mount the parts will help you choose the format of the device.

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