The history of beans is almost 7 thousand years. It belongs to the legume family, currently more than 250 species are known, but about 20 of them are most often used, including climbing ones. Culture has a rich history owing to no less rich, very useful composition: a complete set of vitamins, a huge range of micro and macro elements, fiber, carbohydrates, fats, pectin and vegetable protein, so important for a person, whose content is second to meat! What kind of beans we learn from the article.
Table of contents
- Types of beans
- Growing spray beans
- String or green
- Grade curling
- Asparagus or vegetable
- Shelched( grain)
Types of beans
There are many different types and varieties of this crop, but for everyone there are general rules for growing and care. Any type of bean is thermophilic, so seed should be planted in the first half of May, when the soil warms up to 12-14 degrees. For a quicker seed shoot, it is recommended to soak overnight in water, and just before sowing - for 5 minutes in a solution of boric acid. This will strengthen the seedlings, increase crop yields.
Growing bush beans
This type looks like small bushes up to 60 cm high. It can grow in the shade of tall trees, between currant bushes, gooseberries, but it is impossible to shade too much - it will affect the yield. Planting depth - not more than 2 cm, otherwise the seeds will die during the swelling in the soil. The plant loves fertilized with humus soil, responds well to fertilizing with nutrients. It can be planted fairly densely - rows at a distance of 30 cm, between seeds - 4-5 cm.
Sprouts require double hilling for greater stability. From the moment of emergence of shoots to ripening of tender green beans it takes about 55 days. Pods, edible, very delicate in taste, fiberless, especially in sugar varieties.
Green or green
The Italians were the first to guess that it was used in unripe pods from Europeans. Dishes from green or yellow pods of French beans have a surprisingly delicate taste, very low calorie content - only 25kkal / 100g of product, rich in vitamins and trace elements( more than in grains), although the protein content is inferior to dry grains. String beans gives excellent yields .Its use for the body is also difficult to overestimate:
- helps to improve digestion;
- lowers blood sugar levels;
- high levels of sulfur has a preventive effect in infectious diseases of the intestine;
- fiber, protein, carbohydrates, trace elements have a beneficial effect on the state of the body, in particular, improve the structure of hair and skin.
. The following characteristics are common to them:
- unpretentiousness and high growth rate, which makes it possible to blossom and bear fruit from mid-June until the onset of cold weather;
- variety of shapes and colors of inflorescences, pods, grains;
- soil enrichment with nitrogen.
Regular collection of pods throughout the summer stimulates the formation of new ovaries. With a small occupied space, the curly view of this culture gives an excellent harvest, if you tie it in time, it performs a decorative function, so it can be planted at the fence, gazebos, under the balcony. Growing conditions and beneficial properties are the same as in other types of culture.
Asparagus or Vegetable
This is a relatively recently bred variety of beans for use exclusively in the green( immature) form. The pods are green or yellow in color( depending on the variety), thin, 12-15 cm long, very delicate taste, juicy, sugar flesh, without coarse fibers. The bushes are low - from 30 to 70 cm, compact, but, despite the size of the plant, they yield up to 1 kg of beans per season.
It is customary to divide all varieties of beans into sugar and semi-sugar. Sugar plants are intended for eating pods that have a circular cross-section filled with a gel-like substance. The semi-sugar pods are flatter, the jelly is much smaller than the first ones. Such varieties are universal: pods and grain are suitable for use.
In order to have a good harvest all summer long, it is necessary to plant different varieties according to their ripening terms - from early ripening varieties( 65 days from germination to technical ripening) to late( 100 days).Small bushes do not need props, are resistant to cold, early ripening.
In addition to the usual green and yellow string beans, the plants with dark purple pods have taken root well in the gardens: the Bluehild variety( Germany), the Purple King( Austria), etc.pods reach a length of 10 cm, the color immediately changes to purple.
If you compare these two varieties, the pods of Bluhilda are more fleshy, but before the maturation of the sash grows coarse, fibers appear. Grains of beige color, oily, very tender and tasty, quickly crush. The beans of the Purple King are flat, less fleshy, but without the parchment layer, they are as good as the first. In the process of cooking change color to green.
For example, in central Russia, grains of such varieties do not ripen, and the pods, even in the early stages of ripening, have a dense fibrous structure that is not fit for human consumption.
But, of course, if you grow them in a warm climate zone, you can get an excellent harvest of very nutritious, saturated with vitamins and minerals, with high protein content of grains.
The most common varieties: Ballad, Ruby, Golden, Barbara, Generous, etc. They are valued for their high yield and taste.
What color are the beans?
Grains of such beans have a milky-white color, a solid structure. The main advantage of white beans - high protein content - 20%. In terms of its benefits to the body, it is comparable only to beef protein, and, moreover, is deprived of animal fat, which makes it difficult for people to assimilate such vital matter.
- removes slags and toxins;
- reduces the level of bad cholesterol in the blood;
- has a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular system;
- can be used during diets, as it is saturated with nutrients at low calorie( 120kkal / 100g).
Red grains are low-calorie( 94kcal), contain a large amount of vitamins B6, B12, B1, A, C, E, PP, amino acids, lysine, arginine, magnesium, calcium, iron, copper, zinc, etc. Thanks to this richchemical composition of red beans has a beneficial effect on the functioning of many organs and systems of the human body - nervous, circulatory, gastrointestinal, strengthens the immune system, improves the condition of hair, teeth, skin.
The benefits of black grains are enhanced by an even greater concentration of all the ingredients that make up them.
Black grain is most often found in Latin American dishes, has a sweet taste and smoked flavor. Black beans are the most rich in chemical composition, nutritional and medicinal values, they occupy the first place among products of plant origin. Suffice it to say that black beans are the most useful food for the prevention of cancer and diabetes.
As can be seen, the benefits of this product can not be overestimated. Consuming beans at least twice a week in different forms - salads, first courses, main dishes, etc.- will certainly have a beneficial effect on your body. Even outwardly, it will become noticeable - velvet skin, shiny hair, beautiful nails are provided to you with regular use of beans in general and black - in particular.