- bone propagation
Kumquat, golden orange or kinkan is an attractive roomNoah plant with tropical fruits orange. Kumquat at home looks aesthetically attractive, resembles a small tree or bonsai with evergreen crown. Useful properties and taste of the fruit is not inferior to the famous citrus. If necessary, the plant can be shaped as a shrub, the height of which will depend on the size of the pot. At home, an exotic tree will be pleasing to the eye if it is provided with suitable conditions.
Description of the plant
The kumquat first appeared on the territory of China, and later became widespread in Europe and America. In the wild, the size of the tree reaches 4.5 m, under room conditions - no more than 1.5 m.
The dense crown is strongly branched, the branches are densely covered with small smooth leaves of dark green color. When growing kumquat at home, the flowering period begins in April or the end of May and lasts up to 50 days. Flowers have a pleasant aroma, are painted white with a pale pink shade, can be located, both in inflorescences, and one by one.
60 - 90 days after flowering, the plants begin to bear fruit. Fully ripening occurs at the beginning of spring. During this period, the tree looks especially attractive. The fruits are similar to small oranges weighing up to 30 g, the peel is thin, has a bright orange color. The taste is sour pulp, and the skin is sweet, so you can not remove it.
Kumquat varieties suitable for home growing
Almost all kinkan species found in nature are also suitable for self-cultivation. The most popular with specialists and amateurs are several varieties.
The most common form that is actively used by designers and growers. Brings sweet fruit, in size and configuration resembling olives. Nagami has several subspecies:
- Variegatum. Differs original stripes on the fruit, after maturation, the decorative effect disappears.
- Nordmann. Seedless variety of plants.
Often Nagami is used in the art of bonsai.
A Japanese variety of kumquat, is a small spiny shrub. The fruits are oval-shaped, painted in a golden-orange shade. Possess a noble, sweet taste. Marumi tolerates frost well, so it can be grown outside in the southern regions.
Dwarf variety with high decorative properties. Quite large yellow-orange fruits are similar to lemons, with slightly sour taste. The plant is low, has oval leaves and dense crown, which can decorate any interior.
This variety is characterized by the largest and sweetest fruit with a thin skin. Thick branched crown will be an excellent option for use in greenhouses and winter gardens.
Before you buy a tree, you need to learn how to care for your kumquat. For cultivation in room conditions are suitable not only varieties of kinkan, but also various hybrids of some citrus and kumquat: with mandarin( calamondin), lemon( lemonquat), lime( limequat) and others.
Kumquat at home: growing and care
Proper plant maintenance requires care and labor. Like any citrus fruit, it is very sensitive to adverse conditions, therefore it needs increased attention and regular care. The capricious kinkan is attractive and brings a lot of fruit. In spite of all the difficulties, growing a cumvat at home will be a fascinating and enjoyable experience.
Location and lighting
To install the flowerpot, the sunniest place in the apartment is selected - window sills, located on the west or south side. When placed at the window looking to the east, the tree will live, but slowly develop and bear little fruit. In summer, the plant will need stray light and protection from direct rays. You can take it to the balcony or to the street.
Suitable temperature indicators in the summer are 25 - 28 degrees, in the winter +10 - +12.Extreme heat or, conversely, hypothermia should not be allowed. During the cold season, the plant should be kept quiet. To do this, it is located in a cool place, while watering is reduced. This will help prepare the kumquat home plant for further development, flowering and crop formation.
If the wintering place is warm, the tree will need more light. A warm microclimate coupled with poor lighting will result in leaf fall. After that, the plant is difficult to recover.
Humidity and Irrigation
The tree loves high humidity, grows faster and bears fruit better under favorable conditions. It is enough to place it in a wide pan with wet expanded clay, spray it with water or use special air humidifiers. Adult plants are useful from time to time to get a bath under the shower, as well as wiping the leaves with a damp sponge.
Home care for kumquat is not complete without regular heavy irrigation. Water must be defended and soft. Hard flowing moisture will have to be acidified slightly for 1 - 2 days before watering, so that all harmful salts are precipitated. It is important to monitor the acidity of the soil, which should be almost neutral.
The season depends on the frequency of watering: in the summer heat, the plant often needs to be moistened, in winter it is much less common. The need for watering can be found on the condition of the soil. If it has dried more than 4 cm, it is time to use soft or acidified water. In cold weather at temperatures up to +10 degrees, spillage is performed once a month.
The tree does not tolerate a deficiency and an excess of moisture. Flooded roots are prone to decay, overdried soil will lead to the death of the kinkan. The excess water that has leaked onto the tray is completely drained after half an hour.
Pruning and Transplanting
Trees and shrubs grown from seeds are sometimes high and branched. To form a beautiful crown and maintain its presentable appearance, trimming of kumquat is carried out. The procedure is repeated annually in spring time. The tips of the shoots are carefully removed so that the crown will take the shape of a semicircle. Pruning is performed not only for aesthetic purposes, but also activates the growth of new branches, which has a beneficial effect on yield.
Kumquat, which bears fruit, needs to be transplanted 1 time in 2 - 3 years. It should be produced before the growth of new shoots - at the end of winter or at the very beginning of spring. The process consists in transferring the plant along with a clod of soil, while it is important not to touch the fragile root system.
After transplanting, the pot is placed in a place sheltered from the rays of the sun. Kumvat is sprayed with water every day.
Without regular nutrients, the plant will not bear fruit, so it is important to consider this aspect of care. Based on several factors, the frequency of feeding application is detected:
- age and kinkan condition;
- features of the soil in which the tree grows;
- flowerpot sizes.
If the pot is small, then fertilizer should be used more often. At the stage of active growth, potash and phosphate dressings are applied every 10 days. In winter, the procedure is reduced to 1 time per month.
Fertilizers are important for normal kinkan development, as well as for high yields. A suitable amount per 1 liter of water is:
- potassium chloride - 1/8 tsp;
- ammonium nitrate - ¼ tsp;
- superphosphate simple - 0.5 tsp.
Some growers dealing with the problem of how to grow kumquat at home, have a positive effect after making an infusion of wood ash.
Kumquat is propagated by several methods:
- ringing sprouts;
The last two methods are difficult to implement, so only experienced growers can do it. Beginners are advised to pay attention to two other methods. Consider each of them in more detail.
Reproduction of bone
Considered the most affordable and popular way. Growing a kumquat from a stone at home is a real task, but the tree will grow for a long time, and the first fruits will appear on it only in the 10th year.
A fresh seed is soaked in a root solution for several days, then it is planted in the central part of the pot to a depth of 1.5 - 2 cm. A universal soil consisting of sand and black soil will be suitable for planting. The seed is watered with plenty of water, the excess of which is drained from the pallet. The pot is covered with a piece of glass or plastic wrap, then placed in a well-lit, cool place.
After a couple of months, shoots appear with 4 - 5 leaves. After this change is made in a larger pot. It is necessary to care for citrus kumquat, as well as for adult trees.
The procedure will require a 10-centimeter sprig of a healthy plant. On the handle should be placed a few leaves, cut from top to bottom along an oblique line. It should be done in April, before the flowers appear. Otherwise, the seedling will take long and root.
For effective reproduction of kumquat with cuttings, a sprig is covered with a special growth stimulator. The surface of the lower cut sprinkled with wood ash, then the stalk is planted in a suitable container with the ground and covered with a glass vessel. The pot is located in a well-lit place, periodically conducted airing and watering. After 2 months the plant is fully prepared for rooting.
To create a cut when growing kumquat at home, you must select an shoot up to 20 cm in length on an adult plant. In the middle of the sprout, two cuts are made at a distance of 1 cm from each other. The bark is carefully removed, as a result, a bare, round-shaped area is formed on the branch. The foliage under the ring is removed, and a piece of bark is placed in the soil.
A plastic bottle or paper bag is required for screening. The container should be cut into two parts, and cut at the bottom of the hole corresponding to the diameter of the shoot. The branch is placed inside the bottle, and both its parts are sealed with tape. A wet mixture of peat and sand is poured into the tank. It is important to ensure that the soil does not dry out.
Over time, a new rhizome forms on the branch, and after a couple of months, the shoot can be cut and removed from the bottle. Kumquat is transferred to a new pot.
This method will require plant seedlings that are 1 cm thick. Experts recommend kumquat grafting on a stock poncirus or grapefruit.
The procedure is carried out at the stage of active growth and movement of juices along the shoots. After 1.5 months, the eyes take root, and the shoots located above the grafting are cut to complete the design of the crown.
Kumquat grown in this way begins to bear fruit a little later, but the development of the tree is much faster. Grafted plants are highly resistant to various negative factors.
Pests and Diseases
Kumquat has the same diseases as all citrus fruits. The main pathological signs include:
- spots on the leaves;
- blizzard shoots;
- change the color and shape of foliage;
- drying out.
The plant often suffers from a bacterial or fungal infection, but it is quite realistic to cure it. Existing fruits and buds are removed so that the kumquat does not lose strength. After this, multiple treatment with fungicidal preparations is carried out. At the stage of treatment, it is important to provide the plant with complete care and care so that it will quickly restore vitality.
The trispes viruses, xyloporosis and some others cannot be cured. In the presence of an unfavorable microclimate, the tree undergoes attacks of spider mites, aphids, scale insects and other pests. You can fight them with the help of special tools.
Kumquat is an attractive plant suitable for growing at home. With proper care, it will be pleasing to the eye and bring healthy fruits with exquisite taste.