Manufacturing and installation of a dimmer with your own hands
The use of a dimmer is resorted to to regulate the intensity of light from an incandescent lamp or other device. A special electronic device allows you to pay much less for electricity and delay the output of lamps. Knowing how the electrician works and the soldering iron works, the dimmer can be assembled by hand.
1Types of dimmers
- 1.1Simple light regulator
- 2Principle of operation
3Create a dimmer yourself
- 3.1Dimmer circuit
- 3.2Component Selection
- 3.3Assembling a self-made device
- 3.4Dimmer on triac
- 3.5Thyristor device
- 3.6Condenser Brightness Control
- 3.7Dimmer on chip
- 4Selection of the finished device
5Connecting the dimmer: how right?
- 5.1Schematic diagram of connection
- 5.2Diagram of dimmer with switch
- 5.3Diagram with two dimmers
- 5.4With two pass-through switches
- 5.5Connecting to a lighting device
- 6Video "Replacement of the switch for dimming"
Types of dimmers
Electronic devices for adjusting the brightness of light are created according to several parameters. The main thing that distinguishes dimmers from each other is the type of execution. According to him, the regulators of light intensity are:
- Modular, that is, used in a switchboard located in a corridor or an entrance;
- interfaced with a switch that is mounted in a special box and forced to work by pressing a button;
- monoblock, used instead of a switch.
The last kind of electronic devices - monoblock dimmers - are divided into types depending on the control method. Therefore, the light regulators are further subdivided into the following devices:
- rotary (equipped with a handle that, if directed to the left, then turns off the light, and when turned to the right, increases the intensity of lighting);
- rotary-push, acting in the same way as conventional rotary, but differing in that they turn on the light only after a slight depression of the handle;
- keyboards, which are devices, one part of which is responsible for the supply and switching-off of light, and the second - for reducing and increasing its brightness.
Essential role in choosing a dimmer is played by the type of lamp, the light from which it is necessary to adjust. For example, incandescent lamps are usually equipped with simple electronic devices that perform their task by changing the voltage. Standard dimmers fit well and halogen lamps, connected to a source of electricity with a voltage of 220 V.
If you need to adjust the supply of light from a halogen lamp operating at 12 or 24 V, you will have to use a more complex device.It is desirable that the dimmer for such a lighting device work together with the step-down transformer. If the device for current conversion is winding, it is recommended to use a dimmer labeled with the letters "RL". And together with the electronic transformer it is more reasonable to use the regulator marked "C".
Lamps with light-emitting diodes require the use of a light intensity regulator of a special kind, that is, a device that modulates the frequency of the current pulse. For an energy-saving or fluorescent lamp, choosing a dimmer is not easy. The most acceptable option is the dimmer, in whose circuit the electronic starter is switched on.
Simple light regulator
It is easiest to put into operation a dimmer, functioning with a dynistor and a triac.The first device is a semiconductor device that performs its task in several ways. In other words, the dinister looks like two connected diode, located opposite each other. A simister is a complicated thyristor, which starts to pass current at the moment the control current is applied to the electrode.
In addition to the dinister and the simister, the simple light regulator circuit includes resistors - constant and variable. Several diodes and a capacitor are also used together with them.
Principle of operation
Dimmer acts in a special way. The process is started after the system is turned on, when an alternating voltage is applied to the charge circuit. When the positive half-cycle of a sinusoidal voltage occurs, a current flows through the resistors and one diode, giving a charge to the capacitor. As soon as the voltage on this element increases to the breakdown rate of the dinister, the current will flow first along the dinister, and then along the control electrode of the triac.
As a result of the passage of current through all points of the circuit, a triac opens. Stepwise connected to it, lighting devices connect to the network and serve rays. Closing of the triac occurs during the passage of the sinusoidal voltage through zero. At the time of the opening of the triac, the active resistance in the charge circuit is affected. By decreasing or increasing this value, you can slow down or speed up the process of opening the triac in any half-period. This leads to a gradual change in the intensity of the supply of light rays.
Create a dimmer yourself
The manufacture of the brightness regulator is started after a careful analysis of the dimmer circuit, which is almost always the same. Changes can only be due to the inclusion of additional elements that make the device work more debugged when the voltage is low or you need to give the intensity control to the intensity Sveta.
The parameters of the circuit elements are influenced by the manufacturer of the device, but this does not particularly affect the operation of the dimmer.In a practical project, it is allowed to include any triacs, but the load force must be taken into account.The voltage should be at least 400 V, since this indicator, if it's instantaneous, can be equal to 350 V.
To build a simple schema, you need the following details:
- triac (for example, VT12-600);
- a diode (1N4148);
- light emitting diode for the information system;
- 2 resistors - variable (500 kOhm) and constant (, kOhm;
- nonpolar capacitor (, μf).
To find a suitable triac, it should be taken into account that its dissipation power can not be less than the intensity of the load. A capacitor is required to function without problems at a voltage of 250 V.
Assembling a self-made device
The construction of the dimmer is the following in turn:
- from a piece of foil-shaped textolite, a printed circuit board with parameters of 3, 5 cm x 2, 2 cm is formed;
- on the prepared piece of material, the drawing of the connections is made, after which holes are made for the leads;
- using nitro-paint, on the board draws the areas where the assembly of the parts will be performed;
- From the surface of a piece of foil-shaped textolite, an oxide film is removed with the help of a solution of ferric chloride;
- Insert the parts into the holes, while the unnecessary ends are cut off, and the contacts are soldered by means of a soldering iron;
- using wires, a resistor with a movable branch contact is soldered to the created circuit;
- The work of the assembled device is tested by connecting an incandescent lamp to it;
- the system is connected to the mains and see if the brightness of the light changes from the lamp when the position of the resistor knob with the movable branch contact changes.
Dimmer on triac
If a light intensity regulator is needed for a device connected to a network with a voltage of 220 V, then a dimmer is used that operates by the principle of phase displacement of the opening of the power key.The main "organ" of this device is the RC chain of a certain denomination.It includes a control pulse creation node, a symmetric dinistor and a triac, which is called a power key.
The operation of the circuit with the triac begins with the formation of a voltage divider - the "product" of the resistors R1 and R2. In this case, the first resistor, being variable, contributes to the voltage variation in the R2C1 chain. Between R1 and R2 there is a DB3 transistor, the task of which is to react to the voltage rise on the capacitor C1 and send a pulse to the triac VS1. This power key opens and receives an electric current, thereby regulating the operation of the lighting device.
When in the attic of the house details from already idle TVs and other devices are hidden, you can refuse from buying a triac. Instead, to make a standard dimmer, it's more reasonable to use thyristors.The circuit with the use of these elements has a noticeable difference - consists of a number of thyristors, which are necessary for the formation of half-waves. This means that each separate power din is connected to a separate dinistor.
The regulation of the brightness of light by a thyristor dimmer begins with the creation of a chain between the elements of the circuit R5, R4 and R3, which charge the capacitance C1 in the period of obtaining a positive half-wave. As a result, a diode V3 opens up, which supplies an electric current to the control electrode V1. Then, a key is opened, which carries the positive half-wave through itself. When the phase is negative, the thyristor is closed and another key is received, which receives a charge from the chain R1, R2, R5.
This version of brightness control is not suitable for some lighting devices: lamps with LEDs, fluorescent lights and miniature light fixtures.
Condenser Brightness Control
Condenser dimmer is used as an alternative to a smooth light regulator. This device works by transferring an alternating current depending on the capacity of the tank. A capacitor of large size, naturally, passes a lot of current through its poles. Usually a dimmer of this type is used to build a simple night light that can shine brighter or muffled after pressing the flip switch.
Dimmer on chip
The chip makes the development and installation of the electronic device elementary. Thanks to her dimmer, assembled alone, it turns out to be easy to configure. The voltage on the control electrode of the microcircuit is formed as a result of the operation of the variable resistor R2. At the same time, the voltage of the outgoing electric current can be from 12 V to one tenth of a Volt.
Selection of the finished device
The most popular are dimmers, produced under the name Schneider, Makel and Legrand. The latest electronic devices are created with a power of 300 to 1000 watts. Usually, when choosing a dimmer, attention is paid to the price.
Other important criteria for choosing a dimmer include:
- ease of operation, because one can like a keyboard device, and another - a remote control controller;
- The kind of device that can both be combined and not be combined with the interior of the house;
- brand regulator, as more well-known brands are of good quality and at the same time are sold at an affordable price.
Dimmers of the popular brand Legrand are suitable for any lamps, including lighting fixtures for 220 and 12 V. To determine which regulator is needed for the luminaire, you need to use the following formula: the number of bulbs in a lighting device is multiplied by the power of one light source. For example, for a device with 12 bulbs of 12 V, a dimmer with a power of at least 144 V.
Connecting the dimmer: how right?
Before connecting the dimmer to the network, a wiring layout is selected. Still, the dimmer can be connected as an independent control element or a device with or without a switch. In addition, it is allowed to mount several similar devices at the same time or to use a combination with a pass-through switch.
Schematic diagram of connection
A simple option for installing a dimmer is to connect it to an electrical wiring instead of a switch, which you just need to pull out of the groove in the wall.This way of connecting the dimmer switch means keeping the phase on the break, and grounding and zeroing directly to the lighting device.
Diagram of dimmer with switch
Dimmer, coupled with a switch, is usually installed in the bedroom. This is due to the possibility to extinguish and turn on the light with a standard switch, and adjust the brightness of the lighting without getting out of bed. To do this, the dimmer is mounted near the bed.
Diagram with two dimmers
The installation of two dimmers is resorted to by those who need to control the intensity of light from several points in the room. Each other, electronic devices are connected with a jumper.
With two pass-through switches
Control of the lamp from several sections of the room is also possible through passage switches.
Connecting to a lighting device
If a channel is already made in the wall for the wires coming from the junction box and the lamp, then to connect the dimmer it remains to do the following:
- to de-energize the apartment by lowering the necessary levers in the shield;
- put the mounting box in the finished shtrobu;
- insert cores into the terminals of the housing;
- hide the body in the wall channel;
- unscrew the screws of the device so that the presser feet are fixed in the mounting box;
- attach the frame, which serves as a decorative element, tighten the nut and turn the wheel;
- connect the apartment to electricity and evaluate the functioning of the dimmer.
Video "Replacement of the switch for dimming"
A properly working dimmer can be safely put into operation. The electronic device, if necessary, will make the light in the room muffled to relax, or bright, which will allow you to work or read a book..