Bath at the site - the construction of extremely useful: with friends to sit and heal the body. But that the effect was maximal need good ventilation in the steam room.
If during the construction of this moment is missed, it can suffer and health visitors bath, and structure integrity.
The content of the article:
- Features of functioning of natural ventilation
- How to select a suitable circuit
- How to make air holes for ventilation
- The need for forced-air ventilation
- A few words about the sauna ventilation
- Useful videos on the topic
Features of functioning of natural ventilation
Ventilation of any premises to be organized properly and with respect to the bath is even more important. For this room is characterized by high humidity and sudden changes in temperature. If ventilation is not balanced, the bath, built from natural wood, a couple of years will need serious repair.
In addition, no ventilation in the steam room will be extremely unpleasant and even dangerous for the health of the microclimate: the heavy air, mold, odors and etc. Optimal for the Russian bath is considered a natural ventilation, an organization which does not require costly or complicated construction skills.
As is known, warm air flows generally rise up and cold air downward movement characteristic. On this physical principle, and based action of natural ventilation. Cold air enters through the holes located at the bottom, is heated, rises up and removed through the top openings.
To this ventilation system in the steam room to work, it requires a difference in temperature of the air inside and outside. In normal living spaces with natural ventilation in summer there can be problems, because both in the rooms and on the street are equally hot. But in the bath, due to the specifics of this structure, to provide such a difference is not difficult, since the air during bath procedures are constantly warming up.
If ventilation is thought still in the construction phase, the special air-supply holes are provided at the bottom of the bath, and at the top on the opposite side - exhaust. But a special hole in the wall - not the only option venting baths. For example, in the baths of chopped fresh air can be carried out through the crowns of the walls or just through the door is left ajar for the time of airing.
On the role of the hood vents are suitable, special air holes, and even the chimney of the heating furnace. If ventilation is through special holes, they must be duly completed. To begin with, all the outside such facilities should be covered with a protective grille.
And yet they not interfere with other valves or regulators, which allow to adjust the airflow rate or completely block the vent. The air holes in the steam room is sometimes closed to the room quickly warmed. But then it is necessary to open them for ventilation recovery.
How to select a suitable circuit
If in a residential area is assumed constant air, the baths it is not always convenient, it all depends on the size of the bath and its internal structure. Venting Russian baths carried out by such methods:
- volley ventilation;
- extractor through the chimney;
- the use of special openings.
Volley ventilation - it's a beautiful name for a conventional ventilation. This method is appropriate for a pair of small volume. The idea is to periodically open the windows and doors, thus creating conditions for intensive and short-term ventilation. Of course, to carry out airing during the bath treatment makes no sense.
Ventilate the room in those moments when the steam room is unoccupied, and at the end of the process. For airing just open a window and door to the steam room for a few minutes. During this period, the air inside the room is updated and the surface dry out a bit, and a steam room walls have cooled down, so visitors to bath in the future will not have unpleasant sensations. The possibility of volley ventilation should be provided at the stage of construction of the bath.
Opposite the door should make a window with the window, so that the air exchange is performed correctly. Ideally, the door needs to be done in a corner, and the window is not put in front of and diagonally and as close as possible to the ceiling. To volley ventilation was effective about it you just need to not forget. We warm up, a couple of minutes paid airing and can safely continue the procedure.
Diversion of the exhaust air through the chimney presupposes a stove or other suitable device with flue duct. In such furnaces there ash pit, through which the flow of exhaust air. But for the effective operation of this scheme is necessary to ensure that the room received enough fresh air.
The log cabins specially leave a gap in the lower crowns of the walls, the alternative - a small, 10-15 mm gap under the door to the steam room. If there are no gaps, and do not want to mess around with their organization, just enough to leave the door slightly open in a steam room.
Another important condition for the organization of the hood through the chimney - stove should be lit at all times, otherwise air will not be removed, respectively, and the inflow will be limited. If there is only a bath furnace, designed for short-term inclusion, will have to choose a different way of venting.
Versatile way to build natural ventilation in the bath - do for this special holes - the air holes. In this case, the ventilation will be carried out without interference, and adjust the intensity of the air flow using special dampers or adjustable grilles.
The air in the steam room will be gradually updated. The optimum number of air changes in the area of five or six volumes of the room every hour. Of course, adequate ventilation must be properly designed and constructed that the room was not draft.
So you will need to do two holes: Ventilation and air extraction. Sectional area of the holes should be slightly different, extractor fan in the bath must be greater than the inflow. You can make one supply opening and two exhaust. Location supply and exhaust should be placed on opposite walls and in the corners located diagonally.
In this exhaust port is best done under the ceiling is higher than the upper set of shelves, and air-supply to be at the bottom, about 30 cm from floor level. The influx is best carried out as close as possible to the stove, or even after it, the air flow from the street have time to warm up.
What happens if you ignore these recommendations and make a hole about the same level? Nothing good, that is, draft. air flow will pass through the room very quickly, and fresh air just once leave the steam room. It is clear that the effectiveness of the ventilation is poor.
Do not make the holes for exhaust and inflow on the same wall, it also adversely affect the air exchange. To obtain a sufficient flow of air in the wall of the bath is usually made by a circular hole tube diameter of 100-200 mm. For hoods will need to do a little more opening. It is possible to use a slightly larger diameter pipe or two pipes smaller. The main thing is that the total cross-sectional area corresponds to the calculations.
How to make air holes for ventilation
Installation of ventilation in the bath is made as follows:
- In selected locations bore holes sized to freely pipe or conduit passed into it.
- The space around the pipe sealed so as not to disturb the tightness of the room.
- Outside the opening bars close.
- Inside establish special dampers or adjustable grilles.
It looks simple, but it is worth considering some points. For example, the vents can be done not only round, but also square or rectangular approximately the same cross-sectional area. The baths wooden or plastic instead of steel tubes pose wooden boxes. In this case, the choice of a rectangular configuration of the holes is logical, because this box is easier to do from conventional boards.
Produhi best plan at the design stage, it was not necessary to batter the finished wall. Ventilation holes that go outside, it should be further protect grid for protection against insects. The cross section of the supply air vent in the bath is calculated from the standard 24 sq. see the section for each cubic meter of volume of the ventilated premises.
Thus, for a bath volume of 12 cubic meters. m. The required opening area of 284 sq. cm. If it is intended to make a round hole, its radius is calculated by the inverse circle area formula. The resulting figure divided by 3.14 (the number of "pi"), from the result of the square root.
In our example, we obtain a radius of about 9.5 cm, and its diameter - 19 cm. Strict adherence to the dimensions in this case are not relevant, so the pipe cross-section of 200 mm is suitable. Or it is possible to take two tubes of 100 mm. If the ventilation cross-section is square, sample size was 17x17 cm.
Natural ventilation has advantages. Its installation simple and relatively inexpensive, the operation does not require the cost of electricity and the installation of special devices. The simple design ensures no damage and long service life of the ventilation system.
In winter, due to the considerable difference in temperature inside and outside the steam rod can markedly increase. This may cause a little discomfort due to the fact that the air is too fast. In addition, outside of the bath can also penetrate and smells, not always pleasant. Regulation of air flow allows us to solve problems of this type.
The need for forced-air ventilation
Forced ventilation in the bath is rarely used. Usually it is used in large complexes with a large steam room, swimming pool, etc. A bath in standard sizes such methods used in those cases where, for some reason, natural ventilation does not work very well or not at all works.
To remedy the situation, and to transform natural ventilation in the forced, it is enough to put the supply fan in the corresponding hole or exhaust - on the hood. Both fans do not usually put at the same time, the complex supply and exhaust ventilation is used only for large objects. And in the usual bath sufficient extraction.
If the air is forcibly removed from the premises, fresh streams will take a seat in accordance with the laws of physics. The big bath complexes, a bit more complicated. On such objects initially calculated ventilation rate, ventilation design system and selected suitable power fans.
For a small steam room and a regular fit is not too powerful fan, which can be purchased in the store. Some craftsmen even the master mechanical drawing using the cooler from the old system unit. Here is a simple example of the calculation of the fan power for a typical bath.
Let's say there is room 9 sq.m. with a ceiling height of 2 m. The volume of the room is 18 cubic meters. m. Number of air, recommended for baths, is five. Multiplying the volume of the room to the ventilation rate, we obtain the necessary performance exhaust fan - 90 cu. m / h.
You can use the fan a bit more power, but overly zealous not worth it, otherwise the airflow becomes too intense. If you want to upgrade the mechanical ventilation in the bath, you can set the timer, the device is automatically included in any regular intervals.
Using appropriate sensors, can be configured inclusion ventilation air at the given temperature or humidity. But in ordinary bath such complexity usually unnecessary.
A few words about the sauna ventilation
The above described ventilation options for ordinary Russian baths. The sauna things work a little differently. There is only acceptable or forced ventilation combined. Small saunas more appropriate to the last - namely, mechanical drawing. The main task of venting the sauna - make sure that the cold air stream warms up quickly and smoothly spread throughout the room.
Even a hint of a draft categorically unacceptable, as the effect of soaring lose the charm. Therefore, the supply hole sizes calculated according to the scheme outlined above and itself opening a strictly behind the stove to provide a quick, almost instantaneous heating of air flow.
The exhaust can still be placed in the opposite corner of the room near the ceiling, however, the presence of the exhaust fan, this requirement is not as strict. There are situations where the sauna room has only one outer wall, and through which the intake of fresh air and removal of exhaust air masses.
In this case, it is recommended to make supply opening at about 20 cm from the floor, but it should strictly be located behind the heater. Hood put on the opposite side of the wall all the way - from the ceiling. cold air will warm up and moved circumferentially along the walls of the room is gradually mixed with the rest of the air in the sauna.
This procedure will provide the necessary air and keep the air temperature at an acceptable level. In order to achieve the fastest possible ventilation, use so-called high-speed circuit. Supply opening business as usual - 20 cm above the floor level. At the same level from the floor and put the mechanical hood, only it is mounted on the opposite wall.
Hot air rises to the ceiling of the sauna, where it cools, sinks down along the opposite wall and escapes through the exhaust port. Venting is done quickly, and changes in air temperature is almost not felt.
Most soft fresh air from outside and mixing of heated air mass inside the room can be to achieve, if you set the supply opening at the level of about 50 cm, but still in the immediate vicinity of heater. Put the hood from the floor at a height of 20 cm. aeration rate in this embodiment is somewhat less than when using other schemes.
Useful videos on the topic
Detailed and interesting information about the principles of venting steam outlined here:
Undoubtedly, the ventilation is needed bath. Only with proper air bath procedures really bring visitors to health a real benefit, and the owners of buildings will be spared the additional costs to combat mold and current repairs.