USSR disintegrated long ago, many plants have upgraded or completely replaced production line, produces household appliances. But some engineering projects still amazed by its reliability, in spite of the non-ideal operating conditions.
One such example is a refrigerator ZIL - truly "neubivaemaya" technique, which now can be found in the kitchens of our apartments or villas. What is the secret of this longevity? Try to understand.
The content of the article:
- Production history ZIL refrigerators
- The reasons for the popularity of ZILOV
Structural features of the different models
- №1 - the first bird "ZIS" DH-2
- №2 - an advanced "ZIL Moscow" KX-240
- №3 - a rectangular "ZIL-62" SH-240/26 **
- №4 - "transitional" variant "ZIL-63"
- №5 - representative of the "transition" line "ZIL-64"
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Production history ZIL refrigerators
The starting point for the start of production of domestic compression refrigerators working on freon, is considered Resolution of September 07, 1949., In which the order was created by the design office at the Moscow plant named J. AT. Stalin.
It is here that the drawings for manufacture of small 85-liter units have been designed and prepared "Saratov" and more capacious 165 liter ZILOV.
For the first time the famous refrigerators left the assembly line in April 1950, but because of their "native" automobile plant was named after Stalin, and instruments logo formed from the acronym "ZIS-Moscow", and since 1956, when the company was renamed to "Likhachev Factory", its products began brand ZIL
The prototype for the first refrigerator "ZIS-Moscow" served as a sample of the pre-war USA. One of the "premiere" of devices, among other things, was presented to Brezhnev and got on a very high score.
But in a difficult post-war period the people were unable to buy expensive equipment - the first plant there were serious problems with selling, but after a couple of five-year plans of all the products has been painted for many years forward.
more than 5 million have been collected at the plant Likhachev. "ZIL", but after the collapse of the Union appeared on the market by foreign manufacturers.
With them, the domestic equipment was unable to compete because of the disruption to the financing of new developments and improper marketing policy.
To hold out afloat, management was to lower the quality of products, "a blind eye" to the various defects, which had an immediate impact on consumer demand.
Today, the former multi-kilometer industrial zone enterprises were only a few buildings have been renovated and converted into a car center with showrooms
In 2016, the legendary ZIL plant celebrated its centenary, but his reinstatement production capacity is already out of the question - most of the shops were demolished for the construction of a new residential neighborhood.
The reasons for the popularity of ZILOV
The main secret of longevity of Soviet refrigerators - high quality of all parts, From housing materials to all components.
For a long time, these instruments belonged to the elite technology available is not for everyone: one-third of the issued volume of production is exported, the same was sold in Moscow, and the rest is sold at the shipping instructions for the high-ranking officials from various Cities Alliance.
Advantages of the "ZIL" refrigerators:
- stylish (at that time) Appearance;
- quality assembly;
- thick-walled sturdy body;
- durable, adjustable, does not absorb odors and is easily washed shelves;
- loyalty to the voltage drops in the network;
- easy disassembly and high maintainability.
Each product goes through strict quality control. Even a fully serviceable unit could be rejected if there is only minor scratches or minor irregularities in the weld material body.
But on the other plants producing refrigerators, such nuances are not considered a defect.
The high standards apply to all detail. There are cases when a defective whole cars with blanks in which spots or abnormalities on the surface of the color were discovered.
Do not pass control components redirected to other, less "fussy" plants. Such a tough stance was the main reason for the brand "ZIL" has long been considered the most reliable manufacturer of refrigerators in the Union.
Structural features of the different models
At the plant Likhachev has created several lines ZILOV, each of which has its undeniable merits at that time.
Of course, not without its flaws, but on term operation Soviet refrigerators are left far behind modern appliances, and many of them are faithfully serving their owners until now. We consider in detail the lineup ZILOV.
№1 - the first bird "ZIS" DH-2
The flagship of the company going at the plant from 1951 to 1960. The first "swallow" KB plant them. Lihacheva had a small freezer with 8 l volume, evaporator made of stainless steel and reliable capacitor.
Housing with rounded corners and streamlined forms was made of welded steel 8 mm thick and protected from corrosion by a layer silicate enamel. The characteristic "highlight" of the model - solid handle, which could be used as a lock.
Displacement of the first cooler DF-2 was 165 l, but had a fairly compact dimensions: the height was 133 cm with 67 cm width
But the "first attempt" of the plant had an impressive and disadvantages:
- The freezer temperature is not maintained normalized (even before claimed indicator device -6 ° C in hot climates not stretched).
- In the production of huge amount of metal used.
- Sam unit was massive, heavy and take up much space in the kitchen.
- At that time, the volume of 165 liters was considered unreasonably high (the consumer demand for the model in 85 l was much higher).
But over time, when people appreciated the benefits of storing food in the refrigerator instead of shopping bags outside, the lack of not only turned into a virtue, but also provided the impetus for the development of a more capacious instruments.
These refrigerators was released a little - about 50 thousand per year. Today, this model is equivalent to the rarity technology.
The case when Kazakhstan was able to sell the unit for nearly 1 million. tenge, but rather, it is a fluke than an adequate price of the device.
№2 - an advanced "ZIL Moscow" KX-240
The second model of the plant. Likhachev produced in the 1960-1969 biennium, the production volumes increased significantly due to the already high demand and the best advertising -. Positive customer feedback.
Refrigerators of this line had a total volume of 240 l, and the low-temperature separation capacity increased to 29 liters.
The company produces annually about 120 thousand. "ZIL" KX-240, and it is this model became the first Soviet refrigerator, sent for export to other countries
In addition to increasing the useful volume in the modernized "ZiL" 4 duralumin shelves for dishes of various sizes, illuminated and lacquering it was provided.
Also, there are trays of eggs, storage of oil and "nests" under the bottle. At the bottom of the refrigerator was installed retractable metal tray of fresh vegetables / fruits, and other refrigerated products.
The temperature in the freezer compartment of a refrigerator maintained by the operation of the thermostat with manual override degree of cooling
Moreover, the designers fixed the many deficiencies of the previous model and increased shelf life due to the provisions set for STS temperature of -10 degrees.
The doorway was sheathed plates of plastic, and as heat-insulating material is to use a thin fiberglass.
A sealed closure provided an elastic rubber seal mounted on the perimeter of the inner door wall, and the trigger lock.
№3 - a rectangular "ZIL-62" SH-240/26 **
In the third "ZiL" model significantly changed the appearance of the unit. It turned out that despite the attractive rounded lines, the device allows a compact design does not place it on a small Soviet kitchens.
Therefore, the body shape has acquired a rectangle with clearly defined right angles.
Labeling with two asterisks mean that new models of refrigerators Zil-62 freezer capable of maintaining the temperature at -12 degrees
At the same time the volume of the device remains the same - 240 liters, but new models can be installed in the same block kitchen set, and use the top surface as a shelf (with the previous form of objects constantly sloping fall).
Furthermore, a rubber seal on the door was replaced by a magnetic, which today is used in almost all refrigerators, and the width of the housing is given to the standard - 60 cm.
- Outdated compressor model, the famous loud "soundtrack" at work.
- Low quality thermal insulation, which is not allowed to significantly reduce the wall thickness of the housing and led to the appearance of snow "coat" in the freezer.
- Shelves, which made it difficult to keep the products in non-standard containers.
- The new "traumatic" handle design with sharp edges.
In addition, the developers have not managed to eliminate the basic manufacturing problems of previous versions - a large metal consumption and complexity of manufacturing.
№4 - "transitional" variant "ZIL-63"
With the advent of the Soviet market the first two-door models "Minsk" and "Oka" with the system avtoottaivaniya and increased to 300 liters in volume, the demand for "ZIL" fell sharply.
Therefore, the design bureau of the plant. Likhachev was commissioned to create three-chamber design of the refrigerator, which could compete not only with domestic but also foreign devices.
One of the prototypes of three-chamber "ZIL-65" with the electric system and a working volume of 600 liters, which never entered into mass production
Design new instruments developed together with the relevant institutions, and the license of the American brand Tecumsen was purchased to replace outdated compressor.
But, as it turns out, the plant industrial facilities were not ready to translate promising project to life - he "Stalled" as soon as it became clear that it would take the construction of the new plant and the purchase of a production line for scarce then currency.
Therefore, on the basis of the new development model was released enhanced comfort - "ZIL-63" SH-260/26 **, which is assembled at the plant until 1988
Although the instrument was conceived as a transitional model to launch a fundamentally new refrigerator, strong demand and excellent profitability, "delayed" its production for 12 years.
Guide staged high sales, so promising developments have been put aside.
In refrigerators "ZIL-63" was first applied technology "hanging pens", which could be installed for left or right hand opening
In "Zyl-63" was established compression refrigeration unit, and a compressor with asynchronous motor start winding fastened Sprung and hiding under the casing.
Advantages of the new line:
- improved insulation;
- reduction of noise - engine compartment of the device became close with sound-absorbing shield;
- shelves made of metal rods, comfortable height-adjustable in steps of 3 cm;
- increase in the useful volume of 20 liters;
- the ability to "override" the door to a comfortable side;
- lightweight detachable handle suitable length.
In addition, the device has been supplemented by numerous elements of comfort - a small shelf for small products Butter and cheese tray for 15 eggs Peak Limiter of opening doors to 105 degrees.
And also adjustable rollers for transporting, shape icemaker, a container with a glass lid to preserve fresh fruits and vegetables.
The disadvantages can be counted among the rest of the manual defrosting, reliable and durable, but outdated compressor, which continued to be manufactured at the plant.
But the stubborn use of backward technologies and the termination of the continuous improvement of its product away "palm" in "ZIL" refrigerators.
№5 - representative of the "transition" line "ZIL-64"
Since 1988, the market received the upgraded model of "ZIL-64" SH-260/30, which were issued before 2001.
In these refrigerators have appeared automatic defrosting function, improved foam insulation and the possibility of reducing the freezer temperature to -18 degrees.
NTO volume was increased to 30 dm3, It appeared separating plastic shelf for the rational distribution of products.
The innovative cooling and defrost system with the output of melt water from the chamber in refrigerators "Zil-64" - analog current «NoFrost»
But to compete with foreign manufacturers of these devices for a long time could not, so their production was halted.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Despite its reliability and build quality, "old" ZILy also fail.
But here they have a slight advantage over modern technology: devices can be easily disassembled himself, and consumables are inexpensive, though, after so many years may experience problems with their buying.
More information about famous refrigerators - see our 'video.
History of the Soviet brand of refrigerators "ZIL":
Replacing the thermostat in "ZIL-64":
As an old instrument is stylish rarity - restoration "ZiL" body:
Despite its glorious history, "ZIL" model is outdated and can not be compared with modern refrigerators or on roominess or on quiet operation, no defrosting on ease.
But if you have such a curiosity, not in a hurry to part with it - some of the workshops offered by the modernization of services old devices and will be able to turn your "ZIL" in a stylish flair that decorate the interior of the villa or apartment in vintage style.