The climate of Siberia is characterized by rapid temperature changes not only during the year, but in spring and early summer between night and day heat distribution. Grapes do not like drastic changes, so the taming of the plant with varying success went for forty years. Currently, a way to introduce grapes in the gardens of Siberia. Caring for grapes in summer in Siberia differs from its cultivation in the southern regions.
Features of agrotechnics of Siberian grapes
Features of growing grapes in Siberia are associated with the early onset of winter. At the same time, the twigs do not have time to get ready, the full-value lignification has not yet occurred. As a result, under any shelter bush freezes. Therefore, over the years, the accumulated experience has developed in several postulates;
- breeding only early and zoned varieties;
- during the season the plants should be hardened;
- fertilize with nitrogen fertilizer to limit;
- grow one fruit-bearing vine from a bush;
- to regulate fruit load during budding and filling;
- systematically work on the green bush during the summer;
- pruning vines only in the fall, twice;
- shelter, snow retention, spring opening of bushes - according to the specific climatic conditions.
All recommendations are based on the practical implementation of grapes in Siberia, first by the agronomist V. K. Nedin from the Altai village of Belokurikha, then by amateur gardeners from Biisk. Together, they developed agrotechnics of growing grapes in Siberia, called the CER-1 and CER-2.According to their recommendations, only new hybrid varieties should be used and hardening of bushes should be carried out, reducing care activities to a minimum and forcing the bush to independently fight for survival. However, not all of their recommendations are applied by gardeners. With the participation of specialists, a slightly different scheme of agricultural engineering was developed, not excluding the feeding and processing of plants.
If the bush overwinters and leaves the return frost, the vine is preserved, you will need to find a middle ground between getting the crop and putting the plant into the winter prepared, harden it. Therefore, during the summer the bush is raised.
To do this, limit the application of nitrogen fertilizers. They cause the growth of green mass, and the task of the gardener to limit the growth of the vine. Fertilizers with mineral phosphate and potash fertilizers for grapes are required. It is necessary to replenish the removal of nutrients. Therefore, two times per season during the pouring of the berries, foliar feeding must be carried out with a full complex fertilizer, necessarily in a soluble form. Root top dressing, by the way, is also made only by soluble forms. A good effect is spraying with wood ash extract. The question of how to feed the grapes in July is decided in favor of the filling and taste of the fruit. Potassium monophosphate and wood ash will be the best fertilizer mixture.
Fertilizing without the use of nitrogen fertilizers allows you to ripen wood earlier and gain berry flavor. For the same purpose, the plant is formed into one vine, which allows all the forces of the plant to be used to form the crop. Vine grazing, chasing, pinching of growth points are aimed at successful fruit ripening in a short period and getting the vine prepared for winter. This is the rationing of the crop. Video for the care of the vineyard will help to carry out work on the green sheet.
Embossing and pinching can be done only after the brush has been formed, leaving 15 leaves after it to be poured. The grazing and removal of overgrowth of vines is carried out systematically.
How often to water the grapes, the question of the method of growing crops. If the bushes are planted separately, the wells for watering have a recess. Shrubs can grow in a trench in which a ditch runs. Watering the plantations along the ditches is performed three times per season, starting after tying the berries and stopping after pouring. When watering a trench water consumption of 50 liters per square plantation. Other gardeners with cluster cultivation recommend watering at the same time, but with a bucket of water a week. In both cases, the soil is mulched.
You can not water the grapes during its pollination and after the berries poured.
Siberian grapes are in more favorable conditions due to the fact that pests and diseases have not yet become satellites of the vine. But if preventive treatments are not carried out, the diseases will come. Therefore, the treatment of sulfur preparations, which suppress mildew and odium, belongs to the complex of measures against fungal diseases. Sulfur treatment is carried out two months before brushing.
spinach What does a gardener decide to process grapes in July? If yellow spots appeared on the leaves with a gray blotch on the back side of the leaf, you can treat with baking soda and potassium permanganate, since the berries cannot be saturated with copper solution. But after removing the crop, treat the vines and soil around the bush with copper-based fungicides.
Against insects in early summer should be treated with bushes Aktellik, a systemic drug. This drug will be indispensable if, following poor quality planting material, dangerous phylloxera grape aphids will be settled in the region. This pest can settle on the roots as well as in the aerial parts, inhibiting and weakening the plant. From other local leaf beetles to help traditional biological products and folk remedies. Will not do harm, only the use of biological preparations Shining, EM-1 Baikal will help the plant. These drugs will protect the plant from diseases and pests. You can apply them at any stage of the growing season, at air temperatures above 10.
In the northern regions of Siberia, where summer is very short, growing one arm in human height, annual renewal of one fruit link and replacement bitch is the way out. With this cultivation, all the power of the bush is aimed at the formation of new shoots. Therefore, staining in the summer becomes the only way to keep the formed vine and get an early harvest. Only the sleeve is insulated in the winter, the vine is removed in two steps in the fall.