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What is most important for a mushroom picker who goes to the forest for a "quiet hunt"? No, not at all a bowl (although it will also be needed), but knowledge, especially as to which mushrooms are poisonous, and which can be safely put in the basket. Without them, a foray into the forest delicacy can smoothly go on an urgent trip to the hospital, or even more - it will turn into the last walk in life. To avoid the dire consequences, we offer you a brief information about dangerous mushrooms, which can not be cut off in any case. Look closely at the photos and forever remember how they look. So, we begin.
The most dangerous fungus is the pallid grebe
Among poisonous mushrooms, the first place in terms of toxicity and frequency of poisoning with fatal consequences is occupied by a pale toadstool. Its poison is resistant to heat treatment, besides it has a belated symptomatology. Having tasted mushrooms, the first day you can feel quite healthy person, but this effect is deceptive. As time goes by to save lives, toxins are already doing their black work, destroying the liver and kidneys. From the second day the symptoms of poisoning are manifested by headache and muscle pain, vomiting, but time is lost, and in most cases a fatal outcome occurs.
Even just for a moment touching the edible mushrooms in the basket, the poison of the toadstool instantly absorbs into their hats and legs and turns harmless gifts of nature into a deadly weapon.
The grebe grows in deciduous forests and looks (at a young age) slightly resembles mushrooms or green herbs, depending on the color of the cap. The hat can be flat with a slight convexity or in the form of an egg, with smooth edges and ingrown fibers. The color varies from white to greenish-olive, the plates under the cap are also white. The elongated pedicle at the base expands and is "chained" into the remnants of a bag-pouch that hides a young fungus underneath, and has a white ring on top.
In the toadstool at the breaking point, the white flesh does not darken and retains its color.
Such different fly agarics
Even the children know the dangerous properties of fly agaric, in all tales it is described as a deadly ingredient for the preparation of a poisonous potion. It turns out that everything is not so simple: a red-headed mushroom in white spots, as everyone saw it in the illustrations in books, is not a single copy at all. Besides him, there are still quite a few varieties of fly agaric that are completely different from each other. It is noteworthy that some of them are very edible, for example, the Caesar fungus, ovoid and blushing amanita. Of course, most species are still inedible, and some are simply dangerous to life and include them in the diet is strictly prohibited.
The name "fly agaric" is made up of two words: "flies" and "morals that is, death. And without explanation it is clear that the fungus kills flies, namely its juice, which is released from the cap after strewing it with sugar.
To the deadly-poisonous species of fly agaric, which represent the greatest danger to humans, are (in parentheses given a second name):
- Poisonous (red). It grows in the forests under birches and firs. Ball-shaped hat is often bright red, although there are also orange varieties. Throughout the surface there is a rich scattering of large growths, however, they are weak and they are washed off after the rain. Dense white flesh, with a barely perceptible mushroom flavor. The white leg is tall, strong and powerful, with the remains of a hat in the form of flakes (also white).
- Panther (leopard). It inhabits among the pines, it has a characteristic spotted hat with a brownish color and white outgrowths. The pulp is white, watery, smells like a fresh radish. The leg is cream colored, in the lower part it is twice ringed, the walls are rather thick, but inside they have a hollow space.
- White smelly (often referred to as mushroom picker white toadstool). It grows among the hills in the deciduous-coniferous forests, it is distinguished by the specific white coloration of the whole mushroom body and the sharp smell of bleach, for which it is named. The surface of the bonnet most often shines, but sometimes large white flakes are visible on it. The long stem is almost always curve, with a tuberous base.
- Bright yellow (lemon). It grows mainly on sandy soil. The owner of a yellow hat with a smooth skin, sometimes it shows rare white flakes. The light leg is squat and fragile, with a thick ring below.
A small but deadly torn mushroom
Its name was given to the poisonous mushroom for its peculiar structure: often its bonnet, the surface of which is covered with silky fibers, is decorated with longitudinal cracks, and the edges are torn. In literature, the fungus is better known as fiber and has a modest size. The height of the foot is slightly more than 1 cm, and the diameter of the hat with a protruding tubercle in the center is a maximum of 8 cm, but this does not prevent it from remaining one of the most dangerous.
The concentration of muscarin in the flesh of the fiber exceeds the red fly agaric, with the effect being noticeable after only half an hour, and during the day all symptoms of poisoning with this toxin disappear.
A beautiful, but "fucking mushroom"
This is the case when the name meets the content. False false mushroom or fucking mushroom in the name of people dubbed such an indecent word - little that it is poisonous, so also the flesh is bitter, and the smell produces simply disgusting and not at all mushroom. But it is thanks to its "fragrance" that it is no longer possible to get into the confidence of a mushroom picker under the guise of a russule, which is very similar to puff.
The scientific name of the fungus sounds like "gabeloma adhesive".
There is a growing pile everywhere, but more often it can be seen at the end of summer on the light edges of coniferous and deciduous forests, under an oak, birch or aspen. The hat of the young fungus is creamy-white, convex, with the edges tucked down. With age, its center bends inward and darkens to a yellow-brown color, the edges remain light. The skin on the bonnet is beautiful and smooth, but sticky. The bottom of the cap consists of grayish-white plates attached to the young vale, and dirty yellow from old specimens. Corresponding color has a dense bitter flesh. The leg of the false puffing is quite high, about 9 cm. At the base broad, further upward is sated, covered with a white coating, similar to flour.
A characteristic feature of the "fucking mushroom" is the presence on the plates of black inclusions.
The poisonous twin of the summer smells: a sulfur-yellow chill
Everyone knows that honey agarics grow on stumps in amicable flocks, but there is among them such a "relative which externally practically does not differ from delicious mushrooms, but causes severe poisoning. This is a false sulfur yellow jelly. Poisonous counterparts live in small groups on the remains of tree species almost everywhere, both in forests and in clearings between fields.
The mushrooms have small hats (maximum 7 cm in diameter) of a gray-yellow color, with a darker, reddish, center. The pulp is light, bitter and smells bad. The plates under the hat are densely pinned to the foot, they are dark with the old mushroom. The light leg is long, up to 10 cm, and even, consists of fibers.
To distinguish between "good" and "bad hairspots" is possible on such grounds:
- the edible fungus has flakes on the hats and legs, they do not have a false test;
- "Good" mushroom is dressed in a skirt on the leg, the "bad" does not.
Disguised as a moth, the Satanic mushroom
The massive leg and dense flesh of the satanic mushroom make it look like a white fungus, but eating such a handsome man is fraught with severe poisoning. Bolt satanic, as this species is called, tastes pretty good: you do not smell, or characteristic bitter mushrooms.
Some scientists even consider a bollet to conditionally edible fungi if it is subjected to prolonged soaking and prolonged heat treatment. But to say exactly how many toxins contain boiled mushrooms of this kind, nobody takes it, so it's better not to risk your health.
Externally, the Satanic mushroom is rather beautiful: a dirty white bonnet fleshy, with a spongy bottom of yellow color, which eventually turns red. The shape of the leg is similar to the real edible furovik, the same massive, in the form of a keg. Under the bonnet, the leg is thinned and painted yellow, the rest is orange-red. The flesh is very dense, white, only at the very base of the stem is pinkish. Young mushrooms smell nice, but old specimens emit a hideous smell of spoiled vegetables.
To distinguish the satanic calf from edible mushrooms, you can cut the flesh: on contact with the air, it acquires a red color first, and then it turns blue.
Pigs - mushrooms similar to mushrooms
Disputes about the edibility of pigs were stopped in the early 90's, when all kinds of these fungi were officially recognized as dangerous for human life and health. Some mushroom pickers still continue to collect them for eating, but do not do it in any way case is not worth it, because swine toxins are able to accumulate in the body and the symptoms of poisoning are not manifested immediately.
Externally poisonous mushrooms are similar to mushrooms: they are small, with squat feet and a fleshy rounded head of dirty yellow or gray-brown color. The center of the hat is deeply concave, the edges are wavy. Fruit body in the section is yellowish, but it quickly darkens from the air. Growing pigs in groups in the forests and plantations, especially like the wind-blown trees, located among their rhizomes.
There are more than 30 species of pig's ear, as mushrooms are also called. All of them contain lectins and are capable of causing poisoning, but the most dangerous is recognized as a thin pig. The hat of the young poisonous fungus is smooth, dirty-olive, eventually becomes rusty. The short leg has the shape of a cylinder. At the breaking of the mushroom body, a distinct smell of decaying wood is heard.
No less dangerous and such swine:
- Olkhovaya. The cap is brownish-yellow with small scales, the edges are slightly pubescent, the funnel is shallow. Leg short, narrowing downwards.
- Thick. The velvet brown hat is quite large and looks like a tongue. Leg slightly hairy, almost always attached not in the center, but closer to the edge of the hat. The flesh is watery, odorless.
- Ear-shaped. A small leg merges with a hard hat in the form of a fan of dark yellow color with a brown tinge. It grows on coniferous stumps and decks.
Along the roads and roadsides, slender mushrooms grow in abundance on tall thin legs with flat, wide-open hats that resemble an umbrella. They are called umbrellas, because the hat actually opens and becomes wider as the mushroom grows. Most varieties of umbrella mushrooms are edible and very tasty, but there are among them poisonous specimens.
The most dangerous and often occurring poisonous mushrooms are such umbrellas:
- The comb. The redish flat hat of an adult mushroom in the center has a slight bulge, the entire surface is covered with rare orange scales, similar to scallops, and on the edge there is a light fringe. Leg is hollow, thin, yellowish in color, in young mushrooms it is ringed, but the ring is quickly torn.
- Chestnut. It is distinguished by a darker, almost brown, cap color and a large number of brightly expressed scales, also of a dark color. A similar color has a long leg with a reddish flesh.
Mushrooms ryadovki number many varieties, there are among them as edible and very tasty mushrooms, and frankly tasteless and inedible species, and still there are very dangerous poisonous ryadovki. Some of them resemble their "harmless" relatives, than they easily deceive inexperienced mushroom pickers. Before you go to the forest, you should look for a partner in your partner who knows all the subtleties of the mushroom business and knows how to distinguish "bad" ranks from "good".
The second name of the rioters is golovushki.
Among poisonous govorushke one of the most dangerous, capable of causing a lethal outcome, are considered such ryadovki:
- Whitish (it is also discolored). The content of toxins is faster than the poisonous fly agarics, in particular, red. It grows on lawns. Young mushrooms have a slightly convex white bonnet, with time it is leveled, and in old ryadovok turns out in the opposite direction. White is a low, thin leg and a fibrous flesh that does not darken after cutting.
- Tiger (she's also a leopard). It grows on calcareous soils among conifers and hardwoods. The gray hat is bent downward, there is abundant, darker scales all over the surface. The plates under the hat are also white and thick. Leg slightly lighter, monophonic, without flakes, narrowed down. The flesh is dense, slightly yellowish, and produces the smell of flour.
- Pointed (it is also murine or burning-sharp). It grows in coniferous forests, characterized by the presence on the hat of a characteristic sharp top and a shiny gray skin. Leg is long, white, "at the root" yellow color appears (more rarely - pink). Fruit body is white, odorless, but with a very sharp taste. Do not try!
Bile fungus: inedible or poisonous?
Most scientists consider bile fungus to be inedible, because even the forest insects do not dare to taste its bitter flesh. However, another group of researchers is convinced of the virulence of this fungus. In the case of eating thick flesh in the food does not occur, but the toxins contained in it cause enormous harm to internal organs, in particular, the liver.
In people for a peculiar taste of the mushroom is called a bitter.
The size of the poisonous fungus is not small: the diameter of the brown-orange cap reaches 10 cm, and the cream-red leg is very thick, with a darker pattern in the form of a grid in the upper part.
The bile fungus is similar to white, but, unlike the latter, it always turns pink with a break.
Fragile touchy galley marsh
On marshy areas of the forest, in the thickets of moss, you can find small mushrooms on a long thin leg - a marsh gallery. A brittle light yellow leg with a white ring on top can easily be knocked down even by a thin twig, especially since the fungus is poisonous and there is still it is impossible. The dark yellow hat of the galley is also fragile and watery, looks like a bell at a young age, but then straightens, leaving only a sharp bulge in the center.
This is not a complete list of poisonous mushrooms, in addition, there are still a lot of false species, to confuse which with edible easily. If you are not sure which mushroom is under your feet - please go past. It is better to make an extra circle in the woods or go home with an empty bag than to suffer from severe poisoning. Be attentive, take care of your health and the health of people close to you!