The topic of sewage can seem unpleasant only to an inexperienced homeowner and only at first glance. As soon as there are problems with sewage, their elimination becomes the most important task.
If the trouble with drains are regular, it makes sense to revise the original project for errors. To eliminate them, you may need a sewage pumping station. We will describe how it is installed, operated and maintained.
The content of the article:
- What is CNS?
- The reasons for the forced removal of stock
- Additional elements for mounting the CND
- Features of the installation of a sewer station
- CNS service procedure
- Features of operation of sewer stations
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
What is CNS?
SPS or sewage station, this device for the forced removal of solid and liquid waste. Such devices are most often used for industrial purposes.
But there are a number of KNS specifically designed for domestic use. They are usually installed in private households with autonomous sewage or where it is necessary to ensure the transportation of waste to the riser of a centralized sewer system.
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Domestic sewage stations are used to force the drainage of enterprises, utility facilities, private houses.
The stations are equipped with pumps of required capacity, sorolavlivayuschie devices, non-return valves that prevent the reverse flow of waste
The sewage pumping stations located on the surface pump over storm, ground water, industrial, fecal runoff in the temperature range from - 50 ° С to + 40 ° С
If there are obstacles to ground installation, horizontally oriented structures are used that are immersed in the ground.
Underground stations are equipped with similar equipment that stimulates the movement of drains to utility networks where movement by gravity is impossible
Compact sewage pumping stations are used where plumbing equipment is located below the point of connection to the common sewer riser
Pumping installations for toilet bowls are the most common household equipment equipped with paper shredders and more serious contaminants.
Miniature pumping stations can serve both one and several plumbing units connected via separate connections.
Surface Mount Station
Equipment above ground pumping stations
Operating conditions of surface pumping stations
Pumping stations for underground utilities
Arrangement of underground pumping station
Mini pumping station in the basement of a private house
Sewer mini installation for toilet equipment
Sewage station under the kitchen sink
Models of domestic CNS may vary considerably in appearance, but their design and principle of operation are quite similar. Such designs represent the tight capacity intended for collecting waste.
The high degree of tightness of the reservoir is an important requirement to protect the groundwater from pollution by drains. It provides a nozzle system, as well as a special pump designed for pumping fecal matter.
Works sewer pump station as follows. The drains flow into the storage tank. With the help of a sewage pump, wastewater, including solid accumulations, is moved through pipes for further utilization, for example, in the central sewer riser, in the tank of the sump truck, etc.
This diagram clearly shows the device of a small household sewage pumping station, which can be connected directly to the toilet.
KNS are completed with pumps of various types, among which there are both submersible and surface cantilevered or self-priming.
Submersible, as the name implies, is lowered inside the tank with sewage. Usually these are very strong units that can work for a long time in an aggressive environment. For such pumps there is no need to equip a place on the surface, just as no additional pipes are needed to connect them to the system.
But maintenance submersible pump may be somewhat difficult. The unit is cooled by the fluid in which it is located, it is not often necessary for such devices to be repaired and THAT such devices need. Moreover, submersible models of sewage pumps can work even in very cold environments. For them, the so-called dry installation is considered permissible.
Pumps with a grinder are used in sewage stations in order to facilitate the flow of waste through the system, making their composition more uniform.
Self-priming pumps have a wide clearance for the passage of the pumped medium, they are recommended for use with significantly polluted drains. An electric motor with flange mounting makes it easier to operate and maintain devices of this type.
Some species sewer pump equipped with a special heating element. This allows them to be used even at temperatures below zero.
Cantilever pumps are mainly used for industrial treatment plants. For the installation of such a device requires a detached foundation. Cantilever sewage pumps are considered extremely reliable and convenient, but it is better to entrust their installation and connection to an experienced specialist.
In household KNS one or two pumps can be used, it all depends on the specific situation. If it is necessary to grind the solid fractions of waste, use pumps with a cutting mechanism.
It should be understood that such a mechanism is not an omnivorous meat grinder. A piece of rags accidentally dropped into a drain can cause serious blockage and even breakdown of the pump.
Special attention should be given to the so-called mini CNS - these are pumping stations of relatively small size, designed to be connected only to one object, usually to the toilet. They are a complex of a small storage tank and a pump with a cutting mechanism. Such sewage stations are usually installed directly under the toilet.
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The sewage station with two inputs for connection is equipped with two independent pumps, to maintain three points in the station there should be three pumps
Pumping stations are used where technical obstacles or peculiarities of the relief do not allow arranging a gravity flow system
Domestic sewage installations are often located behind the toilet, the rest of the appliances are connected to the corresponding outlet.
It is permissible to install the station in a separate room, connecting it to the plumbing fixtures with a pipeline, but it is necessary to take into account the hydraulic losses for proper selection of equipment
Sewer installation for two connections
Sphere of use of pumping unit in sewage
Location of sewer installation
Installation of a pumping station in a separate room
The reasons for the forced removal of stock
Usually, the removal of human waste from the sewer system occurs naturally under the influence of gravitational forces. Unfortunately, it is not always possible to practically organize this process at a sufficiently effective level.
Here are a few reasons why a homeowner should consider (or consider) installing a forced waste disposal system:
- the situation is such that the level of the main sewage flow is higher than the point of waste discharge;
- the waste discharge point is too far from the main sewage flow;
- sewers move along sewer pipes too slowly;
- sewage system is often clogged due to errors made during its installation.
Some of these problems can be caused by blemishes when designing a sewer system or improper redevelopment. But it also happens that, due to the peculiarities of the building configuration or the relief of the site, the SPS becomes the only choice for the normal operation of the sewer system. Sometimes install CND just cheaper than completely rework the sewers, eliminating previously made mistakes.
Additional elements for mounting the CND
SPS, as well as industrial sewage stations, are equipped with special float sensors placed in a storage tank. They transmit to the control unit information about the level of sewage in the drive. The pump is turned on and off in automatic mode, which facilitates its operation and prolongs its service life.
In industrial models, such sensors are installed at four different levels. They reflect a safe state when the reservoir tank is nearly empty, the levels at which the pump should be turned on or off, and the level of overflow.
If the last set of float sensors is activated, this indicates a serious breakdown in the system and requires the immediate intervention of specialists.
Storage tanks for sewage pumping stations usually make a cylindrical shape or cubic configuration, but with rounded corners so that solid particles do not linger in them waste
In addition to these sensors, it is also recommended to provide the KNS with a source of backup power supply and a pressure gauge. Special pressure sensors may be needed. Do not interfere with an additional set of valves.
The ground part of the CNS is usually hidden under a metal pavilion, but you can also arrange another shelter. It should protect the device from the weather and unwanted extraneous interference in the work of the complex mechanisms.
Periodically, the pump itself, and connected to the CND sewer pipes should be cleaned for the prevention of breakdowns and blockages. It is best to pre-purchase a set of special equipment that will facilitate the implementation of this task. Another important point is the manual control mechanism of the sewage pumping station.
In normal operation it is not needed, since all devices are turned on and off automatically. But manual control is very useful if the KNS breaks or clogs. When starting a new sewage station, manual control is also used.
Features of the installation of a sewer station
Installation of a pumping station is a laborious and rather complicated task. The capacity of the CNS should be set at the correct depth. Then the soil is filled up around the tank and rammed in such a way that its density is as close as possible to the natural density of the surrounding soil.
The diagram shows two installation options for large sewage pumping stations. In any case, the device should be protected from the weather and the influence of other external factors.
In general, the installation of a large sewage pumping station can be represented in the form of the following steps:
- Digging trench.
- Laying sand pillows.
- Soil tamper.
- Installing the storage tank in the pit.
- Connection of all the pipelines required for the operation of the pumping station.
- Install a sewage pump.
- Setting the operation of the float sensors.
- Leading electrical cables, grounding arrangement.
- Backfilling and tamping soil.
- Installation of protective cover.
The depth of the pit should be about half a meter greater than the height of the tank along with the lid. The fact is that the KNS cover should protrude approximately one meter above the surface, but a sand cushion with a thickness of one and a half meters should be laid at the bottom of the pit. When determining the depth of the pit, these parameters should be considered.
Large sewage pumping stations are installed in an underground pit so that the cover of the device protrudes about one meter above the ground
The width of the pit for the KNS must be such that not only does the tank fit freely, but there is also room for the necessary installation work. Of course, digging a too spacious pit does not make sense, it’s just unnecessary work.
The pit is usually covered with layers of sand and each layer is compacted so that its density corresponds to the density of the surrounding soil not less than 90%.
After the installation of the KNS is completed, it is filled with sand, which should be tamped down in layers, creating a density close to the state of the surrounding soil.
As mentioned earlier, float sensors set on four levels:
- the normal degree of filling is 0.15-0.3 m from the bottom of the tank;
- level off pumping equipment - 1.65-1.80 m;
- the level at which the sewage pump turns on is approximately 3.0-3.5 m;
- capacity overflow level - 4.5-5.0 m.
After all the elements are installed, it is necessary to check the operation of the system.
To do this, you need a certain amount of ordinary pure water. Fluid can be taken from the water supply or source of autonomous water supply. If for some reason there is no such possibility, water is simply brought in the tank.
When installing a sewage pumping station, a sufficiently deep and spacious excavation pit should be dug; first, a sand cushion should be placed at the bottom of the excavation
To test the water is fed into the storage tank until it is full, then the water is drained into the sewer. At the same time, they monitor the operation of the float sensors and the functioning of the pumping equipment, which should be turned on and off in automatic mode.
At the same time check all connections for tightness. If a leak is detected, the connections should be re-sealed.
If there is not enough experience in electrical work, you should entrust them to a specialist. Mandatory CND should be grounded
CNS service procedure
The operation of any device depends on timely maintenance, and sewage stations are no exception. It is not necessary to wait until the failure becomes apparent, it is better to conduct preventive examinations in a timely manner.
Such forethought may later lead to significant savings, since minor and large repairs vary considerably in price.
During visual inspection and maintenance of sewage pumping stations, special personal protective equipment should be used. It is not recommended to use household chemicals when cleaning the drive.
Before starting maintenance work, the sewer station should be stopped and disconnected from the power supply. Then you need to completely relieve the pressure inside the system, and also wait until the device is completely cooled. Work will require working clothes, as well as other protective equipment: respirator, goggles, gloves, etc.
When servicing domestic sewage pumping stations, it is first recommended to visually inspect the device, check the operation of the shut-off valves. Then assess the condition of the pumps.
Problems may be indicated by too high a noise level when pumping equipment is operating. Another alarming phenomenon is that the pump vibrates too much during operation. If there are such dangerous signs, the pump can be removed, rinsed, cleaned, checked for its operation and re-installed in the pumping station.
Indicators on the control panel are also evaluated. Since solid particles of waste can accumulate inside the tank as sludge, periodic washing is performed not only for the pump, but also for the accumulator.
The pump is an important part of the fecal and any other sewer line. If the pump becomes too noisy or vibrates excessively during operation, it should be inspected and flushed.
To do this, use plain water. It can be supplied with a hose. To remove dirt from the inside of the drive, you can use ordinary household brushes.
But the use of household chemicals in such situations is not recommended. During flushing, care should be taken to prevent water from entering the pressure gauge or control panel.
Sewage pumps in such installations are usually mounted on a special pipe coupling. When carrying out preventive cleaning and flushing, it is important to properly dismantle the pump from such a coupling, and then make sure that the device is properly installed again.
Another important node is a large trash collector. It should be examined and cleaned. During the test, all connections are checked for leaks. All fasteners should be tightened with a wrench.
Features of operation of sewer stations
When choosing a sewage station suitable for your home, you should remember that different models are designed for different operating conditions. For example, a mini KNS designed to be connected to a toilet bowl should not be used to remove drains from a kitchen sink or bathroom.
Also, if mini CNS It is intended for connection to a standard toilet bowl, most likely, it cannot be used together with a suspended toilet model. Careful attention deserves the proper operation of a sewage pump, equipped with a shredder for solid waste.
Some owners believe that if the KNS has such a function, then you can send any solid garbage into the sewer system. This is a dangerous delusion. Of course, if some kind of garbage, such as personal care products, gets into the toilet, the shredder will recycle them without much difficulty.
However, it is not designed to carry this kind of load all the time. The shredder must recycle mainly fecal waste that has a completely different density; it cannot be used as a garbage collector. A large amount of pollution, not intended for this technique, can quickly disable it.
Before acquiring a specific model of a CNS, it is necessary to carefully read its passport and technical specifications. Particular attention should be paid to the operating conditions of the device, for example, at what temperature the sewage system is designed.
Wastewater from the kitchen sink, bathroom, shower stall, as well as from an automatic washing machine or dishwasher can be quite hot. In order that the grease of kitchen drains does not penetrate into the system and does not create problematic congestion in it, it is advisable to supply under the sink zhiroulovitel.
There are compact models of sewage pumping stations that can be installed under the kitchen sink. But you cannot connect a washing machine or a dishwasher to such a device.
It is necessary to take into account the permissible temperature of wastewaters established by the manufacturer for each specific model. Thus, sewage pumping stations, into which warm, but not too hot wastewater can be drained, are suitable for connecting to a shower stall, bath, toilet, bidet, kitchen sink, etc.
However, if there is an automatic washing machine, you should choose a model of a sewage pumping station for the house, into which you can drain the waste water with a temperature of 90 degrees or higher. It should be noted that the mode of operation of such equipment usually involves boiling.
All this also applies to the dishwasher, from which almost boiling liquid can flow into the drain. In addition to the current needs of the house, you should evaluate your plans so that you do not have to buy and install a new sewage station.
If you intend to buy a dishwasher in the future, it is better to immediately choose a SPS designed for drains with a high temperature.
Pay attention to the number and location of nozzles. For each new home appliance that needs to be connected to sewer systemthat may appear in the future, there must be a corresponding socket. Otherwise, it will simply have nowhere to connect.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
An overview of a compact toilet sewer station is presented here:
This video shows a schematic of the installation process of a large CND:
Sewage station can significantly improve the life in the house. It is important to choose the correct model of CNS and correctly install it. Proper operation and regular maintenance will ensure that there are no problems with this useful device for many years.
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