Self-flowing sewage in a private house is not always possible to equip. Then, to remove fecal waste from the cottage, it is necessary to install sewage pumps, creating a forced pumping system.
The pumping equipment market offers a wide range of units. But, you see, the diversity of models can be embarrassing and difficult to choose.
We will help you in resolving the issue. The article outlines the main types of sewage pumps, describes their strengths and weaknesses. In order not to be mistaken with the purchase, we suggest sticking to a special algorithm for evaluating the characteristics and decisive factors of choice.
The content of the article:
- Hydraulic pump in the forced sewer system
Types of pumps for pressure sewage
- Type # 1: Immersion Devices
- Type # 2: Surface Models
- Type # 3: Semi-Submersible Installations
- Type # 4: Small units for plumbing stocks
- Which is better - submersible or superficial?
How to choose pumping equipment correctly?
- The first factor is maximum head and lift height.
- The second factor is the operating temperature.
- The third factor - the presence of automation
- The fourth factor is power supply and housing material.
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Hydraulic pump in the forced sewer system
To correctly select the pump, it is necessary to understand all its modifications and take into account many factors.
Most often, the sewage system is designed so that the drains in it move by gravity. But not always local septic tank or the input to the centralized sewage system is below the sewer line and all sanitary fixtures in the house.
The sewage cannot rise up by itself, it is necessary to “force” it with a pump.
A photo of
Sewage pumps are divided into 4 main groups. The first one includes units for pumping household wastewater.
The second group includes pumping systems that stimulate the movement of production, including aggressive and hazardous media.
The third group consists of pumps that stimulate the transport of water from stormwater and drainage systems.
The fourth group includes hydraulic machines used for pumping fermented sediment and activated sludge from digesters, sand from sand traps, etc.
Sewage pumps for pumping domestic sewage
Pumping systems for industrial effluent
Pumps for the transport of atmospheric water
Pumps for pumping formed precipitation
Pumping equipment is installed when, due to the relief or other features of the building plot external sewer pipes I can not lay under the desired slope.
Also possible option with the completion or redevelopment of the building. The configuration of internal pipelines and the volume of runoff are changing; the latter alone can no longer be removed from the residential building.
The most popular version of the sewage system with the forced discharge of wastewater provides for an intermediate storage device in the basement of the cottage. As it is filled to the brim, the pump is turned on, pumping liquid into the street for further cleaning or removal.
But you can also install a compact pumping unit that only turns on when drains are drained. However, if it breaks down, the house will actually remain without sewage.
The task of the forced sewage pump is to pump out domestic sewage and stimulate their movement to the street collector, which is above the cumulative or sewage treatment plant (+)
Compared to a gravity system, the use of pressure pumps provides several advantages:
- Ease of maintenance. The frequency of cleaning pipelines is reduced, as the intensive movement of drains contributes to their self-cleaning.
- Equipment location variability. Sanitary and household appliances with connection to the sewage system can already be put in any place without taking into account the need to form a slope towards the release of the sewage system, and then the drive or septic tank.
According to the technical regulations (SNiP number 2.04.03-85), the smallest diameter of the pipes of the external sewer of the pressure sewer network is assumed to be 150 mm, if a common-sewer discharge of drains is arranged.
These are networks transporting storm drains together with household black and gray. Household gravity systems are made of pipes of similar size.
If faecal drains are discharged separately, the diameter of the pipeline is assumed to be 0.7 at its maximum height. This distance is necessary for ventilation and the possibility of removal of unpleasant and explosive gas formations.
The size of the sewer pipe must be considered when choosing a pump to accurately select the unit for the upcoming load.
The coercive system is volatile and costs more money than a gravity system. If the family is small, then the drive is not filled immediately, the sewer pump will be sufficient to include from time to time.
However, with large volumes of wastewater pumping equipment should work almost constantly. In this case, when you turn off the electricity can cause serious problems.
Most of the cost of the pump for sewage can be recaptured by using cheaper and thinner pipes, as well as reducing the cost of their installation. But after installation, this equipment needs constant maintenance, which requires some money.
If we add another uninterruptible power supply to the circuit in case of a power failure, then the benefit is zero.
For the device of a forced sewage system of a small private house or cottage, diverting a mixture of black and gray drains, a fecal pump will be suitable. He will cope with pumping of the waters of the combined sewerage
If there is an opportunity to do with a gravity drain option, then it is worth doing it. The pressure system with a sewage pump for viscous and polluted liquids should be selected only as a last resort. And special attention should be paid to the proper selection of pumping equipment.
Types of pumps for pressure sewage
The most important thing in choosing pumping equipment for pumping sewage is to clearly separate it from drainage units and water-lifting equipment for drinking wells.
The last two options are designed exclusively for pumping clean or with fine fractional water suspension. If more fecal matter or debris gets inside, it will simply break.
The range of fecal pumps is quite extensive, but the diversity of this equipment can be divided into three classes: submersible, semi-submersible and external
A special sewage pump is designed specifically for pumping sewage with all household waste that gets into the sink from sinks, toilets, dishwashers and washing machines.
In this case, the best option - choose equipment with a grinder. Such a unit grinds all the garbage before it gets inside the pumping pump.
In general, fecal pumps are used for:
- pumping sewage in sewer networks with forced current;
- pumping sludge from refuse, septic tanks and pits of outdoor toilets;
- pumping water from basements and cellars;
- cleaning of pipes and wells of the sewerage from oozy sediment.
Standard drain pump to perform these works will not work. Its impellers will quickly become clogged, and then the motor will overheat due to sharply increased loads.
Type # 1: Immersion Devices
This type of pump is immersed directly into sewage through the whole casing. All elements of their construction are made of stainless steel or cast iron, so that in contact with the active and aggressive environment does not immediately break down.
Submersible sewage pump is installed at the bottom of the tank or suspended directly above it on a rope
Usually this pumping equipment works automatically. When the tank is filled, the float rises along with them, which, at a certain level of liquid, includes an installation for pumping. As soon as the tank is empty, the pump is switched off by the float switch. Work "dry" while virtually eliminated.
Submersible models are chosen because of their high performance and equipment with a shredder. The cutting mechanism of the latter grinds any large waste to sizes that do not pose a threat to pumping equipment.
Almost all sewage submersible pumps come with a built-in grinder, the rotating knives of which easily cope with paper, fiber objects and solid inclusions.
Type # 2: Surface Models
Surface pumps for sewage pumping are installed next to the collector, collecting and redirecting the sewage, or in the most convenient viewing well for its placement.
This is the so-called dry installation option. Often they are also referred to as pumping installations of a forced sewer system due to the presence of several separate parts assembled together.
In this case, polluted drains are sucked through a hose attached to the pump unit, which goes down to the bottom of the storage tank. When choosing this model, separate attention should be paid to the parameters of the suction depth specified by the manufacturer.
Usually it is up to 8–10 m, from large depths it simply will not be able to lift drains from the storage tank. This should take into account not only the height of the tank, but also the distance from it to the pump.
Surface pumping equipment is easier to maintain, it can be quickly dismantled and easily washed in the utility room.
A low-power surface pump for working in forced sewers is a compact unit that is simply installed next to the sewage hopper. Installation of more powerful models is made on a specially prepared place with reliable fixing of the device to the floor.
It is extremely important when installing an outdoor pump to be concerned about its protection from moisture. Unlike the immersion counterpart, it is not fundamentally designed to work in a humid environment. Its body has a minimum protection from water, with the ingestion of which a closure may occur.
The surface pump is inexpensive and easy to operate, but quite noisy. For installation in the basement or heated back room is better to take it.
However, if you only need to turn on the equipment from time to time to pump out the septic tank, it is better to prefer the immersion option.
Type # 3: Semi-Submersible Installations
These models are a kind of intermediate option between the submersible and external type of pumping equipment. They have an electric motor installed next to the tank above the water, and the working chamber is immersed in sewage. Between themselves, these two parts of a single installation are connected by a rotating shaft.
Installation of a semi-submersible pump can be made on:
- a pillow floating on the sink surface;
- site next to the tank;
- tank wall.
Initially, standard semi-submersible equipment comes without a shredder. It can be installed only as an additional nozzle, which complicates the maintenance of this pumping equipment and leads to its appreciation.
Because of the design features of semi-submersible pumps are rarely used in domestic conditions, it is more an option for industrial applications and large pumping stations
Type # 4: Small units for plumbing stocks
Under the sewage pump for the toilet or washbasin means small equipment installed near the plumbing. The drains from the latter first fall into a small tank, and from it are already pumped out into the general sewage system.
The household sewage pump is a direct analogue of the pump in a washing machine, only it is installed for toilet bowls, bathtubs and sinks (+)
Such equipment is quite expensive, but it allows you to install plumbing in any convenient place. The pump, when filling the sanitary tank, will pump the sewage into the riser, even if the drain to it goes upward with a slope.
Usually, toilet pumps with grinder virtually maintenance free. Structurally, they are self-cleaning cumulative tank. And in order to eliminate the appearance of unpleasant amber, a carbon filter is provided inside.
Special skills to connect this pump is not required, you just have to remember to wash the drive from time to time.
A photo of
Plumbing fixtures installed below the level of the entrance to the common sewer network are equipped with compact household pumps.
Sewage installations of the specified type are used for arranging hygienic premises located in basements and basements.
If two or more pumps are combined in one case, each of which is provided with a separate pipe, the unit can serve several plumbing fixtures.
Domestic sewage systems are usually installed behind the toilet. Other devices are laid pipelines with regard to the slope in the direction of the pump
For the forced removal of drains from kitchen sinks, they produce a special type of sewage equipment capable of pumping hot water.
Such equipment is installed under the sinks and showers, equipped below the entrance to the sewer riser
Sewage pumps are used in buildings with a renovated sewer system if the sewer pipe is unnecessarily removed, for example, from the attic
Most pumping units of this type are equipped with a cutting device for grinding large inclusions.
Household sewage pump with grinder
Scope of sewer installations
The principle of operation of the sewer station
Standards for the placement of pumping units
Sewage pumps for kitchen sinks
Pumping installations in bathrooms
Use of a pump in a renovated building
Specificity of pump sewer systems
Here are the approximate prices for such units:
Which is better - submersible or superficial?
With the same pressure at the outlet, the submersible sewage pump consumes less power than its external self-priming analog. The first simply does not have to spend energy on the suction of wastewater from the bottom of the tank to the working chamber. All the power of the electric motor is spent on creating pressure in the pressure line.
A pump that is completely immersed in sewers produces an order of magnitude less noise than that installed on the surface. Water absorbs most of the sounds emitted by the electric motor and the rotating working elements of the pump.
Surface equipment is noisier than submerged in a sewage tank that is cooled by the fluid around
For ease of use, the palm can be given to the surface model, but only if it is compact and portable. Plus, the correctness of its operation can be controlled simply by noise. When the motor is not working properly, strange sounds appear, immediately indicating problems.
With other things being equal and additional equipment, a surface pumping station will almost always be cheaper than a submersible sewage pump. Of course, much depends on the manufacturer and competition in a particular region.
However, the equipment that is immersed in sewage is technologically and more difficult by definition, which causes its higher price.
How to choose pumping equipment correctly?
Choosing a pump for pumping sewage, you need to pay attention to the many specified in his passport specifications.
For example, the performance parameters will help to estimate the time over which a tank with drains can be emptied. The higher this indicator, the more the unit will be able to pump liquids, but the more it consumes energy for this. There are many other nuances.
The first factor is maximum head and lift height.
The head indicator determines the height to which the sewage pump will be able to raise drains along the pressure line. But here it is important to understand that in addition to the vertical there is also a horizontal section of the branch pipe.
Simplified, in order to calculate this parameter, the horizontal distance is divided by ten and added to the vertical distance from the pump to the edge of the tank.
The calculated figure of the required lifting height must be less than the maximum head indicated in the passport of the sewage pump by 20–25% (+)
However, this calculation is very simplified, if you do everything according to the rules, then you need to consider:
- the composition and temperature of the liquid, as well as the size of impurities in it;
- the level of roughness of all pipes (the material of their manufacture);
- pressure loss during the passage of valves;
- piping diameter;
- Atmosphere pressure;
- the speed of movement of stocks and more.
All this should be taken into account in the project of the sewer system, which only a highly competent engineer can competently do. If there is no relevant knowledge, then without consultation is not enough.
Either it is necessary to take a pump for pumping out sewage with a large margin of power and pressure, otherwise it will not work for a long time.
The second factor is the operating temperature.
All pumping equipment for domestic sewage is divided into two categories:
- for cold drains - with operating temperature up to 450WITH.
- for hot drains - with operating temperature up to 900WITH
If only cold water is drained into the sewer system, it is better to take the first option, which is cheaper. In most cases, such pumps are installed in the cottages. In fact, boiling water into the sewage system of a private house can only get in case of emergency discharge from the heating system.
The third factor - the presence of automation
Managing the operation of the sewage pump manually, constantly turning it on and off is problematic. It will be necessary to constantly be close to the equipment.
Much better if the complete set of pumping equipment is available:
- Float - determining the level of effluent in the storage tank in order to start and disconnect the equipment.
- Thermorelay - triggered by a critical increase in the temperature of the electric motor, to turn it off before overheating.
To reduce the likelihood of a sewage pump clogging with a built-in shredder, some manufacturers will self-clean its cutting mechanism.
This allows you to increase the periods of operation of the unit without interruptions and stops for maintenance. A spontaneous cleaning ensures that the likelihood of motor overheating is reduced.
The degree of grinding of waste coming into drains directly depends on the structure of the chopper impeller - it is higher in knives than in the cutting edge (+)
The fourth factor is power supply and housing material.
It is possible to power various models of sewage pumps from a single-phase and three-phase power grid.
The first option is cheaper and preferable in the conditions of domestic reality, so in case of problems with voltage can be connected through a stabilizer or simply connected to a portable to the generator.
For three-phase pumping equipment, additional control panels will have to be acquired in order to protect it from phase distortion in the electrical network. And this is extra money and difficulties in connecting.
The most reliable for pumping sewage effluents are pumps, in which both the casing and the working part are made of metal
Often the body of the pump unit is made of cast iron or stainless steel. Plastic counterparts are cheaper, but in an aggressive environment they will serve less without repair.
A compromise between cost and reliability can be considered equipment with a plastic case, but metal working elements.
The choice of pump depends on the expected loads. With arrangement of sewage in the country with seasonal accommodation suitable surface or submersible units of low power.
For the organization of the drainage of a private house is better to use sewage pumping station.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
How to choose the drainage-fecal pump:
Overview submersible fecal pump with a grinder:
Compact pumping equipment for tapping into the sewer pipe in the house:
The choice of pumps for pumping wastewater from the sewage system is huge. Without competent recommendations to navigate this issue is difficult.
Before you go to the store, you need to decide on the performance, height of rising drains and operating temperature of the equipment. If you take the equipment with a margin for all indicators, then you can overpay a lot, and if you miss calculations, it will quickly fail.
All site visitors interested in the choice and use of the sewage pump are invited to leave comments and ask questions. Contact form is located in the lower block.