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The phenomenon of the modern plant world is a sequoia tree. This is an example not only of overall dimensions, but also of all desired longevity. The most ancient representative of this kind flaunts in the territory of the Rurvood Reserve in California. Although it is more than 4 millennia, it still continues to grow intensively. The volume of the trunk of this majestic giant is, m³, and the height is 11, m.
The name of the trees was not due to external characteristics and solid age. At one time, these regions were the birthplace of the Indian Cherokee tribe. Admired by the height of the tree sequoia, as well as the wonderful talents and qualities of their leader, they decided to name it in honor of their leader. Since he really did a lot for the culture and education of his people, the public accepted this name with pleasure.
Studying in 1859 this "slim beauty one nerd decided to call it in honor of the national hero of America. Loud name Wellington - English commander, who defeated the Napoleonic army - did not like the locals. Therefore, they chose another figure and people's favorite of the Indians.
A characteristic feature of these representatives of the coniferous class is the structure of their trunk and the method of reproduction. When the tree is still young, it is completely covered with dense branches. Because of too rapid growth, these processes do not have time to settle down, so they soon disappear. As a result, an unusually thick, but at the same time naked, trunk appears before the curious observer.Looking up to the sky, a person can contemplate a dense crown of conical shape, consisting of eternally green branches.
It is noteworthy that the root system of such a phenomenon of the plant world is not planted very deeply. However, it occupies a considerable area, which allows the breed to withstand heavy winds and hurricanes.
It is regrettable, but by its root processes it drowns out the life activity of neighboring inhabitants. Yet to sustain its "neighborhood" can:
- douglas (family of pine);
It fits perfectly into the local flavor of pine groves. The length of flat, elongated leaves is from 15 to 25 mm in young animals. Over time, needles modify their shape. In the shady parts of the crown they take the form of an arrowhead, and in the upper zones the leaves have a scaly structure.
This description of the sequoia tree is appropriate to complement and unforgettable photos made by tourists. The bravest of them were able to capture the refined cones of the "impregnable" inhabitant of the misty gorge. Three-centimetric oval capsules contain up to 7 seeds, which mature for almost 9 months.As soon as the fetus begins to dry up, the cone opens and the wind blows away the seeds. Such unfolded "rosettes" still adorn the majestic crown for a long time.
Scientists are struck by the unique way of "continuation of the genus" of the mammoth tree (this is the second name, because its branches resemble the tusks of these animals). Green stumps leave the stump, which is quite abnormal for a class of coniferous representatives.
Native land of the giant
The main area where a sequoia grows is the Pacific coast of North America. The territory of their native territories extends 75 km into the interior of the continent and stretches for almost 800 km along the ocean. A comparatively small area of land rises above sea level by 700-1000 m. Although these conifers perfectly coexist and at an altitude of more than 2 km. The more humid the climate, the higher and greener the crown of these giants will be.
The state of California and Oregon are annually greeted by thousands of tourists who want to admire these beauties. In addition to natural habitats, such "long-livers" can also be found in the reserves:
- SOUTH AFRICA;
- Hawaiian Islands;
- New Zealand.
The main feature of all these countries is access to the humid marine climate. However, such giant exhibits are perfectly tolerated by sharp temperature changes. It was recorded that on mountain slopes, where they can often be found, it can be up to -25 ° С. Therefore, the mammoth tree can be successfully grown on other continents. The only thing is that they grow several times slower there. And only half a century later you will be able to see the result of your painstaking work.
In Russia, the tree of redwood grows in the coastal regions of the Krasnodar Territory. Sochi arboretum has a modest "collection" of young seedlings. This site, of course, is not very large. Perhaps, several centuries will pass, and already a new generation of tourists will admire these luxurious Pacific "titans".At the foot of such giants you can feel all your insignificance. Especially when standing in the midst of a whole grove of 90-meter giants (this is almost 35 floors of a skyscraper). According to one study, in the early 1900s a sequoia was cut down, the height of which was more than 116 meters. One can only imagine how much effort and effort these workers needed.
The maximum thickness of the bark of the largest tree in the world can be about 30 cm.
The value of wood
In the United States, cutting down the sequoia is strictly punishable by law, since this tree is threatened with extinction. Due to the slightly reddish shade of wood it is used as decorating elements of the interior. Since the wood fibers of this coniferous breed are sufficiently dense, and also resistant to the rotting process, they serve as an amazing material for furniture production. Also from it do:
- railway wagons and sleepers;
- roofing elements;
- structures for underwater structures.
This raw material differs from all others in the absence of a rich coniferous smell. Therefore, many tobacco companies use sequoias to produce boxes that store cigars and other products of this industry. Moreover, beekeepers also found use for barrels made from expensive wood. They are perfectly stored honey, perga, as well as wax.
According to the calculations of the processing enterprise, from one mammoth tree it is possible to get more than one thousand tons of wood raw material. To transport all this wealth, the customer will need more than fifty cars, that is, almost the entire freight train.
In the trunk of a luxurious giant, rarely all sorts of pests / parasites settle. This is due to the rapid growth of the plant. Also, the wood of the mammoth tree contains a huge amount of phytoncids. These biologically active substances can not only "scare away" huge "hordes" of harmful insects, but also keep them at a decent distance.
It is noteworthy that in reserves each fallen tree of sequoia has a place of honor. From its trunk make amazing exhibits, impressive tourists. So, one enterprising American made it a parking lot for cars, and in the other case he built a cozy restaurant for 50 people. Creative ideas borrowed the National Park "Sequoia". It is here that tourists can drive through an unusual tunnel made of fallen wood. Yes, nature impresses with its diversity and magnificent beauty.