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Winter wheat is a grain crop, which is valued because of its high yield and unpretentiousness. Its grain is used for making cereals, pasta and baking, and wheat bran goes to feed agricultural animals. Straw from this variety also represents a huge nutritional value. In addition, it is added in the production of paper and litter for animals.
Characteristics of culture and stages of its development
This wheat is called winter wheat because the grains are sown immediately after harvesting the previous harvest. When the culture enters the earth, it passes its development in several stages. The intensity of growth depends on the climate, soil composition and other conditions. Specialists distinguish 6 phases of development of winter wheat:
- Seedlings are the germination of seeds that occurs after sowing. The total period of the period is from 15 to 25, then the plants enter the winter. If we plant them late, the shoots continue in the spring after warming.
- Forage is the process of formation of lateral processes on stems and roots. The bushiness of plants can be affected by the number of seeds that have been sown in the ground, as well as the depth of their laying.
- Exit to the tube is a period that begins when the first node appears on the main stem. The process takes place in the spring, about a month after the renewal of the vegetation.
- Earing - the appearance of spikelets on the shoots.
- Flowering begins 4-5 days after the appearance of spikelets and lasts about a week. In a separate ear, flowers appear first on the lower part, and then on the lateral and upper.
- Maturation is a long stage in which the grains form in the spikelet and gradually lose moisture. Within 2 weeks, grains of milk ripeness appear (40-60% moisture). Then comes the wax phase of ripeness, the percentage of water in grains is from 20 to 40%. Full ripeness is the stage when a 15-20% grain consists of water and becomes solid.
The duration of vegetation of winter wheat can be from 275 to 350 days, including the winter period. This period depends on the time of planting seeds in the ground and climatic conditions. In the spring, the processes are resumed when the temperature reaches 5 ° C.
Technology of planting and care
The technology of cultivation of winter wheat is a long process. Yields significantly increase on fertile soils in the presence of constant precipitation in the warm season, as well as in the absence of strong frosts.
Requirements for soil and climate conditions
Wheat will yield a good harvest on fertile soils, the acidity of which is in the range of 6 from,. Sufficient moistened chernozems or other soil types that contain a large amount of nutrients are suitable for it. The amount of harvest depends on the relief. On low marshy areas, plants grow and develop poorly.
Modern varieties of winter wheat are characterized by high frost resistance. In the presence of a good snow layer, these plants can withstand a temperature decrease of -20-30 ° C. However, in the absence of snow, plants can die even at -15 ° C.
For such wheat, temperature variations in the spring period are especially dangerous. If freezing has occurred after the vegetation processes have resumed, they can completely destroy the crop.
Different varieties of winter wheat is important in time and properly fertilized, otherwise the yield will be meager. There are two main ways to apply fertilizers: root fertilizing (in the ground) and foliar, or leaf. This culture can be fed several times depending on the phase of its vegetation:
- during planting - potassium, phosphoric, organic fertilizers;
- nitrogen additives - in the spring, as they are quickly washed out of the soil.
One of the main ways to improve the quality of the crop by adding fertilizers is a foliar top dressing.
Leaf top dressing of winter wheat in the spring with carbamide allows obtaining large heavy grains and increasing their number. Unlike other ammonia fertilizers (ammonia water and saltpeter), this substance does not burn plants.
Treatment of diseases and weed plants
During the sprouting season, wheat develops poorly if it is hampered by weeds. Herbicides for winter wheat are chemical solutions that fight weeds. Usually they are introduced into the soil in April and May, when the activity of unwanted plants is increased. Some combine the application of nitrogen fertilizers with treatment with herbicides.
Diseases of winter wheat are various bacterial lesions (black, yellow, basal bacteriosis), putrefactive processes in the roots, fungal lesions (fusariosis) and others. From each disease there are special preparations that are introduced into the soil or sprinkled with green mass.
Winter wheat is grown in a temperate climate. This is a high-yielding crop, the grains and stems of which are used in the food industry and agriculture. However, the yield will not be high unless all the rules for cultivating wheat are observed. It will grow well only on certain types of soil with a special regime of fertilizing and watering.