Successful cultivation and longevity of cherries is possible only with the absolute health of the tree. Throughout its life, a variety of diseases or physiological disorders in the internal organs of threaten the fruit tree. Often, such phenomena become a real problem, the trees cease to bear fruit, they dry out and then simply die. This happens even with the strongest trees. In this article we will understand why such troubles happen, we will get acquainted with possible cherry diseases, what preventive measures to take and how to treat the affected trees.
- Why cherry or fruit, possible diseases and methods of treatment
- perforated spotting( klyasterosporioz)
- cherry leaf spot: ways to combat the fungus
- moniliosis or gray mold
- Anthracnose - a disease of berries as a treat
- GUMMOSIS( gummosis)
- Rust - the disease
- leavesScab, what measures to take?
- Root cancer, what to do?
- Prevention of diseases of the cherry
- Mechanical damage
- These figures have declined significantly, and the main reasons for this are the emergence of new types of fungal diseases and natural disasters.
The reason for the spread of the disease can be non-compliance with the prevention and rules of farming .Rotting plant debris, improper crop alternation, mass distribution of pests, lack of fungicide treatment, contributing to the epidemic of the entire site.
Most often cherries are affected by the disease:
- Hocky spot, pick-ups, and cravings, Kokkomikoz,
- , Moniliasis,
- , Wcc,
Dangerous diseases become frequent causes of the lack of fruiting, even with abundant flowering of cherry: coccomycosis and moniliosis. These diseases can cause other fruit trees in your garden: cherry, apricot, plum and others.To provide timely assistance to the tree, to avoid crop loss and possibly the plant itself, you need to constantly inspect it. Many diseases can be recognized in a short time, when the damage to the cherry is minimal. How to do this can be found in this article.
Holey spotting( klyasterosporioz)
This is a fungal disease that affects all tree structures.
- Signs of an asteriasis .Education on the leaves of light brown spots with red-brown border. Affected tissue dies and falls. Torn holes are formed on the sheet. Shoots are covered with cracking spots, from which gum flows. The kidneys become black and shiny.
- Treatment .Cutting and burning of all affected areas of the tree. Sprinkle cherries and near-stem circle with 3% Bordeaux liquid. Digging and complete destruction of plant residues in the near-barrel circle. In case of severe injury, the procedure is repeated after a week. Treatment of gum wounds.
- Consequences .Premature fall of leaves, shoots and branches. Drying fruits, loss of commercial quality.
Kokkomikoz: ways to combat the fungus
This fungal disease, mainly formed on the leaves, less often affects the berries. This disease is inherent in trees growing both in the Moscow region and in other regions of Russia.
- Symptoms of .At the beginning of the disease, small red dots appear on the sheet, as the disease progresses, they become larger and gradually merge with each other. With high humidity, a pink bloom forms on the underside of the leaf. Lack of treatment leads to browning and necrosis, dead tissue falls, and lacerated wounds are formed on the leaves.
- What to do .In the fall( after leaf fall) and spring( before bud break), treat with 4% Bordeaux liquid. Trimming and destruction of the affected areas.
- Consequences of .Premature leaf fall, depletion and death of the tree, loss of harvest.
Moniliasis or Gray Rot
This is a fungal disease that is also called monilial burn. Cherry becomes infected with moniliosis when the tree begins to blossom, through damage to the bark.
It is not easy to get rid of moniliosis, therefore, treatment with fungicides should be carried out repeatedly, cutting off the lesions as they appear and burning all vegetable waste.
- Symptoms of .During the wet and warm season, small pustules of white color form on the petioles and the lower surface of the leaves, which in appearance resemble branched chains. The spores of the fungus are carried by the wind and insects on the surface of the fruit, forming brown spots on them, which gradually spread over the entire surface. After another 10 days, yellowish pillows( sporodokhii) are formed on the surface of the fetus. The affected fruits fall off or remain on the branches of the cherry tree where the spores of the fungus overwinter and when the air temperature is above + 15 °, they begin to develop.
- Treatment .All plant waste in the vicinity of the tree is collected and burned. The branches of the cherry are cut below the lesion level by 10 cm, the bark is cleaned to healthy tissue. Cherry is treated with fungicides, the main drugs: Azocene, Topsin, Horus( 15 g / 10 l).
- Consequences of .Lack of fruiting, gradual death of the tree, an epidemic on the site.
Anthracnose - a disease of berries, how to treat
This fungal disease most often affects the fruits of the cherry and remains unnoticed for a long time.
- Symptoms of .At the beginning of a lesion, dim points appear on the fruits, gradually expanding in the bulges of a pale pink color. At low humidity, the fruit of the cherry mummified, turn black and fall off.
- Treatment .Sprinkling cherry contact fungicide Poliram. Processing carried out before and after flowering, and the third in 15 days.
- Consequences of .Drying of shoots, yield loss up to 80%.
Appears after mechanical damage to the cortex, frostbite, sunburn or fungal infection.
- Signs of .Isolation of a thick colorless or brown resin from gum damage.
- Treatment of .Disinfection of wounds with 1% copper sulphate solution, treatment with garden pitch. Affected branches are cut and burned. Lime shtamba lime in spring and autumn.
- Consequences of .The weakening of the tree, reduced productivity, the death of the branches.
Rust - leaf disease
Fungal disease that affects cherry leaves. The causative agent of the fungus is Gymnosporangium sabinae, the host of which is juniper, and the intermediate is pear.
Re-planting plum crops in place of the affected plant is possible only after 2-3 years. You need to carefully look at the coniferous crops on the site, which may be sources of rust.
- Symptoms of .At the onset of the disease, small greenish-yellow spots are formed on the leaves, which gradually increase and the affected tissues swell. A few days after the first signs appear, a powdery deposit forms on the surface of the sheet, which gradually darkens.
- Treatment for .Spraying cherries before blooming buds 5% Bordeaux liquid, re-spraying 1% drug before flowering. Destruction of plant residues and affected leaves.
- Consequences of .Decrease in fruiting and winter hardiness, leaf fall.
Scab, what measures to take?
A fungal disease that affects the leaves and fruits of the cherry.
- Symptoms of .After the defeat of the cherry spores of the pathogen, brown-olive spots with a velvety surface appear on the leaves. Yellow circles spread around the spot. Gradually, the spores of the fungus are transferred to the fruit, they form cracks. Unripe green fruits cease to develop.
- Treatment for .Spraying cherries and near-stem circle with Nitrafen before blooming buds. After that, you need to make three treatments with 1% Bordeaux liquid: during bud break, after flowering, after harvest. If necessary, repeat the procedure.
- Consequences of .Crop loss
Root cancer, what to do?
This is a bacterial root disease that occurs through contaminated soil.
Before planting, a thorough inspection of the planting material is required. Upon detection of tumor growths, the affected areas are cut to healthy tissue, the roots are treated with 1% copper sulfate solution.
- Signs of .The appearance on the root neck, the main and lateral roots of tumor growths - galls. At the beginning of the disease, the growths are small, soft and with a smooth surface. As the disease progresses, they increase in size, acquire a hard and uneven surface. In the autumn growths are destroyed.
- Treatment .Two treatments of cherries with a 3% solution of ferrous sulfate: before and after the growing season.
- Consequences of .Lack of plant nutrition, impaired sap flow, reduced productivity and resistance to disease.
Prevention of diseases of the cherry
Despite the fact that some varieties of cherries are resistant to certain diseases - this is a relative concept. The lack of preventive work, the violation of agricultural culture, adverse climatic conditions in the aggregate weaken the plant , and the defeat will occur anyway. Therefore, you need to take care of this in advance.
If the cherry has a protective covering, and this happens when the branches break, the leaves break, there are freezing, bark cuts, the risk of injury increases. Rodent damage to rodents contributes to the development of root cancer, which can enter the tree structure through vectors or from affected soil.
When planting cherries, it is important to prevent possible sweeping of the site with squally winds.
- timely trimming and removal of old, rotten and overgrown branches;
- garden wound treatment;
- protection of cherries from rodents in the winter;
- whitewash the limestone from frostblast.
Micronutrient and moisture deficiencies.
The mass spread of fungal and bacterial infections contributes to climate change. Constant temperature drops between cold and heat create a favorable environment for the development of microorganisms. In a weak and unprepared tree, the chances of resisting the pressure of fungi and bacteria are very low.
Therefore, autumn dressing is obligatory. How much fertilizer to apply? Based on 1m2, the following are applied to the near-barrel circle:
In the absence of rain, water-charging irrigation is carried out at least 18 buckets of water for each tree.
- manure( 5 kg) or an aqueous solution of potassium chloride( 150 g / 10 l);
- water solution of superphosphate( 300 g / 10l).
fungicides Preventive treatment with fungicides should be carried out three times a year .In the spring before bud break to suppress spores and bacteria that overwintered in tree structures. During flowering to secure the result. In the autumn to minimize the activity of microorganisms during temperature fluctuations.
fungicides To do this, spray the cherries:
Additional protection for the tree can be created by adding copper sulfate to the lime mixture for whitewashing the bobbin.
- in the spring with in a solution of blue vitriol, soap and water( 300g / 50g / 10l);
- in summer with an aqueous solution of ferrous sulfate( 30 g / 10l);
- after harvesting with 1% bordeaux fluid.
In order to minimize the risk of developing diseases, each year the following rules should be followed:
- complete removal of plant residues from the site;
- cleaning of the stem of trees from peeled bark, layers of moss and lichen;
- digging plot, removing weeds;
- thinning thickened crown;
- correct neighborhood and distance between plants .
The absence of prophylaxis in at least one gardening site, contributes to the spread of pests that are carriers of bacteria. In addition, the massive destruction of cherries by insects greatly depletes the plant. This can be prevented only with full control over the number of pests.
Falling leaves in July or August, the causes of tree disease
Gardeners often ask the question: “Why did the cherry drop leaves in July or in August?” And the reason for this is a fungal disease.
After a damp spring, which is replaced by a rainy summer, a completely atypical picture can be observed in the orchard: leaves have fallen off, and on the bare branches ripening cherry fruits .This occurs in the second decade of July. The leaves turn yellow and fall off, and the fruits on such trees become shallow and mummified, which leads to complete or partial loss of harvest.
The culprit of the pathological phenomenon is coccomycosis, which the tree was struck with in the previous season, .Further, the development of the spores of the fungus was promoted by the absence of severe frosts, therefore the infection survived well and after warming to + 15 ° it began to actively propagate the spores.
Cherry does not die if it is affected by coccomycosis, but it is greatly weakened before winter. Each phase of the tree's life cycle has its own value .At the beginning of the growing season, the roots of the tree provide food for the fruit ovary and leaf growth. And after fruiting and leaves, the leaves provide the roots and structures of the tree with nutrients for the winter season.
Therefore, when the leaves from the tree are dumped in July, the cherry cannot properly prepare for the rest period of .Having survived several such winters, the tree gradually dies.
Treatment activities should begin immediately after the discovery of a lesion. It may be necessary to remove most of the skeletal branches, carry out several treatments according to the recommended scheme, but it is impossible to get rid of coccomycosis without these measures.
The fight against cherry diseases will be successful if you are well aware of all the weak points of infections. These are dryness, sunlight, cleanliness and fungicide treatment. Maintaining such conditions is not difficult and does not take much time. And you can lay a healthy foundation when planting cherries, avoiding low-lying areas with stagnant moisture and fog.