The basis of a high-quality and high-volume crop is laid at the end of the growing season and strongly depends on the proper care for the cherry fall.Only taking into account natural needs, preventing possible problems, one can ensure the health and proper development of the fruit tree. Therefore, autumn activities should be conducted stably and correctly..
Table of contents
- Purposes of autumn cherry care
- Pruning of cherries in autumn
- Correct autumn care is the key to a good harvest
- Rechargeable watering
- Fertilizer and fertilizing
- Treatment of pests and diseases
- Preparation for winter
- How to transplant a tree?
- Getting rid of sprouts
Purposes of autumn cherry care
After the cherry stops the growth of shoots, the tree begins to gradually enter the period of rest and prepare for the next season.At this time, the flower buds begin to be laid in the tree, the trunk and shoots are lignified.
In addition, cherries need to lay a sufficient amount of nutrients for a painless exit from the state of rest. Therefore, the tree especially needs autumn fertilizing and fertilizer watering.
Another threat, which warns cherries in the winter seasonfungal diseases. Basically, their spores fly to the tree in the fall, safely winter and with the establishment of a temperature above + 15 ° C begin to develop actively. It is possible to fight microorganisms only with the help of careful processing of the circumferential circle and the tree with fungicides.
In autumn, the number of many pests reaches a maximum. Despite careful processing, insects can fly from other areas and lay eggs that are capable of hibernating. Therefore, preventive treatment with insecticides and a thorough examination of the tree are needed.
Need a cherry and in protective shelter from rodents and frostbites, warming the roots.It is important not to forget about the peculiarities of the winter season:squally winds and heavy precipitation. They often lead to traumas of cherries. Any breakage of the crown complicates the development of the tree after the beginning of the sap movement and affects the fruiting. You can prevent this with preventive pruning..
Pruning of cherries in autumn
Pruning cherries at the end of the growing season, in addition to protecting against natural factors, has another goal - the thinning of the crown. During the procedure you need to consider the type of cherry,pruning of treelike and bushy plants is different. This is distinguished by the difference in fruit bearing: in shrubby varieties flower buds are formed on annual growths, in tree-like buds on bouquet branches.
Pruning is carried out when the cherry enters a state of rest, at least 15 days before the first frost. Depending on the climatic zone, the dates can begin from the middle of September and last till the end of November. For the procedure, you need to prepare sharp garden shears and garden var.
- removal of ½ part of the branches bared at the end;
- shortening of skeletal and semi-skeletal branches to lateral branching;
- removal of damaged and rotten branches.
- shortening of annual shoots by 1/3;
- shortening of shoots more than 1/7;
- removal of drying side branches.
Regardless of the type of tree, you need to delete the branches:growing in the wrong direction, at an acute angle, intersecting with each other. Slices are made only above the kidney or on the ring-shaped influx. Wounds with a diameter larger than, cm are covered with a thin layer of garden gum.
All the remnants of branches, mummified fruits, fallen leaves are desirable to burn.The near-bar circle should be as clean as possible and ready for other preparatory measures for the winter.
Correct autumn care is the key to a good harvest
Seasonal care for cherries should be started immediately after harvest, starting in August. This will help to correctly allocate time for staged processing of the tree and preparation for winter.
In the absence of heavy rainsIn autumn, a moisture deficit is formed in the soil. This is a dangerous phenomenon during the autumn growth of the root system, which leads to the lack of development and death of its specific areas. Cherry at the same time badly passes the hardening period and after its completion is severely damaged by frost.
The recharge should be carried out in the third decade of September. The rate of watering depends on the size of the tree from 18 to 24 buckets of water. The procedure is excluded in the rainy season.
Fertilizer and fertilizing
The basic elements required for cherries in the fall are phosphorus, potassium and calcium. Each of these minerals is an important participant in the preparation of the tree for the next season. From the abundance of these elements depends the ovary of flowers, winter hardiness, resistance to disease and the quality of the fruiting of the tree, so the tree should be fed. How to fertilize fruit trees?
To feed the cherries in the trickle circle, water solutions are introduced:
- superphosphate (300 g / 10 l);
- potassium chloride (150 g / 10 l);
- sulfate, nitrate, calcium chloride (25g / 25g / 25g / 10l).
Treatment of pests and diseases
AutumnTreatment against pests should begin with cleaning of the stem and branchesfrom layers of moss, lichen and exfoliated parts of the cortex. This can be done with a metal brush.
It is also necessary to collect all plant residues from the stem circle, while removing weeds. Often it is possible to detect patches of egg laying, which must be destroyed manually..
If the number of pests does not exceed the established threshold, folk remedies are used:
- ash-soap solution (400 g / 50 g / 10 l);
- an aqueous solution of birch tar (10 ml / 50 g / 10 l);
- means from a camomile chemist's, infused 12 hours (1kg / 10l).
With a strong lesion of cherry pests, the tree must be treated with chemical preparations:"Karbofos "Aktellik "Prestige "Bancol".
Another important for cherry processing -spraying with fungicides. Cherries are sprayed with 1% Bordeaux liquid. Consumption for young trees up to 2 liters, for plants older than 6 years up to 10 liters. Parallel processing of the trunks..
Preparation for winter
Winter cold can come suddenly and can destroy even the strongest tree. thereforeCherries should be prepared in advance, when the ground begins to freeze, and the air temperature drops to a mark-10 ° С. In addition, rodents begin to experience a shortage of food and the bark of fruit trees during this period becomes for them the most attractive.
First of all, you need to protect the roots of cherries from the effects of frozen in the depth of the soil. Autumn rains greatly compact the soil of the stump circle, displacing air from it, which facilitates the rapid freezing of the soil.In this case, the mulching of the soil surface under the crown of cherry will help. For this you can use any loose material: peat, leaves, sawdust.
A thoroughly cleaned bar must be protected from sunburn.To do this, whitewash. This can be done by synthetic latex VS-551 or by means of "Protection". You can also prepare the mixture yourself.
- lime 1 kg;
- clay 1 kg;
- mullein, kg;
- copper vitriol 300 g.
The components must be dissolved in water to a consistency of thick sour cream. Adding a fungicide will additionally create protection against fungal spores. The smell of the mullein will scare away the hares.For additional protection, the tree trunk is wrapped with air permeable material and a garden net.
It will be useful for you to know:
- How to plant a sweet cherry in autumn
- How to plant a plum in autumn
- Planting and caring for a felt cherry
- Winter-resistant varieties of pears for cultivation in Siberia
How to transplant a tree?
In some cases, there is a need to transplant an adult cherry to a new place in the garden. Given that the vegetation of the tree begins early, it must be done in the autumn.The most suitable time for the event is the end of September or October.
Stages of cherry replanting:
- trench excavationat a distance of 35-45 cm from the stem to a depth of 35 cm;
- copious spillagesoil within the circle;
- determination of basic roots, which hold the tree;
- root cuttingon the outer border of the trench;
- strippingwith a knife.
After that, under the liberated roots, we bring in strong poles, take out the cherry and lay it on pre-prepared material for transportation to the landing site.
Cherries are placed in a prepared pit, the diameter of which should be more than a root lump by a few centimeters. Whereinit is important to spread the roots well so that they do not stay bent upwards. During the fall of the pit, the tree is slightly shaken to avoid the formation of voids.
When the pit is almost filled with soil, it must be well tampered with. Do this in a direction from the edge of the pit to the center. The remaining voids are supplemented with soil, and the tree is poured with 6-8 buckets of water.
The main error gardeners - an attempt to transplant trees older than 4 years in a similar way. When digging in this way, large trees are deprived of suction wetted roots, which immediately leads to death. For large trees, preliminary preparation is required, and it begins in the preceding season.
Preparation stages for the year before planting:
- the maximum decimation of the crown;
- the formation of a trench at a distance of 80 cm from the bole with a depth of 60 cm;
- cut off roots that extend beyond the perimeter of the circle;
- cleaning of sections and processing with garden wine;
- The trench is filled with humus and watered abundantly.
Next year, the cherry is transplanted in the same way as the younger trees.
Getting rid of sprouts
If the annual care for the cherry is unstable or completely absent, a large amount of the shoot is formed next to the mother plant. Cherry is gradually depleted and ceases to bear fruit. All this is becausenumerous shoots take the main nutrients from the soil, and the cherry is experiencing a shortage of minerals, hence such shoots must be uprooted.
The only way to permanently get rid of the seedling that results in the results is a manual removal method. It is important to do this correctly.
Stages of the procedure:
- removal of shoots immediately after appearance;
- the formation of small holes near the roots and chopping off the shoots from the shoot;
- treatment of the cutting site with a garden bar.
Any cuts are carried out with a sharp garden knife, leaving no hemp, from which new sprouts quickly form.
Significantly reduce the number of growing regular control over the near-barrel circle, the bone of each fallen fruit will pass the winter stratification and give a new shoot in the spring.Does not give rise to the growth of the neighborhood with a sprawling tree, but in this case it will obscure the cherry itself.
Cherry will enter every season with strong strengths, and please the high yield only if you carefully take care of the tree in the autumn period.Life expectancy, quality of fruit, absence of diseases initially depend on varietal features, but to support them throughout the life of the fruit tree can only grower..