The content of the article:
Collecting mushrooms is fascinating and interesting. Mushroom umbrella is a real find, it is tasty, healthy and fragrant. The peculiarity is that its pulp does not contain harmful substances, which is typical for such plants. To go for umbrellas is best at the edge of the forest or in the field, just after heavy rain. Each mushroom picker should know how an edible and poisonous fungus looks like, and be able to determine their distinctive features and attributes.
Mushroom umbrella - description
Mushroom umbrella refers to the genus macrolepiot, a family of mushrooms. His name he received because of the external resemblance to the opened umbrella: a large bonnet in the form of a dome on a high and thin stalk. Many species are safe and eaten, although the plant has several poisonous twins, extremely dangerous to human health. The structure of the fungus is typical hapkonechnoe, and the size can be medium and large. The flesh is dense and fleshy, the leg may slightly bend and easily separate from the cap.
After heavy rains umbrellas can grow to very large sizes. The hat of this fungus reaches in diameter from 35 to 45 cm, and the height of the stem grows to 30-40 cm.
On average, the fungus has a stem length of about 8-10 cm and a diameter of the cap within 10-15 cm. The surface of the cap is dry and finely chisel, the edges of the skin may crack and hang in the form of fringe. Pulp and juice - light shade with a pleasant mushroom smell and delicate taste. The base of the base is thickened, and has a characteristic, movable webbed ring. In young umbrellas, the cap is connected to the base of the leg and has a spherical shape. Growing, it separates from the leg and opens, forming a dome with a slight elevation in the center.
Types of umbrellas
Mushroom umbrella is common, it grows in coniferous, deciduous and mixed forests, occurs on fields and edges, in steppes and meadows, in gardens, orchards and reserves.
Mushroom umbrella photo - edible and poisonous:
- The umbrella is white or field. The mushroom is edible and common. It grows in the steppes and pastures, along forest clearings and forest fringes. Representatives of the species reach small sizes - the diameter of the cap is within 5-10 cm. The skin is thin, whitish-gray in color. The center of the cap is uplifted and smooth, more dark in color, flakes hang on the edge. Leg is hollow, slightly thickened at the base. This is a delicacy of Chinese cuisine, but one should be careful not to confuse it with fly agaric, which is deadly poisonous. The main difference between fly agaric is mucus, covering the cap and a filmy covering around the leg.
- The umbrella is blushing or shaggy. Edible species, preferring rich humus nutritious soil. When pressing and cutting, the pulp is oxidized instantly, becoming reddish-brown. The edge of the cap of the young fungus, first tucked, and then straightened, covered with cracks. The color of the cap may be beige or gray, the arrangement of the scales is circular, the middle is elevated and has a dark color. It can be confused with an umbrella rough, extremely poisonous representative of the family. Mushroom pickers distinguish inedible representative for a sharp smell and sharp taste of pulp.
- The umbrella is mottled or large. The mushroom is edible, preferring open and illuminated areas near the forest. The period of growth - from the beginning of summer to the end of autumn, occurs singly or in rare families. It is large and fleshy, the thickness of the leg can reach from 1 to 3 cm, the diameter of the cap varies from 10 to 30 cm. The color of the cap is brownish-gray with angular scales and a well-marked dark elevation in the middle. Leg is brown, old plants can be covered with well-defined scales.
Edible mushroom and poisonous counterparts
The difficulty of collecting umbrellas lies in the fact that there are poisonous twins. Outwardly, they look like edible umbrellas, but contain toxic substances, so their use in food is prohibited.
All umbrella twins are deadly poisonous and threaten human life. Collecting umbrella mushrooms, you should be careful and cautious, as to confuse a false mushroom with the present is very easy. Most inedible mushrooms exude an unpleasant odor and have a bitter taste.
Mushroom umbrella - photo and description, poisonous twins:
- Chlorophyllum dark brown. The fungus is poisonous, reaching a medium size. Outwardly resembles an umbrella, but more fleshy and short. At the base of the leg there is a characteristic tuberous outgrowth that rises above the surface of the earth. Flesh white, in the places of cuts and lesions immediately acquires a reddish hue. The fungus contains a hallucinogenic toxin, its effect on the nervous system has not been fully studied.
- Amanita is smelly. The consumption of any kind of fly agaric is deadly, the effect of poison in 90% of cases leads to death and 10% - to severe poisoning. The entire body of the fungus is smooth, has a whitish-gray color. Leg high and thickened at the base. It is covered with plaque, and an umbrella-like ring is missing. The flesh is light and color does not change. Amanita smelly has an unpleasant chlorine smell.
- Chlorophyll lead-slag. The fungus is toxic, has an external resemblance to an umbrella, reaches large sizes. In young plants the structure of the body is spherical, in adults the cap opens and becomes almost flat. A characteristic difference between a poisonous and edible fungus is the leg. In an inedible representative, it is completely smooth, in the upper part there is a fixed ring.
How to cook umbrellas
Umbrellas, like many other mushrooms, are useful and nutritious, they should be collected by young people when the cap is not yet fully opened. Mature representatives can start to bitter. How to cook mushrooms? The knife is removed, and the hat is necessarily subjected to heat treatment - fry, boil, stew, marinate, salt. Umbrellas can be pre-dried or frozen, then used for cooking a wide variety of dishes - soups, snacks, salads, baking stuffs and pancakes.
Mushroom umbrellas can not be collected near industrial enterprises, garbage dumps, large highways and railways. They can accumulate harmful and dangerous substances that threaten health and human life.
Mushroom umbrella cooking recipes:
- a large umbrella hat is scraped and washed well, salted and peppered to taste, and then fried on both sides in vegetable oil - simple and very tasty;
- you can fry the hats, previously dropped into the batter, or rolled in breadcrumbs or flour, it's original and fast;
- special lovers cook grill umbrellas on the oven grill or street barbecue, picking them for a short while in lemon juice with herbs and garlic, an interesting and affordable option;
- A dry and fragrant umbrella is prepared quickly, it is good for broth, as an additional ingredient for snacks and sandwiches.
A peculiar taste and rich mushroom flavor - these are the main advantages of an umbrella. Dieticians note their unique composition and high nutritional content, the content of amino acids, fiber, salts, vitamins and minerals. Useful fungus is widely used in folk medicine with a preventive and curative purpose.